The Legislature further finds that the constitutional right of the accused to be confronted with the witnesses against him or her must be protected and that this constitutional guarantee can be protected while, at the same time, allowing a child to testify outside of the physical presence of a defendant in the courtroom.
The Legislature further finds that a child, more so than an adult, may be subject to coercion and pressure by interested adults and the interests of justice would be served by requiring, unless infeasible, memorialization of child victim statements in certain criminal matters.
For the purposes of this article, the words or terms defined in this section, and any variation of those words or terms required by the context, have the meanings ascribed to them in this section. These definitions are applicable unless a different meaning clearly appears from the context.
(1) "Child witness" means a person under the age of sixteen years of age who is or will be called to testify in a criminal matter concerning an alleged violation of the provisions of sections three, four, five and seven, article eight-b, chapter sixty-one of this code in which the child is the alleged victim.
(2) "Live, closed-circuit television" means a simultaneous transmission, by closed-circuit television or other electronic means, between the courtroom and the testimonial room.
(3) "Operator" means the individual authorized by the court to operate the closed-circuit television equipment used in accordance with the provisions of this article.
(4) "Testimonial room" means a room within the courthouse other than the courtroom from which the testimony of a child witness or the defendant is transmitted to the courtroom by means of live, closed-circuit television.
(a) Upon a written motion filed by the prosecuting attorney, the child's attorney or the child's guardian ad litem, and upon findings of fact determined pursuant to subsection (b) of this section, a circuit court may order that the testimony of a child witness may be taken at a pretrial proceeding or at trial through the use of live, closed-circuit television.
(b) Prior to ordering that the testimony of a child witness may be taken through the use of live, closed-circuit television, the circuit court must find by clear and convincing evidence, after conducting an evidentiary hearing on this issue, that:
(1) The child is an otherwise competent witness;
(2) That, absent the use of live, closed-circuit television the child witness will be unable to testify due solely to being required to be in the physical presence of the defendant while testifying;
(3) The child witness can only testify if live, two-way closed-circuit television is used in the trial; and
(4) That the state's ability to proceed against the defendant without the child witness' live testimony would be substantially impaired or precluded.
(c) The court shall consider the following factors in determining the necessity of allowing a child witness to testify by the use of live, closed-circuit television:
(1) The age and maturity of the child witness;
(2) The facts and circumstances of the alleged offense;
(3) The necessity of the child's live testimony to the prosecution's ability to proceed as well as any prejudice to the defendant by allowing testimony through closed-circuit television;
(4) Whether or not the facts of the case involve the alleged infliction of bodily injury to the child witness or the threat of bodily injury to the child or another; and
(5) Any mental or physical handicap of the child witness.
(d) In determining whether to allow a child witness to testify through live, closed-circuit television the court shall appoint a psychiatrist or a licensed psychologist with at least five years clinical experience who shall serve as an advisor or friend of the court to provide the court with an expert opinion as to whether, to a reasonable degree of professional certainty, the child witness will suffer severe emotional harm, be unable to testify based solely on being in the physical presence of the defendant while testifying and that the child witness does not evidence signs of being subjected to undue influence or coercion. The opinion of the psychiatrist or licensed psychologist shall be filed with the circuit court at least thirty days prior to the final hearing on the use of live, closed-circuit television and the defendant shall be allowed to review the opinion and present evidence on the issue by the use of an expert or experts or otherwise.
(a) If the court determines that the use of live, two-way closed-circuit testimony is necessary and orders its use the defendant may, at any time prior to the child witness being called, elect to absent himself from the courtroom during the child witness' testimony. If the defendant so elects the child shall be required to testify in the courtroom.
(b)(1) If live, closed-circuit television is used in the testimony of the child witness, he or she shall be taken into the testimonial room and be televised live, by closed-circuit equipment to the view of the defendant, counsel, the court and, if applicable, the jury. The projected image of the defendant shall be visible for child witness to view if he or she chooses to do so and the view of the child witness available to those persons in the courtroom shall include a full body view. Only the prosecuting attorney, the attorney for the defendant, and the operator of the equipment may be present in the room with the child witness during testimony. Only the court, the prosecuting attorney and the attorney for the defendant may question the child. In pro se proceedings, the court may modify the provisions of this subdivision relating to the role of the attorney for the defendant to allow the pro se defendant to question the child witness in such a manner as to cause as little psychological trauma as possible under the circumstances. The court shall permit the defendant to observe and hear the testimony of the child witness contemporaneous with the taking of the testimony. The court shall provide electronic means for the defendant and the attorney for the defendant to confer confidentially during the taking of the testimony.
(2) If the defendant elects to not be physically present in the courtroom during the testimony of the child witness, the defendant shall be taken into the testimonial room and be televised live, by two-way closed-circuit equipment to the view of the finder of fact and others present in the courtroom. The defendant shall be taken to the testimonial room prior to the appearance of the child witness in the courtroom. There shall be made and maintained a recording of the images and sounds of all proceedings which were televised pursuant to this article. While the defendant is in the testimonial room, the defendant shall be permitted to view the live, televised image of the child witness and the image of those other persons in the courtroom whom the court determines the defendant is entitled to view. Only the court, the prosecuting attorney and the attorney for the defendant may question the child. In pro se proceedings, the court may modify the provisions of this subdivision relating to the role of the attorney for the defendant to allow the pro se defendant to question the child witness in such a manner as to cause as little emotional distress as possible under the circumstances The transmission from the courtroom to the testimonial room shall be sufficient to permit the defendant to observe and hear the testimony of the child witness contemporaneous with the taking of the testimony. No proceedings other than the taking of the testimony of the child witness shall occur while the defendant is outside the courtroom. In the event that the defendant elects that the attorney for the defendant remain in the courtroom while the defendant is in the testimonial room, the court shall provide electronic means for the defendant and the attorney for the defendant to confer confidentially during the taking of the testimony.
(c) In every case where the provisions of the article are used, the jury, at a minimum, shall be instructed, unless such instruction is waived by the defendant, that the use of live, closed-circuit television is being used solely for the child's convenience, that the use of the medium cannot as a matter of law and fact be considered as anything other than being for the convenience of the child witness and that to infer anything else would constitute a violation of the oath taken by the jurors.
(b) The provisions of this section shall not apply to:
(1) Persons engaged in investigation pursuant to the provisions of article six or seven, chapter forty-nine of this code;
(2) Medical personnel and other persons performing a forensic medical examination of a child who is an alleged victim; and
(3) Prosecuting attorneys when counseling with a child in preparation for eliciting the child's testimony in court.
Note: WV Code updated with legislation passed through the 2015 Regular Session
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