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WEST VIRGINIA CODE
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WVC 61- CHAPTER 61. CRIMES AND THEIR PUNISHMENT.

WVC -1- ARTICLE 1. CRIMES AGAINST THE GOVERNMENT.


WVC 61-1-1 §61-1-1. Treason defined; degree of proof.
Treason against the state shall consist only in levying war against it, or in adhering to its enemies, giving them aid and comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open court.


WVC 61-1-2 §61-1-2. Punishment.
Whoever is guilty of treason against the State shall be punished by confinement in the penitentiary for life, or, at the discretion of the jury, or the discretion of the court when there is a plea of guilty, by confinement in the penitentiary for not less than three nor more than ten years.


WVC 61-1-3 §61-1-3. Failure to give information of treason; penalty.
If any person have any knowledge of treason against the state, and shall not, as soon as may be, give information thereof to the governor or some conservator of the peace, he shall be guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction, shall be fined not exceeding one thousand dollars, or by confinement in the penitentiary not less than one nor more than five years.


WVC 61-1-4 §61-1-4. Attempt to justify or uphold invasion or insurrection; penalty.
If any person shall attempt to justify or uphold an armed invasion of this state, or an organized insurrection therein, by speaking, writing, or printing, or by publishing or circulating any written or printed document, or in any other way whatever, during the continuance of such invasion or insurrection, he shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction, shall be fined not exceeding one thousand dollars, and be confined in jail not exceeding twelve months.


WVC 61-1-5 §61-1-5. Unlawful speeches, publications and communications.
It shall be unlawful for any person to speak, print, publish or communicate, by language, sign, picture or otherwise, any teachings, doctrines or counsels in sympathy with or in favor of ideals, institutions or forms of government hostile, inimical or antagonistic to those now or hereafter existing under the constitution and laws of this state or of the United States, or in sympathy with or in favor of the propriety, duty and necessity of crime, violence or other unlawful methods of terrorism, as a means of accomplishing economic or political reform, or in sympathy with or in favor of the overthrow of organized society, the unlawful destruction of property or the violation of law.


WVC 61 - 1 - 6 §61-1-6.
Repealed.

Acts, 2010 Reg. Sess., Ch. 34.
WVC 61 - 1 - 7 §61-1-7. Penalty for unlawful speeches, publications and communications.
Any person violating any of the provisions of section five of this article, shall, for the first offense, be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction, shall be fined not less than $100 nor more than $500, or, in the discretion of the court, be confined in jail not exceeding twelve months, or both; and, for the second offense, shall be guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction shall be confined in a state correctional facility not less than one nor more than five years.


WVC 61-1-8 §61-1-8. Desecration of flag; penalty.
Any person who for exhibition or display shall place, or cause to be placed, any words, figures, marks, pictures, designs, drawings, or any advertisement of any nature, upon any flag, standard, color or ensign of the United States, or upon the state flag of this state, or shall expose or cause to be exposed to public view any such flag, standard, color or ensign, upon which shall have been printed, painted or otherwise placed, or to which shall be attached, appended, affixed or annexed, any words, figures, marks, pictures, designs, drawings, or any advertisement of any nature or kind, or who shall expose to public view, manufacture, sell, expose for sale, give away, or have in possession for sale or to give away, or for use for any purpose, any article or substance, being an article of merchandise or a receptacle of merchandise, or article or thing for carrying or transporting merchandise, upon which shall have been printed, painted, attached or otherwise placed, a representation of any such flag, standard, color or ensign, to advertise, call attention to, decorate, mark or distinguish the article or substance on which so placed, or who shall publicly mutilate, deface, defile or defy, trample upon or cast contempt, either by words or acts, upon any such flag, standard, color or ensign, he shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction, shall be fined not less than five nor more than one hundred dollars, and may, at the discretion of the court or justice trying the case, be confined in jail for a period not exceeding thirty days. Any justice of the peace of the county wherein the offense was committed shall have concurrent jurisdiction of such offense with the circuit or other courts of such county. The words "flag, standard, color or ensign of the United States," as used in this section, shall be construed to include any flag, standard, color, ensign, or any representation or picture of a flag, standard, color or ensign, made of or upon any substance whatever, and of any size whatever, showing the national colors, the stars and stripes. This section shall not apply to any act permitted by the statutes of the United States, or of this state, or by the regulations of the United States army and navy, or of the national guard of this state, or of the members of the department of public safety; nor shall this section be construed to apply to the regular issue of a newspaper or other periodical, or to any book, certificate, diploma, warrant or commission, on which shall be printed said flag, disconnected from any advertisement, or to the vignette of any political ballot.


WVC 61-1-9 §61-1-9. Impersonation of law-enforcement officer or official; penalty.
Any person who shall falsely represent himself or herself to be a law-enforcement officer or law-enforcement official or to be under the order or direction of any such person, or any person not a law-enforcement officer or law-enforcement official who shall wear the uniform prescribed for such persons, or the badge or other insignia adopted for use by such persons with the intent to deceive another person, is guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than one hundred dollars nor more than one thousand dollars.

For purposes of this section, the terms law-enforcement officer and law-enforcement official shall be defined by section one, article twenty-nine, chapter thirty of this code, except that such terms shall not include members of the division of public safety and shall not include individuals hired by nonpublic entities for the provision of security services.


WVC -2- ARTICLE 2. CRIMES AGAINST THE PERSON.


WVC 61-2-1 §61-2-1. First and second degree murder defined; allegations in indictment for homicide.
Murder by poison, lying in wait, imprisonment, starving, or by any willful, deliberate and premeditated killing, or in the commission of, or attempt to commit, arson, kidnapping, sexual assault, robbery, burglary, breaking and entering, escape from lawful custody, or a felony offense of manufacturing or delivering a controlled substance as defined in article four, chapter sixty-a of this code, is murder of the first degree. All other murder is murder of the second degree.

In an indictment for murder and manslaughter, it shall not be necessary to set forth the manner in which, or the means by which, the death of the deceased was caused, but it shall be sufficient in every such indictment to charge that the defendant did feloniously, willfully, maliciously, deliberately and unlawfully slay, kill and murder the deceased.


WVC 61-2-2 §61-2-2. Penalty for murder of first degree.
Murder of the first degree shall be punished by confinement in the penitentiary for life.


WVC 61-2-3 §61-2-3. Penalty for murder of second degree.
Murder of the second degree shall be punished by a definite term of imprisonment in the penitentiary which is not less than ten nor more than forty years. A person imprisoned pursuant to the provisions of this section is not eligible for parole prior to having served a minimum of ten years of his or her sentence or the minimum period required by the provisions of section thirteen, article twelve, chapter sixty-two, whichever is greater.


WVC 61-2-4 §61-2-4. Voluntary manslaughter; penalty.
Voluntary manslaughter shall be punished by a definite term of imprisonment in the penitentiary which is not less than three nor more than fifteen years. A person imprisoned pursuant to the provisions of this section is not eligible for parole prior to having served a minimum of three years of his or her sentence or the minimum period required by the provisions of section thirteen, article twelve, chapter sixty-two, whichever is greater.


WVC 61-2-5 §61-2-5. Involuntary manslaughter; penalty.
Involuntary manslaughter is a misdemeanor, and any person convicted thereof shall be confined in jail not to exceed one year, or fined not to exceed one thousand dollars, or both, in the discretion of the court.


WVC 61 - 2 - 5 A §61-2-5a. Concealment of deceased human body; penalty.
(a) Any person who, by any means, knowingly and willfully conceals, attempts to conceal or who otherwise aids and abets any person to conceal a deceased human body where death occurred as a result of criminal activity is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in a correctional facility for not less than one year nor more than five years and fined not less than one thousand dollars, nor more than five thousand dollars.

(b) It shall be a complete defense in a prosecution pursuant to subsection (a) of this section that the defendant affirmatively brought to the attention of law enforcement within forty-eight hours of concealing the body and prior to being contacted regarding the death by law enforcement the existence and location of the concealed deceased human body.

(c) The provisions of subsection (a) of this section do not apply to practitioners regulated by the provisions of article six, chapter thirty of this code or their agents while acting in their lawful professional capacities.


WVC 61-2-6 §61-2-6. Homicide punishable within state if injury occurs within and death without, or vice versa.
If any person be stricken, wounded or poisoned in, and die by reason thereof out of, this state, the offender shall be as guilty, and be prosecuted and punished, as if the death had occurred in the county in which the stroke, wound or poison was given or administered. And if any person be stricken, wounded or poisoned out of this state, and die by reason thereof within this state, the offender shall be as guilty, and may be prosecuted and punished, as if the mortal stroke or wound had been given, or poison administered, in the county in which the person so stricken, wounded or poisoned may so die.


WVC 61-2-7 §61-2-7. Attempt to kill or injure by poison; penalty.
If any person administer, or attempt to administer, any poison or other destructive thing in food, drink, medicine or otherwise, or poison any spring, well, reservoir, conduit or pipe of water, with intent to kill or injure another person, he shall be guilty of a felony, and upon conviction, shall be confined in the penitentiary not less than three nor more than eighteen years.


WVC 61-2-8 §61-2-8. Abortion; penalty.
Any person who shall administer to, or cause to be taken by, a woman, any drug or other thing, or use any means, with intent to destroy her unborn child, or to produce abortion or miscarriage, and shall thereby destroy such child, or produce such abortion or miscarriage, shall be guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction, shall be confined in the penitentiary not less than three nor more than ten years; and if such woman die by reason of such abortion performed upon her, such person shall be guilty of murder. No person, by reason of any act mentioned in this section, shall be punishable where such act is done in good faith, with the intention of saving the life of such woman or child.


WVC 61 - 2 - 9 §61-2-9. Malicious or unlawful assault; assault; battery; penalties.

     (a) If any person maliciously shoot, stab, cut or wound any person, or by any means cause him or her bodily injury with intent to maim, disfigure, disable or kill, he or she shall, except where it is otherwise provided, be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction, shall be punished by confinement in a state correctional facility not less than two nor more than ten years. If such act be done unlawfully, but not maliciously, with the intent aforesaid, the offender is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction, shall either be in a state correctional facility not less than one nor more than five years, or be confined in jail not exceeding twelve months and fined not exceeding $500.

     (b) Assault. -- Any person who unlawfully attempts to use physical force capable of causing physical pain or injury to the person of another or unlawfully commits an act that places another in reasonable apprehension of immediately suffering physical pain or injury, he or she is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction, shall be confined in jail for not more than six months, or fined not more than $100, or both fined and confined.

     (c) Battery. -- Any person who unlawfully and intentionally makes physical contact with force capable of causing physical pain or injury to the person of another or unlawfully and intentionally causes physical pain or injury to another person, he or she is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction, shall be confined in jail for not more than twelve months, or fined not more than $500, or both fined and confined.

     (d) Any person convicted of a violation of subsection (b) or (c) of this section who has, in the ten years prior to said conviction, been convicted of a violation of either subsection (b) or (c) of this section where the victim was a current or former spouse, current or former sexual or intimate partner, a person with whom the defendant has a child in common, a person with whom the defendant cohabits or has cohabited, a parent or guardian, the defendant's child or ward or a member of the defendant's household at the time of the offense or convicted of a violation of section twenty-eight of this article or has served a period of pretrial diversion for an alleged violation of subsection (b) or (c) of this section or section twenty-eight of this article when the victim has such present or past relationship shall upon conviction be subject to the penalties set forth in section twenty-eight of this article for a second, third or subsequent criminal act of domestic violence offense, as appropriate.
WVC 61 - 2 - 9 A §61-2-9a. Stalking; harassment; penalties; definitions.
(a) Any person who repeatedly follows another knowing or having reason to know that the conduct causes the person followed to reasonably fear for his or her safety or suffer significant emotional distress, is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be incarcerated in the county or regional jail for not more than six months or fined not more than one thousand dollars, or both.

(b) Any person who repeatedly harasses or repeatedly makes credible threats against another is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be incarcerated in the county or regional jail for not more than six months or fined not more than one thousand dollars, or both.

(c) Notwithstanding any provision of this code to the contrary, any person who violates the provisions of subsection (a) or (b) of this section in violation of an order entered by a circuit court, magistrate court or family court judge, in effect and entered pursuant to part 48-5-501, et seq., part 48-5-601, et seq. or 48-27-403 of this code is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be incarcerated in the county jail for not less than ninety days nor more than one year or fined not less than two thousand dollars nor more than five thousand dollars, or both.

(d) A second or subsequent conviction for a violation of this section occurring within five years of a prior conviction is a felony punishable by incarceration in a state correctional facility for not less than one year nor more than five years or fined not less than three thousand dollars nor more than ten thousand dollars, or both.

(e) Notwithstanding any provision of this code to the contrary, any person against whom a protective order for injunctive relief is in effect pursuant to the provisions of section five hundred one, article twenty-seven, chapter forty-eight of this code who has been served with a copy of said order or section six hundred eight, article five, chapter forty-eight of this code who is convicted of a violation of the provisions of this section shall be guilty of a felony and punishable by incarceration in a state correctional facility for not less than one year nor more than five years or fined not less than three thousand dollars nor more than ten thousand dollars, or both.

(f) For the purposes of this section:

(1) "Bodily injury" means substantial physical pain, illness or any impairment of physical condition;

(2) "Credible threat" means a threat of bodily injury made with the apparent ability to carry out the threat and with the result that a reasonable person would believe that the threat could be carried out;

(3) "Harasses" means willful conduct directed at a specific person or persons which would cause a reasonable person mental injury or emotional distress

(4) "Immediate family" means a spouse, parent, stepparent, mother-in-law, father-in-law, child, stepchild, sibling, or any person who regularly resides in the household or within the prior six months regularly resided in the household; and

(5) "Repeatedly" means on two or more occasions.

(g) Nothing in this section shall be construed to prevent lawful assembly and petition for the lawful redress of grievances, including, but not limited to: Any labor or employment relations issue; demonstration at the seat of federal, state, county or municipal government; activities protected by the West Virginia constitution or the United States Constitution or any statute of this state or the United States.

(h) Any person convicted under the provisions of this section who is granted probation or for whom execution or imposition of a sentence or incarceration is suspended is to have as a condition of probation or suspension of sentence that he or she participate in counseling or medical treatment as directed by the court.

(i) Upon conviction, the court may issue an order restraining the defendant from any contact with the victim for a period not to exceed ten years. The length of any restraining order shall be based upon the seriousness of the violation before the court, the probability of future violations, and the safety of the victim or his or her immediate family. The duration of the restraining order may be longer than five years only in cases when a longer duration is necessary to protect the safety of the victim or his or her immediate family.

(j) It is a condition of bond for any person accused of the offense described in this section that the person is to have no contact, direct or indirect, verbal or physical, with the alleged victim.

(k) Nothing in this section may be construed to preclude a sentencing court from exercising its power to impose home confinement with electronic monitoring as an alternative sentence.

(l) The Governor's Committee on Crime, Delinquency and Correction, after consultation with representatives of labor, licensed domestic violence programs and rape crisis centers which meet the standards of the West Virginia Foundation for Rape Information and Services, is authorized to promulgate legislative rules and emergency rules pursuant to article three, chapter twenty-nine-a of this code, establishing appropriate standards for the enforcement of this section by state, county, and municipal law-enforcement officers and agencies.


WVC 61-2-9B §61-2-9b. Penalties for malicious or unlawful assault or assault of a child near a school.
Any person who, under the provisions of section nine of this article, maliciously assaults a child sixteen years of age or under within one thousand feet of a school is guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction, shall be punished by confinement in the penitentiary not less than five nor more than fifteen years.


WVC 61 - 2 - 9 C §61-2-9c. Wanton endangerment involving the use of fire; penalty.
Any person who, during the manufacture or production of an illegal controlled substance uses fire, the use of which creates substantial risk of death or serious bodily injury to another due to the use of fire, is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction, shall be committed to the custody of the Division of Corrections for a definite term of years of not less than one nor more than five years or, in the discretion of the court, confined in the regional jail for not more than one year, or fined not less than two hundred fifty dollars or more than two thousand five hundred dollars, or both.


WVC 61 - 2 - 10 §61-2-10. Assault during commission of or attempt to commit a felony; penalty.
If any person in the commission of, or attempt to commit a felony, unlawfully shoot, stab, cut or wound another person, he shall be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction, shall, in the discretion of the court, either be confined in the penitentiary not less than two nor more than ten years, or be confined in jail not exceeding one year and be fined not exceeding one thousand dollars.


WVC 61-2-10a §61-2-10a. Violent crimes against the elderly; sentence not subject to suspension or probation.
(a) If any person be convicted and sentenced for an offense defined under the provisions of section nine or ten of this article, and if the person shall have committed such offense against a person who is sixty-five years of age or older, then the sentence shall be mandatory and shall not be subject to suspension or probation: Provided, That the court may, in its discretion, suspend the sentence and order probation to any person so convicted upon condition that such person perform public service for a period of time deemed appropriate by the court, which service shall be rendered in or about facilities or programs providing care or services for the elderly: Provided, however, That the court may apply the provisions of article eleven-a, chapter sixty-two of this code to a person committed to a term of one year or less.

(b) The existence of any fact which would make any person ineligible for probation under subsection (a) of this section because of the commission or attempted commission of a felony against a victim sixty-five years of age or older shall not be applicable unless such fact is (i) found by the court upon a plea of guilty or nolo contendere, or (ii) found by the jury, if the matter is tried before a jury or (iii) found by the court, if the matter is tried by the court, without a jury.


WVC 61 - 2 - 10 B §61-2-10b. Malicious assault; unlawful assault; battery; and assault on governmental representatives, health care providers, and emergency medical service personnel; definitions; penalties.
(a) For purposes of this section:

(1) "Government representative" means any officer or employee of the state or a political subdivision thereof, or a person under contract with a state agency or political subdivision thereof.

(2) "Health care worker" means any nurse, nurse practitioner, physician, physician assistant or technician practicing at, and all persons employed by or under contract to a hospital, county or district health department, long-term care facility, physician's office, clinic or outpatient treatment facility.

(3) "Emergency service personnel" means any paid or volunteer firefighter, emergency medical technician, paramedic, or other emergency services personnel employed by or under contract with an emergency medical service provider or a state agency or political subdivision thereof.

(b) Malicious assault. -- Any person who maliciously shoots, stabs, cuts or wounds or by any means causes bodily injury with intent to maim, disfigure, disable or kill a government representative, health care worker or emergency service personnel acting in his or her official capacity, and the person committing the malicious assault knows or has reason to know that the victim is acting in his or her official capacity is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in a correctional facility for not less than three nor more than fifteen years.

(c) Unlawful assault. -- Any person who unlawfully but not maliciously shoots, stabs, cuts or wounds or by any means causes a government representative, health care worker or emergency service personnel acting in his or her official capacity bodily injury with intent to maim, disfigure, disable or kill him or her and the person committing the unlawful assault knows or has reason to know that the victim is acting in his or her official capacity is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in a correctional facility for not less than two nor more than five years.

(d) Battery. -- Any person who unlawfully, knowingly and intentionally makes physical contact of an insulting or provoking nature with a government representative, health care worker or emergency service personnel acting in his or her official capacity, or unlawfully and intentionally causes physical harm to that person acting in such capacity, is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than $500 or confined in jail not less than one month nor more than twelve months or both fined and confined. If any person commits a second such offense, he or she is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned in a state correctional facility not less than one year nor more than three years, or both fined and imprisoned. Any person who commits a third violation of this subsection is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than $2,000 or imprisoned in a state correctional facility not less than two years nor more than five years, or both fined and imprisoned.

(e) Assault. -- Any person who unlawfully attempts to commit a violent injury to the person of a government representative, health care worker or emergency service personnel acting in his or her official capacity, or unlawfully commits an act which places that person acting in his or her official capacity in reasonable apprehension of immediately receiving a violent injury, is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in jail for not less than twenty-four hours nor more than six months, fined not more than $200, or both fined and confined.


WVC 61-2-11 §61-2-11. Unlawful shooting at another in street, alley or public resort; penalty.
If any person unlawfully shoot at another person in any street or alley in a city, town or village, or in any place of public resort, he shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction, shall be confined in jail not less than six months nor more than three years, and be fined not less than one hundred nor more than one thousand dollars.


WVC 61 - 2 - 12 §61-2-12. Robbery or attempted robbery; penalties.
(a) Any person who commits or attempts to commit robbery by: (1) Committing violence to the person, including, but not limited to, partial strangulation or suffocation or by striking or beating; or (2) uses the threat of deadly force by the presenting of a firearm or other deadly weapon, is guilty of robbery in the first degree and, upon conviction thereof, shall be imprisoned in a state correctional facility not less than ten years.

(b) Any person who commits or attempts to commit robbery by placing the victim in fear of bodily injury by means other than those set forth in subsection (a) of this section or any person who commits or attempts to commit robbery by the use of any means designed to temporarily disable the victim, including, but not limited to, the use of a disabling chemical substance or an electronic shock device, is guilty of robbery in the second degree and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in a correctional facility for not less than five years nor more than eighteen years.

(c) If any person: (1) By force and violence, or by putting in fear, feloniously takes, or feloniously attempts to take, from the person or presence of another any property or money or any other thing of value belonging to, or in the care, custody, control, management or possession of, any bank, he shall be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction, shall be confined in the penitentiary not less than ten nor more than twenty years; and (2) if any person in committing, or in attempting to commit, any offense defined in the preceding clause (1) of this subsection, assaults any person, or puts in jeopardy the life of any person by the use of a dangerous weapon or device, disabling chemical substance or an electronic shock device, he shall be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction, shall be confined in the penitentiary not less than ten years nor more than twenty-five years.


WVC 61-2-13 §61-2-13. Extortion or attempted extortion by threats; penalties.
If any person threaten injury to the character, person or property of another person, or to the character, person or property of his wife or child, or to accuse him or them of any offense, and thereby extort money, pecuniary benefit, or any bond, note or other evidence of debt, he shall be guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction, shall be confined in the penitentiary not less than one nor more than five years. And if any person make such threat of injury or accusation of an offense as herein set forth, but fail thereby to extort money, pecuniary benefit, or any bond, note or other evidence of debt, he shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction, shall be confined in jail not less than two nor more than twelve months and fined not less than fifty nor more than five hundred dollars.


WVC 61-2-14 §61-2-14. Abduction of person; kidnapping or concealing child; penalties.
(a) Any person who takes away another person, or detains another person against such person's will, with intent to marry or defile the person, or to cause the person to be married or defiled by another person; or takes away a child under the age of sixteen years from any person having lawful charge of such child, for the purpose of prostitution or concubinage, shall be guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in the penitentiary not less than three nor more than ten years.

(b) Any person, other than the father or mother, who illegally, or for any unlawful, improper or immoral purpose other than the purposes stated in subsection (a) of this section or section fourteen-a or fourteen-c of this article, seizes, take or secretes a child under sixteen years of age, from the person or persons having lawful charge of such child, shall be guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in the penitentiary not less than one nor more than ten years.


WVC 61 - 2 - 14 A §61-2-14a. Kidnaping; penalty.

     (a) Any person who unlawfully restrains another person with the intent:

     (1) To hold another person for ransom, reward, or concession;

     (2) To transport another person with the intent to inflict bodily injury or to terrorize the victim or another person; or

     (3) To use another person as a shield or hostage, shall be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction, shall be punished by confinement by the division of corrections for life, and, notwithstanding the provisions of article twelve, chapter sixty-two of this code, shall not be eligible for parole.

     (b) The following exceptions shall apply to the penalty contained in subsection (a):

     (1) A jury may, in their discretion, recommend mercy, and if such recommendation is added to their verdict, such person shall be eligible for parole in accordance with the provisions of said article twelve;

     (2) if such person pleads guilty, the court may, in its discretion, provide that such person shall be eligible for parole in accordance with the provisions of said article twelve, and, if the court so provides, such person shall be eligible for parole in accordance with the provisions of said article twelve in the same manner and with like effect as if such person had been found guilty by the verdict of a jury and the jury had recommended mercy;

     (3) in all cases where the person against whom the offense is committed is returned, or is permitted to return, alive, without bodily harm having been inflicted upon him, but after ransom, money or other thing, or any concession or advantage of any sort has been paid or yielded, the punishment shall be confinement by the division of corrections for a definite term of years not less than twenty nor more than fifty; or

     (4) in all cases where the person against whom the offense is committed is returned, or is permitted to return, alive, without bodily harm having been inflicted upon him or her, but without ransom, money or other thing, or any concession or advantage of any sort having been paid or yielded, the punishment shall be confinement by the division of corrections for a definite term of years not less than ten nor more than thirty.

     (c) For purposes of this section: "To use another as a hostage" means to seize or detain and threaten to kill or injure another in order to compel, a third person or a governmental organization to do or abstain from doing any legal act as an explicit or implicit condition for the release of the person detained.

     (d) Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, if a violation of this section is committed by a family member of a minor abducted or held hostage and he or she is not motivated by monetary purposes, but rather intends to conceal, take, remove the child or refuse to return the child to his or her lawful guardian in the belief, mistaken or not, that it is in the child's interest to do so, he or she shall be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, be confined in a correctional facility for not less than one or more than five years or fined not more than one thousand dollars, or both.

     (e) Notwithstanding any provision of this code to the contrary, where a law-enforcement agency of this state or a political subdivision thereof receives a complaint that a violation of the provisions of this section has occurred, the receiving law-enforcement agency shall notify any other law-enforcement agency with jurisdiction over the offense, including, but not limited to, the state police and each agency so notified, shall cooperate in the investigation forthwith.

     (f) It shall be a defense to a violation of subsection (d) of this section, that the accused's action was necessary to preserve the welfare of the minor child and the accused promptly reported his or her actions to a person with lawful custody of the minor, to law-enforcement or to Child Protective Services division of the Department of Health and Human Resources.
WVC 61-2-14b §61-2-14b. Venue of offenses under §§61-2-14 and 61-2-14a.
In the case of every offense committed in violation of the provisions of section fourteen and section fourteen-(a) of this article, regardless of whether the offense originated within or without this state, the venue of the offense shall lie in the county where the person was taken, or induced to go away or otherwise kidnapped, in the county where such person was held or detained, or in the county through which such person was conducted or transported.


WVC 61-2-14c §61-2-14c. Penalty for threats to kidnap or demand ransom.
If any person, with intent to extort from any other person any ransom, money or other thing, or any concession or advantage of any sort, shall, by speech, writing, printing, drawing or any other method or means of communication, directly or indirectly threaten to take away forcibly or by stealth or otherwise kidnap any person, or shall directly or indirectly demand, orally or in writing, or by any other method or means of communication, any ransom, money or other thing, or any concession or advantage of any sort, on a threat to take away forcibly or by stealth or otherwise kidnap any person, he shall be guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction, shall be punished with confinement in the penitentiary for any term of years not less than five.


WVC 61-2-14d §61-2-14d. Concealment or removal of minor child from custodian or from person entitled to visitation; penalties; defenses.
(a) Any person who conceals, takes or removes a minor child in violation of any court order an with the intent to deprive another person of lawful custody or visitation right shall be guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be imprisoned in the penitentiary not less than one nor more than five years, or in the discretion of the court, shall be imprisoned in the county jail not more than one year of fined not more than one thousand dollars, or both fined and imprisoned.

(b) Any person who violates this section and in so doing removes the minor child from this state or conceals the minor child in another state shall be guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be imprisoned in the penitentiary not less than one nor more than five years, or fined not more than one thousand dollars, or both fined and imprisoned.

(c) It shall be a defense under this section that the accused reasonably believed such action was necessary to preserve the welfare of the minor child. The mere failure to return a minor child at the expiration of any lawful custody or visitation period without the intent to deprive another person of lawful custody or visitation rights shall not constitute an offense under this section.


WVC 61-2-14e §61-2-14e. One aiding or abetting in offense under §61-2-14, §61-2-14a, §61-2-14c or §61-2-14d guilty as principal; venue.
If any person in any way knowingly aid or abet any other person in the commission of any offense described in section fourteen, fourteen-a, fourteen-c or fourteen-d of this article, either as accessory before or an accessory after the fact, such person so aiding and abetting shall be guilty as a principal in the commission of such offense and shall be punished in the same manner and to the same extent as is provided in said sections for the person who committed the offense. The venue of any offense committed in violation of the provisions of this section shall be as provided in section seven, article eleven of this chapter.


WVC 61-2-14F §61-2-14f. Penalties for abduction of a child near a school.
Any person who, under the provisions of section fourteen of this article, abducts a child sixteen years of age or under within one thousand feet of a school is guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction, shall be punished by confinement in the penitentiary not less than five nor more than fifteen years.


WVC 61 - 2 - 14 G §61-2-14g. Unlawful restraint; penalties.

     (a) Any person who, without legal authority intentionally restrains another with the intent that the other person not be allowed to leave the place of restraint and who does so by physical force or by overt or implied threat of violence or by actual physical restraint but without the intent to obtain any other concession or advantage as those terms are used in section fourteen-a of this article is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction shall be confined in jail for not more than one year, fined not more than $1,000, or both.

     (b) In any prosecution under this section, it is an affirmative defense that:

     (1) The defendant acted reasonably and in good faith to protect the person from imminent physical danger; or

     (2) The person restrained was a child less than eighteen years old and that the actor was a parent or legal guardian, or a person acting under authority granted by a parent or legal guardian of such child, or by a teacher or other school personnel acting under authority granted by section one, article five, chapter eighteen-a of this code, and that his or her sole purpose was to assume control of such child.

     (c) As used in this section to "restrain" means to restrict a persons movement without his or her consent.

     (d) This section shall not apply to acts done by a law-enforcement officer in the lawful exercise of his or her duties.
WVC 61 - 2 - 14 H §61-2-14h. Prohibition of purchase or sale of child; penalty; definitions; exceptions.

     (a) Any person or agency who knowingly offers, gives or agrees to give to another person money, property, service or other thing of value in consideration for the recipient's locating, providing or procuring a minor child for any purpose which entails a transfer of the legal or physical custody of said child, including, but not limited to, adoption or placement, is guilty of a felony and subject to fine and imprisonment as provided herein.

     (b) Any person who knowingly receives, accepts or offers to accept money, property, service or other thing of value to locate, provide or procure a minor child for any purpose which entails a transfer of the legal or physical custody of said child, including, but not limited to, adoption or placement, is guilty of a felony and subject to fine and imprisonment as provided herein.

     (c) Any person who violates the provisions of this section is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, may be confined in the state correctional facility for not less than one year nor more than ten years or, in the discretion of the court, be confined in jail not more than one year and fined not less than $2,000 nor more than $10,000.

     (d) A child whose parent, guardian or custodian has sold or attempted to sell said child in violation of the provisions of article twenty-two, chapter forty-eight may be deemed an abused child as defined by section three, article one, chapter forty-nine of this code. The court may place such a child in the custody of the department of health and human resources or with such other responsible person as the best interests of the child dictate.

     (e) This section does not prohibit the payment or receipt of the following:

     (1) Fees paid for reasonable and customary services provided by the department of health and human resources or any licensed or duly authorized adoption or child-placing agency.

     (2) Reasonable and customary legal, medical, hospital or other expenses incurred in connection with the pregnancy, birth and adoption proceedings.

     (3) Fees and expenses included in any agreement in which a woman agrees to become a surrogate mother.

     (4) Any fees or charges authorized by law or approved by a court in a proceeding relating to the placement plan, prospective placement or placement of a minor child for adoption.

     (f) At the final hearing on the adoption as provided in article twenty-two, chapter forty-eight of this code, an affidavit of any fees and expenses paid or promised by the adoptive parents shall be submitted to the court.
WVC 61-2-15 §61-2-15. Assault, battery on school employees; penalties.
(a) If any person commits an assault: (1) By unlawfully attempting to commit a violent injury to the person of a school employee while he or she is engaged in the performance of his or her duties, is commuting to or from his or her place of employment or if the motive for the assault is retaliation for some action taken by the employee to supervise or discipline one or more pupils pursuant to sections one or one-a, article five, chapter eighteen-a of this code; or (2) by unlawfully committing an act which places a school employee in reasonable apprehension of immediately receiving a violent injury while the employee is engaged in the performance of his or her duties, is commuting to or from his or her place of employment or if the motive for the assault is retaliation for some action taken by the employee to supervise or discipline one or more pupils pursuant to sections one or one-a, article five, chapter eighteen-a of this code, he or she is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in the county or regional jail not less than five days nor more than six months and fined not less than fifty dollars nor more than one hundred dollars.

(b) If any person commits a battery: (1) By unlawfully and intentionally making physical contact of an insulting or provoking nature with the person of a school employee while he or she is engaged in the performance of his or her duties, is commuting to or from his or her place of employment or if the motive for the battery is retaliation for some action taken by the employee to supervise or discipline one or more pupils pursuant to sections one or one-a, article five, chapter eighteen-a of this code; or (2) by unlawfully and intentionally causing physical harm to a school employee while he or she is engaged in the performance of his or her duties, is commuting to or from his or her place of employment or if the motive for the battery is retaliation for some action taken by the employee to supervise or discipline one or more pupils pursuant to sections one or one-a, article five, chapter eighteen-a of this code, he or she is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in the county or regional jail not less than ten days nor more than twelve months and fined not less than one hundred dollars nor more than five hundred dollars.

(c) For the purposes of this section, "school employee" means a person employed by a county board of education whether employed on a regular full-time basis, an hourly basis or otherwise. For the purposes of this section, a "school employee" includes a student teacher.


WVC 61 - 2 - 15 A §61-2-15a. Assault, battery on athletic officials; penalties.

     (a) If any person commits an assault as defined in subsection (b), section nine of this article, to the person of an athletic official during the time the official is acting as an athletic official, the offender is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than $500, or confined in jail not more than six months, or both fined and confined.

     (b) If any person commits a battery, as defined in subsection (c), section nine of this article, against an athletic official during the time the official is acting as an athletic official, the offender is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than $1,000, or confined in jail not more than twelve months, or both fined and confined.

  (c) For the purpose of this section, "athletic official" means a person at a sports event who enforces the rules of that event, such as an umpire or referee, or a person who supervises the participants, such as a coach.
WVC 61-2-16 §61-2-16. Injury to passenger by person in charge of public conveyance or boat; penalty.
If any driver, conductor, motorman, captain or other person in charge of any vehicle or boat, driven by steam, electricity, gasoline or other motive power and used for public conveyance, shall, in the management of such vehicle or boat, willfully or negligently inflict bodily injury on any person, he shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction, shall be confined in jail not less than two nor more than six months, or be fined not exceeding five hundred dollars, or both.


WVC 61 - 2 - 16 A §61-2-16a. Malicious assault; unlawful assault; battery and recidivism of battery; assault on a driver, conductor, motorman, captain, pilot or other person in charge of any vehicle used for public conveyance.
(a) Malicious assault. -- Any person who maliciously shoots, stabs, cuts or wounds or by any means causes bodily injury with intent to maim, disfigure, disable or kill any driver, conductor, motorman, captain or other person in charge of any vehicle or boat, driven by steam, electricity, gasoline or other motive power and used for public conveyance acting in his or her official capacity and the person committing the malicious assault knows or has reason to know that the victim is a driver, conductor, motorman, captain or other person in charge of any vehicle or boat used as a public conveyance, acting in his or her official capacity, is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in a correctional facility for not less than three nor more than fifteen years.

(b) Unlawful assault. -- Any person who unlawfully but not maliciously shoots, stabs, cuts or wounds or by any means causes any driver, conductor, motorman, captain or other person in charge of any vehicle, aircraft or boat, driven by steam, electricity, gasoline or other motive power and used for public conveyance acting in his or her official capacity, bodily injury with intent to maim, disfigure, disable or kill him or her and the person committing the unlawful assault knows or has reason to know that the victim is a driver, conductor, motorman, captain or other person in charge of any vehicle or boat used as a public conveyance, acting in his or her official capacity, is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in a correctional facility for not less than two nor more than five years.

(c) Battery. -- Any person who unlawfully, knowingly and intentionally makes physical contact of an insulting or provoking nature with a driver, conductor, motorman, captain or other person in charge of any vehicle or boat, driven by steam, electricity, gasoline or other motive power and used for public conveyance, acting in his or her official capacity, or unlawfully and intentionally causes physical harm to a driver, conductor, motorman, captain or other person in charge of any vehicle or boat, driven by steam, electricity, gasoline or other motive power and used for public conveyance, in such capacity, and the person committing the battery knows or has reason to know that the victim is a driver, conductor, motorman, captain or other person in charge of any vehicle or boat used as a public conveyance, acting in his or her official capacity is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in the county or regional jail for not less than one month nor more than twelve months, fined the sum of five hundred dollars, or both. If any person commits a second such offense, he or she is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in a correctional facility for not less than one year nor more than three years or fined the sum of one thousand dollars or both fined and confined. Any person who commits a third violation of this subsection is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in a correctional facility not less than two years nor more than five years or fined not more than two thousand dollars or both fined and confined.

(d) Assault. -- Any person who unlawfully attempts to commit a violent injury to the person of a driver, conductor, motorman, captain or other person in charge of any vehicle or boat, driven by steam, electricity, gasoline or other motive power and used for public conveyance, acting in his or her official capacity, or unlawfully commits an act which places a driver, conductor, motorman, captain or other person in charge of any vehicle or boat, driven by steam, electricity, gasoline or other motive power and used for public conveyance, acting in his or her official capacity, in reasonable apprehension of immediately receiving a violent injury, and the person committing the assault knows or has reason to know that the victim is a driver, conductor, motorman, captain or other person in charge of any vehicle or boat used as a public conveyance, acting in his or her official capacity is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in the county or regional jail for not less than twenty-four hours nor more than six months, fined not more than two hundred dollars, or both fined and confined.


WVC 61 - 2 - 17 §61-2-17. Human trafficking; criminal penalties.

     (a) As used in this section:

     (1) "Debt bondage" means the status or condition of a debtor arising from a pledge by the debtor of the debtor's personal services or those of a person under the debtor's control as a security for debt, if the value of those services as reasonably assessed is not applied toward the liquidation of the debt or the length and nature of those services are not respectively limited and defined.

     (2) "Forced labor or services" means labor or services that are performed or provided by another person and are obtained or maintained through a person's:

     (A) Threat, either implicit or explicit, deception or fraud, scheme, plan, or pattern, or other action intended to cause a person to believe that, if the person did not perform or provide the labor or services that person or another person would suffer serious bodily harm or physical restraint: Provided, That, this does not include work or services provided by a minor to the minor's parent or legal guardian so long as the legal guardianship or custody of the minor was not obtained for the purpose compelling the minor to participate in commercial sex acts or sexually explicit performance, or perform forced labor or services.

     (B) Physically restraining or threatening to physically restrain a person;

     (C) Abuse or threatened abuse of the legal process; or

     (D) Knowingly destroying, concealing, removing, confiscating, or possessing any actual or purported passport or other immigration document, or any other actual or purported government identification document, of another person.

     "Forced labor or services" does not mean labor or services required to be performed by a person in compliance with a court order or as a required condition of probation, parole, or imprisonment.

     (3) "Human trafficking" means the labor trafficking or sex trafficking involving adults or minors where two or more persons are trafficked within any one year period.

     (4) "Labor trafficking" means the promotion, recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring, enticement, provision, obtaining or receipt of a person by any means, whether a United States citizen or foreign national, for the purpose of:

     (A) Debt bondage or forced labor or services; or

     (B) Slavery or practices similar to slavery.

     (5) "Sex trafficking of minors" means the promotion, recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring, enticement, provision, obtaining or receipt of a person under the age of eighteen by any means, whether a United States citizen or foreign national, for the purpose of causing the minor to engage in sexual acts, or in sexual conduct violating the provisions of subsection (b), section five, article eight of this chapter or article eight-c of this chapter.

     (6) "Sex trafficking of adults" means the promotion, recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring, enticement, provision, obtaining, receipt of a person eighteen years of age or older, whether a United States citizen or foreign national for the purposes of engaging in violations of subsection (b), section five, article eight of this chapter by means of force, threat, coercion, deception, abuse or threatened abuse of the legal process, or any scheme, plan, pattern, or other action intended to cause a person to believe that, if the person did not engage in a violation of subsection (b), section five, article eight of this chapter, that person or another person would suffer serious bodily harm or physical restraint.

     (b) Any person who knowingly and wilfully engages in human trafficking is guilty of a felony and upon conviction shall be incarcerated in a state correctional facility for an indeterminate sentence of not less than three nor more than fifteen years or fined not more than $200,000, or both.

     (c) Any person who is a victim of human trafficking may bring a civil action in circuit court. The court may award actual damages, compensatory damages, punitive damages, injunctive relief and any other appropriate relief. A prevailing plaintiff is also entitled to attorneys fees and costs. Treble damages shall be awarded on proof of actual damages where defendant's acts were willful and malicious.

     (d) Notwithstanding the definition of victim in subsection (k), section three, article two-a, chapter fourteen of this code, a person who is a victim of human trafficking is a victim for all purposes of article two-a, chapter fourteen of this code.

     (e) This article and the rights and remedies provided in this article are cumulative and in addition to other existing rights.

     (f) Notwithstanding the age and criminal history limitations set forth in section twenty-six, article eleven of this chapter, any person convicted of prostitution in violation of subsection (b), section five, article eight of this chapter where the conviction was a result of the person being a victim of human trafficking as defined in this section, may petition the circuit court of the county of conviction for an order of expungement pursuant to section twenty-six, article eleven of this chapter.

     No victim of human trafficking seeking relief under this subsection shall be required to prove her or she has rehabilitated himself or herself in order to obtain expungement.
WVC 61 - 2 - 18 §61-2-18.
Repealed.

Acts, 2010 Reg. Sess., Ch. 34.
WVC 61 - 2 - 19 §61-2-19.
Repealed.

Acts, 2010 Reg. Sess., Ch. 34.
WVC 61 - 2 - 20 §61-2-20.
Repealed.

Acts, 2010 Reg. Sess., Ch. 34.
WVC 61 - 2 - 21 §61-2-21.
Repealed.

Acts, 2010 Reg. Sess., Ch. 34.
WVC 61 - 2 - 22 §61-2-22.
Repealed.

Acts, 2010 Reg. Sess., Ch. 34.
WVC 61 - 2 - 23 §61-2-23.
Repealed.

Acts, 2010 Reg. Sess., Ch. 34.
WVC 61 - 2 - 24 §61-2-24.
Repealed.

Acts, 2010 Reg. Sess., Ch. 34.
WVC 61 - 2 - 25 §61-2-25.
Repealed.

Acts, 2010 Reg. Sess., Ch. 34.
WVC 61-2-26 §61-2-26. Doors to be removed from abandoned refrigerators, freezers and other appliances; penalties.
No person shall abandon any refrigerator or food freezer appliance or other airtight appliance having a height or length greater than two feet without first removing all entry doors therefrom.

Any person violating the provisions of this section shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than two hundred dollars, or imprisoned in the county jail not more than six months, or both fined and imprisoned.

Justices of the peace shall have jurisdiction of cases arising hereunder concurrent with courts of record.


WVC 61-2-27 §61-2-27. Required reporting of gunshot and other wounds.
(a) Any medical provider who provides medical treatment to a person suffering from a wound caused by a gunshot or a knife or other sharp or pointed instrument, under circumstances which would lead a reasonable person to believe resulted from a violation of the criminal laws of this state, shall report the same to a law-enforcement agency located within the county within which such wound is treated. The report shall be made initially by telephone and shall be followed by a written report delivered to such agency within forty-eight hours following the initial report: Provided, That where two or more persons participate in the medical treatment of such wound, the obligation to report imposed by this section shall apply only to the attending physician or, if none, to the person primarily responsible for providing the medical treatment.

(b) Any medical provider person who in good faith reports a wound described in subsection (a) of this section shall be immune from any civil liability which may otherwise result solely from reporting the same.


WVC 61-2-27A §61-2-27a. Required reporting of burns.
(a) Any health care provider who examines or renders medical treatment to a person suffering from an injury caused by a burn resulting from fire or a chemical, where the circumstances under which the examination is made or treatment is rendered, or where the condition of the injury gives the health care provider reasonable cause to suspect that the injury occurred during the commission, or attempted commission, of an arson as defined in article three of this chapter, shall report the same to the office of the state fire marshal. A written report shall be made by the provider, or by an employee or agent of the provider at the direction of the provider, to the office of the state fire marshal within forty-eight hours after the initial report: Provided, That where two or more health care providers participate in the examination or treatment of such injury, the obligation to report imposed by this section applies only to the attending physician or, if none, to the person primarily responsible for providing medical treatment for the injury.

(b) Any health care provider who in good faith makes or causes to be made a report pursuant to subsection (a) of this section is immune from any civil liability which may otherwise arise as the result of making such report.

(c) Within available funding and as may be determined necessary by the state fire marshal, the state fire marshal shall conduct educational programs for persons required to report injuries under this section.


WVC 61 - 2 - 28 §61-2-28. Domestic violence -- Criminal acts.

     (a) Domestic battery. -- Any person who unlawfully and intentionally makes physical contact force capable of causing physical pain or injury to his or her family or household member or unlawfully and intentionally causes physical harm to his or her family or household member, is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in jail for not more than twelve months, or fined not more than $500, or both fined and confined.

     (b) Domestic assault. -- Any person who unlawfully attempts to use force capable of causing physical pain or injury against his or her family or household member or unlawfully commits an act that places his or her family or household member in reasonable apprehension of immediately suffering physical pain or injury, is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in jail for not more than six months, or fined not more than $100, or both fined and confined.

     (c) Second offense. -- Domestic assault or domestic battery.

     A person convicted of a violation of subsection (a) of this section after having been previously convicted of a violation of subsection (a) or (b) of this section, after having been convicted of a violation of subsection (b) or (c), section nine of this article or subsection (a), section fourteen-g of this article where the victim was his or her current or former spouse, current or former sexual or intimate partner, person with whom the defendant has a child in common, person with whom the defendant cohabits or has cohabited, a parent or guardian, the defendant's child or ward or a member of the defendant's household at the time of the offense or who has previously been granted a period of pretrial diversion pursuant to section twenty-two, article eleven of this chapter for a violation of subsection (a) or (b) of this section, or a violation of subsection (b) or (c), section nine of this article or subsection (a), section fourteen-g of this article where the victim was a current or former spouse, current or former sexual or intimate partner, person with whom the defendant has a child in common, person with whom the defendant cohabits or has cohabited, a parent or guardian, the defendant's child or ward or a member of the defendant's household at the time of the offense is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in jail for not less than sixty days nor more than one year, or fined not more than $1,000, or both fined and confined.

     A person convicted of a violation of subsection (b) of this section after having been previously convicted of a violation of subsection (a) or (b) of this section, after having been convicted of a violation of subsection (b) or (c), section nine of this article or subsection (a), section fourteen-g of this article where the victim was a current or former spouse, current or former sexual or intimate partner, person with whom the defendant has a child in common, person with whom the defendant cohabits or has cohabited, a parent or guardian, the defendant's child or ward or a member of the defendant's household at the time of the offense or having previously been granted a period of pretrial diversion pursuant to section twenty-two, article eleven of this chapter for a violation of subsection (a) or (b) of this section or subsection (b) or (c), section nine of this article or subsection (a), section fourteen-g of this article where the victim was a current or former spouse, current or former sexual or intimate partner, person with whom the defendant has a child in common, person with whom the defendant cohabits or has cohabited, a parent or guardian, the defendant's child or ward or a member of the defendant's household at the time of the offense shall be confined in jail for not less than thirty days nor more than six months, or fined not more than $500, or both fined and confined.

     (d) Any person who has been convicted of a third or subsequent violation of the provisions of subsection (a) or (b) of this section, a third or subsequent violation of the provisions of section nine of this article or subsection (a), section fourteen-g of this article where the victim was a current or former spouse, current or former sexual or intimate partner, person with whom the defendant has a child in common, person with whom the defendant cohabits or has cohabited, a parent or guardian, the defendant's child or ward or a member of the defendant's household at the time of the offense or who has previously been granted a period of pretrial diversion pursuant to section twenty-two, article eleven of this chapter for a violation of subsection (a) or (b) of this section or a violation of the provisions of section nine of this article or subsection (a), section fourteen-g of this article in which the victim was a current or former spouse, current or former sexual or intimate partner, person with whom the defendant has a child in common, person with whom the defendant cohabits or has cohabited, a parent or guardian, the defendant's child or ward or a member of the defendant's household at the time of the offense, or any combination of convictions or diversions for these offenses, is guilty of a felony if the offense occurs within ten years of a prior conviction of any of these offenses and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in a state correctional facility not less than one nor more than five years or fined not more than $2,500, or both fined and confined.

     (e) As used in this section, "family or household member" means "family or household member" as defined in §48-27-204 of this code.

     (f) A person charged with a violation of this section may not also be charged with a violation of subsection (b) or (c), section nine of this article for the same act.

     (g) No law-enforcement officer may be subject to any civil or criminal action for false arrest or unlawful detention for effecting an arrest pursuant to this section or pursuant to §48-27- 1002 of this code.
WVC 61 - 2 - 29 §61-2-29. Abuse or neglect of incapacitated adult; definitions; penalties.
(a) The following words, when used in this section and sections twenty -nine-a and twenty-nine-b of this article, have the meaning ascribed, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise:

(1) "Abuse" means the intentional infliction of bodily injury on an incapacitated adult;

(2) "Bodily injury" means substantial physical pain, illness or any impairment of physical condition;

(3) "Caregiver" means any person who has assumed the legal responsibility or a contractual obligation for the care of an incapacitated adult, or has voluntarily assumed responsibility for the care of an incapacitated adult. The term includes a facility operated by any public or private agency, organization or institution which provides services to, and has assumed responsibility for the care of an incapacitated adult.

(4)"Incapacitated adult" means any person eighteen years of age or older who by reason of advanced age, physical, mental or other infirmity is unable to carry on the daily activities of life necessary to sustaining life and reasonable health;

(5) "Neglect" means the unreasonable failure by a caregiver to provide the care necessary to assure the physical safety or health of an incapacitated adult; and

(6) "Serious bodily injury" means bodily injury which creates a substantial risk of death, which causes serious or prolonged disfigurement, prolonged impairment of health or prolonged loss or impairment of the function of any bodily organ.

(b) A caregiver who neglects an incapacitated adult or who knowingly permits another person to neglect an incapacitated adult is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than $100 nor more than $500 or confined in jail for not more than one year, or both fined and confined.

(c) A caregiver who abuses an incapacitated adult or who knowingly permits another person to abuse an incapacitated adult is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than $100 nor more than $500 or confined in jail for not less than ninety days nor more than one year, or both fined and confined.

(d) A caregiver of an incapacitated adult who intentionally and maliciously abuses or neglects an incapacitated adult and causes the incapacitated adult bodily injury is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than $100 nor more than $1,000 and imprisoned in a state correctional facility not less than two years nor more than ten years.

(e) A caregiver of an incapacitated adult who intentionally and maliciously abuses or neglects an incapacitated adult and causes the incapacitated adult serious bodily injury is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than $1,000 nor more than $5,000 and imprisoned in a state correctional facility not less than three years nor more than fifteen years.

(f) Nothing in this section or in section twenty-nine-a of this article shall be construed to mean an adult is abused or neglected for the sole reason that his or her independent decision is to rely upon treatment by spiritual means in accordance with the tenets and practices of a recognized church or religious denomination or organization in lieu of medical treatment.

(g) Nothing in this section or in section twenty-nine-a of this article shall be construed to mean an incapacitated adult is abused or neglected if deprivation of life-sustaining treatment or other act has been provided for by the West Virginia Health Care Decisions Act, pursuant to article thirty, chapter sixteen of this code.


WVC 61 - 2 - 29 A §61-2-29a. Death of an incapacitated adult by a caregiver.
(a) A caregiver who intentionally and maliciously neglects an incapacitated adult causing death is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than $5000 and be imprisoned in a state correctional facility for a definite term of not less than five nor more than fifteen years.

(b) A caregiver of an incapacitated adult who causes the death of an incapacitated adult by knowingly allowing any other person to intentionally or maliciously neglect the incapacitated adult is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than $5000 and be imprisoned in a state correctional facility for a definite term of not less than five nor more than fifteen years.

(c) A caregiver of an incapacitated adult who intentionally and maliciously abuses an incapacitated adult which causes the death of the incapacitated adult is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be imprisoned in a state correctional facility for a definite term of not less than five nor more than forty years.

(d) A caregiver of an incapacitated adult who causes the death of an incapacitated adult by knowingly allowing any other person to intentionally and maliciously abuse an incapacitated adult is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be imprisoned in a state correctional facility for a definite term of not less than five nor more than forty years.

(e) The provisions of this section do not apply to any caregiver or health care provider who, without malice, fails or refuses, or allows another person to, without malice, fail or refuse, to supply an incapacitated adult with necessary medical care when the medical care conflicts with the tenets and practices of a recognized religious denomination or order of which the incapacitated adult is an adherent member.


WVC 61 - 2 - 29 B §61-2-29b. Financial exploitation of an elderly person, protected person or incapacitated adult; penalties; definitions.

     (a) Any person who financially exploits an elderly person, protected person or an incapacitated adult shall be guilty of larceny and subject to the penalties contained in section thirteen, article three of this chapter. Any person convicted of a violation of this section shall, in addition to any other penalties at law, be subject to an order of restitution.

     (b) In determining the value of the money, goods, property or services referred to in subsection (a) of this section, it shall be permissible to cumulate amounts or values where such money, goods, property or services were fraudulently obtained as part of a common scheme or plan.

     (c) Financial institutions and their employees, as defined by section one, article two-a, chapter thirty-one-a of this code and as permitted by section four, subsection thirteen of said article, others engaged in financially related activities, as defined by section one, article eight-c, chapter thirty-one-a of this code, caregivers, relatives and other concerned persons are permitted to report suspected cases of financial exploitation to state or federal law-enforcement authorities, the county prosecuting attorney and to the Department of Health and Human Resources, Adult Protective Services Division or Medicaid Fraud Division, as appropriate. Public officers and employees are required to report suspected cases of financial exploitation to the appropriate entities as stated above. The requisite agencies shall investigate or cause the investigation of the allegations.

     (d) When financial exploitation is suspected and to the extent permitted by federal law, financial institutions and their employees or other business entities required by federal law or regulation to file suspicious activity reports and currency transaction reports shall also be permitted to disclose suspicious activity reports or currency transaction reports to the prosecuting attorney of any county in which the transactions underlying the suspicious activity reports or currency transaction reports occurred.

     (e) Any person or entity that in good faith reports a suspected case of financial exploitation pursuant to this section is immune from civil liability founded upon making that report.

     (f) For the purposes of this section:

     (1) "Incapacitated adult" means a person as defined by section twenty-nine of this article;

     (2) "Elderly person" means a person who is sixty-five years or older;

     (3) "Financial exploitation" or "financially exploit" means the intentional misappropriation or misuse of funds or assets of an elderly person, protected person or incapacitated adult, but shall not apply to a transaction or disposition of funds or assets where the accused made a good-faith effort to assist the elderly person, protected person or incapacitated adult with the management of his or her money or other things of value; and

     (4) "Protected person" means any person who is defined as a "protected person" in section four, article one, chapter forty-four-a of this code and who is subject to the protections of chapter forty-four-a or forty-four-c of this code.

     (g) Notwithstanding any provision of this code to the contrary, acting as guardian, conservator, trustee or attorney for or holding power of attorney for an elderly person, protected person or incapacitated adult shall not, standing alone, constitute a defense to a violation of subsection (a) of this section.
WVC 61 - 2 - 30 §61-2-30. Recognizing an embryo or fetus as a distinct unborn victim of certain crimes of violence against the person.
(a) This section may be known and cited as the Unborn Victims of Violence Act.

(b) For the purposes of this article, the following definitions shall apply: Provided, That these definitions only apply for purposes of prosecution of unlawful acts under this section and may not otherwise be used: (i) To create or to imply that a civil cause of action exists; or (ii) for purposes of argument in a civil cause of action, unless there has been a criminal conviction under this section.

(1) "Embryo" means the developing human in its early stages. The embryonic period commences at fertilization and continues to the end of the embryonic period and the beginning of the fetal period, which occurs eight weeks after fertilization or ten weeks after the onset of the last menstrual period.

(2) "Fetus" means a developing human that has ended the embryonic period and thereafter continues to develop and mature until termination of the pregnancy or birth.

(c) For purposes of enforcing the provisions of sections one, four and seven of this article, subsections (a) and (c), section nine of said article, sections ten and ten-b of said article and subsection (a), section twenty-eight of said article, a pregnant woman and the embryo or fetus she is carrying in the womb constitute separate and distinct victims.

(d) Exceptions. -- The provisions of this section do not apply to:

(1) Acts committed during a legal abortion to which the pregnant woman, or a person authorized by law to act on her behalf, consented or for which the consent is implied by law;

(2) Acts or omissions by medical or health care personnel during or as a result of medical or health-related treatment or services, including, but not limited to, medical care, abortion, diagnostic testing or fertility treatment;

(3) Acts or omissions by medical or health care personnel or scientific research personnel in performing lawful procedures involving embryos that are not in a stage of gestation in utero;

(4) Acts involving the use of force in lawful defense of self or another, but not an embryo or fetus; and

(5) Acts or omissions of a pregnant woman with respect to the embryo or fetus she is carrying.

(e) For purposes of the enforcement of the provisions of this section, a violation of the provisions of article two-i, chapter sixteen of this code shall not serve as a waiver of the protection afforded by the provisions of subdivision (1), subsection (d) of this section.

(f) Other convictions not barred. -- A prosecution for or conviction under this section is not a bar to conviction of or punishment for any other crime committed by the defendant arising from the same incident.


WVC -3- ARTICLE 3. CRIMES AGAINST PROPERTY.


WVC 61-3-1 §61-3-1. Burning, etc., of a dwelling or outbuilding; first degree arson; penalty; definitions.
(a) Any person who willfully and maliciously sets fire to or burns, or who causes to be burned, or who aids, counsels, procures, persuades, incites, entices or solicits any person to burn, any dwelling, whether occupied, unoccupied or vacant, or any outbuilding, whether the property of himself or herself or of another, shall be guilty of arson in the first degree and, upon conviction thereof, be sentenced to the penitentiary for a definite term of imprisonment which is not less than two nor more than twenty years. A person imprisoned pursuant to this section is not eligible for parole prior to having served a minimum of two years of his or her sentence or the minimum period required by the provisions of section thirteen, article twelve, chapter sixty-two of this code, whichever is greater.

(b) As used in subsection (a) of this section:

(1) "Dwelling" means any building or structure intended for habitation or lodging, in whole or in part, regularly or occasionally, and shall include, but not be limited to, any house, apartment, hotel, dormitory, hospital, nursing home, jail, prison, mobile home, house trailer, modular home, factory-built home or self-propelled motor home;

(2) "Outbuilding" means any building or structure which adjoins, is part of, belongs to, or is used in connection with a dwelling, and shall include, but not be limited to, any garage, shop, shed, barn or stable.


WVC 61-3-2 §61-3-2. Burning, etc., of other buildings or structures; second degree arson; penalty.
Any person who willfully and maliciously sets fire to or burns, or who causes to be burned, or who aids, counsels, procures, persuades, incites, entices or solicits any person to burn, any building or structure of any class or character, whether the property of himself or herself or of another, not included or prescribed in the preceding section, shall be guilty of arson in the second degree and, upon conviction thereof, be sentenced to the penitentiary for a definite term of imprisonment which is not less than one nor more than ten years. A person imprisoned pursuant to this section is not eligible for parole prior to having served a minimum of one year of his or her sentence or the minimum period required by the provisions of section thirteen, article twelve, chapter sixty-two of this code, whichever is greater.


WVC 61-3-3 §61-3-3. Burning personal property of another of the value of five hundred dollars or more; third degree arson; penalty.
Any person who willfully and maliciously sets fire to or burns, or who causes to be burned, or who aids, counsels, procures, persuades, incites, entices or solicits any person to burn, any personal property of any class or character, of the value of not less than five hundred dollars, and the property of another person, shall be guilty of arson in the third degree and, upon conviction thereof, be sentenced to the penitentiary for a definite term of imprisonment which is not less than one nor more than three years. A person imprisoned pursuant to this section is not eligible for parole prior to having served a minimum of one year of his or her sentence.


WVC 61-3-4 §61-3-4. Attempt to commit arson; fourth degree arson; penalty.
(a) Any person who willfully and maliciously attempts to set fire to or burn, or attempts to cause to be burned, or attempts to aid, counsel, procure, persuade, incite, entice or solicit any person to burn, any of the buildings, structures, or personal property mentioned in the foregoing sections, or who commits any act preliminary thereto, or in furtherance thereof, shall be guilty of arson in the fourth degree and, upon conviction thereof, be sentenced to the penitentiary for a definite term of imprisonment which is not less than one nor more than two years, or fined not to exceed two thousand five hundred dollars, or both. A person imprisoned pursuant to this section is not eligible for parole prior to having served a minimum of one year of his or her sentence.

(b) The placing or distributing of any inflammable, explosive or combustible material or substance, or any device in any building, structure or personal property mentioned in the foregoing sections, in an arrangement or preparation with intent to eventually, willfully and maliciously, set fire to or burn, or to cause to be burned, or to aid, counsel, procure, persuade, incite, entice or solicit the setting fire to or burning of any building, structure or personal property mentioned in the foregoing sections shall, for the purposes of this section, constitute an attempt to burn that building, structure or personal property.


WVC 61-3-5 §61-3-5. Burning, or attempting to burn, insured property; penalty.
Any person who willfully and with intent to injure or defraud an insurer sets fire to or burns, or attempts so to do, or causes to be burned, or who aids, counsels, procures, persuades, incites, entices or solicits any person to burn, any building, structure or personal property, of any class or character, whether the property of himself or herself or of another, which shall at the time be insured or which is believed by the person committing an act prohibited by this section to be insured by any person against loss or damage by fire, shall be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, be sentenced to the penitentiary for a definite term of imprisonment which is not less than one nor more than five years or fined not to exceed ten thousand dollars, or both. A person imprisoned pursuant to this section is not eligible for parole prior to having served a minimum of one year of his or her sentence or the minimum period required by the provisions of section thirteen, article twelve, chapter sixty-two of this code, whichever is greater.


WVC 61-3-6 §61-3-6. Willfully, unlawfully and maliciously setting fire on lands; penalty.
If any person willfully, unlawfully and maliciously sets fire to any woods, fence, grass, straw or other thing capable of spreading fire on lands, he or she shall be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction, shall be sentenced to the penitentiary for a definite term of imprisonment which is not less than one year nor more than five years or fined not to exceed five thousand dollars, or both. He or she shall, moreover, be liable to any person injured thereby, or in consequence thereof, for double the amount of damages sustained by such person. A person imprisoned pursuant to this section is not eligible for parole prior to having served a minimum of one year of his or her sentence or the minimum period required by the provisions of section thirteen, article twelve, chapter sixty-two of this code, whichever is greater.


WVC 61 - 3 - 7 §61-3-7. Causing injuries during an arson-related crime; penalties.

(a) Any person who violates the provisions of sections one, two, three, four, five or six of this article, which violation causes bodily injury, but does not result in death, to any person shall be guilty of a felony, and upon conviction thereof, shall be sentenced to the penitentiary for a definite term of imprisonment which is not less than two nor more than ten years, or fined not more than five thousand dollars, or both. A person imprisoned pursuant to this section is not eligible for parole prior to having served a minimum of two years of his or her sentence or the minimum period required by the provisions of section thirteen, article twelve, chapter sixty-two of this code, whichever is greater.

(b) Any person who violates the provisions of sections one, two, three, four, five or six of this article, which violation causes serious bodily injury which maims, disfigures, or disables any person, but does not result in death, shall be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be sentenced to the penitentiary for a definite term of imprisonment which is not less than three nor more than fifteen years, or fined not more than ten thousand dollars, or both. A person imprisoned pursuant to this section is not eligible for parole prior to having served a minimum of three years of his or her sentence or the minimum period required by the provisions of section thirteen, article twelve, chapter sixty-two of this code, whichever is greater.


WVC 61-3-8 §61-3-8. Recovery of costs incurred in fighting fires caused by arson.
Any person convicted of any felony enumerated in section one, two, three, four, five or six of this article may be ordered to reimburse any fire department or company for the costs expended to control, extinguish and suppress the arson fire, and all reasonable costs associated therewith, including but not limited to, costs for the personal services rendered by any employees of any fire department or company, and operating costs of equipment and supplies used to control, extinguish or suppress the fire.


WVC 61-3-9 §61-3-9.
Repealed.

Acts, 1935 Reg. Sess., Ch. 105.


WVC 61-3-10 §61-3-10.
Repealed.

Acts, 1935 Reg. Sess., Ch. 105.


WVC 61-3-11 §61-3-11. Burglary; entry of dwelling or outhouse; penalties.
(a) Burglary shall be a felony and any person convicted thereof shall be confined in the penitentiary not less than one nor more than fifteen years. If any person shall, in the nighttime, break and enter, or enter without breaking, or shall, in the daytime, break and enter, the dwelling house, or an outhouse adjoining thereto or occupied therewith, of another, with intent to commit a crime therein, he shall be deemed guilty of burglary.

(b) If any person shall, in the daytime, enter without breaking a dwelling house, or an outhouse adjoining thereto or occupied therewith, of another, with intent to commit a crime therein, he shall be deemed guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction, shall be confined in the penitentiary not less than one nor more than ten years.

(c) The term "dwelling house," as used in subsections (a) and (b) of this section, shall include, but not be limited to, a mobile home, house trailer, modular home, factory-built home or self-propelled motor home, used as a dwelling regularly or only from time to time, or any other nonmotive vehicle primarily designed for human habitation and occupancy and used as a dwelling regularly or only from time to time.


WVC 61 - 3 - 12 §61-3-12. Entry of building other than dwelling; entry of railroad, traction or motorcar, steamboat or other vessel; penalties; counts in indictment.
If any person shall, at any time, break and enter, or shall enter without breaking, any office, shop, underground coal mine, storehouse, warehouse, banking house or any house or building, other than a dwelling house or outhouse adjoining thereto or occupied therewith, any railroad or traction car, propelled by steam, electricity or otherwise, any steamboat or other boat or vessel, or any commercial, industrial or public utility property enclosed by a fence, wall or other structure erected with the intent of the property owner of protecting or securing the area within and its contents from unauthorized persons, within the jurisdiction of any county in this state, with intent to commit a felony or any larceny, he or she shall be deemed guilty of a felony and, upon conviction, shall be confined in a state correctional facility not less than one nor more than ten years. And if any person shall, at any time, break and enter, or shall enter without breaking, any automobile, motorcar or bus, with like intent, within the jurisdiction of any county in this state, he or she shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction, shall be confined in jail not less than two nor more than twelve months and be fined not exceeding $100.

An indictment for burglary may contain one or more counts for breaking and entering, or for entering without breaking, the house or building mentioned in the count for burglary under the provisions of this section and section eleven of this article.


WVC 61-3-13 §61-3-13. Grand and petit larceny distinguished; penalties.
(a) If a person commits simple larceny of goods or chattels of the value of one thousand dollars or more, such person is guilty of a felony, designated grand larceny, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be imprisoned in the penitentiary not less than one nor more than ten years, or, in the discretion of the court, be confined in jail not more than one year and shall be fined not more than two thousand five hundred dollars.

(b) If a person commits simple larceny of goods or chattels of the value of less than one thousand dollars, such person is guilty of a misdemeanor, designated petit larceny, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in jail for a term not to exceed one year or fined not to exceed two thousand five hundred dollars, or both, in the discretion of the court.


WVC 61-3-14 §61-3-14. Larceny of bank notes, checks, writings of value and book accounts; penalty.
If any person steal any bank note, check, or other writing or paper of value, or any book of accounts for or concerning money or goods due to be delivered, he shall be deemed guilty of the larceny thereof, and receive the same punishment, according to the value of the article stolen, that is prescribed for the punishment of larceny of goods or chattels.


WVC 61-3-15 §61-3-15. How value of notes, book accounts and other writings determined.
In a prosecution under the preceding section, the money due on or secured by the writing, paper or book, and remaining unsatisfied, or which in any event might be collected thereon, or the value of the property or money affected thereby, shall be deemed to be the value of the article stolen.


WVC 61-3-16 §61-3-16. Larceny of things savoring of realty.
Things which savor of the realty, and are at the time they are taken part of the freehold, whether they be of the substance or produce thereof, or affixed thereto, shall be deemed goods and chattels, of which larceny may be committed, although there be no interval between the severing and taking away.


WVC 61-3-17 §61-3-17.

Repealed.

Acts, 1994 Reg. Sess., Ch. 108.


WVC 61-3-18 §61-3-18. Receiving or transferring stolen goods.
If any person buy or receive from another person, or aid in concealing, or transfer to a person other than the owner thereof, any stolen goods or other thing of value, which he knows or has reason to believe has been stolen, he shall be deemed guilty of the larceny thereof, and may be prosecuted although the principal offender be not convicted.


WVC 61-3-19 §61-3-19. Bringing into this state, receiving or disposing of property stolen in another state; penalty.
If any person shall bring into this state, or shall receive, convert to his own use, or sell, property of any character, of value, which was stolen in another state, and which he knows or has reason to believe was stolen, he shall be deemed guilty of the larceny thereof in the county in which such property may be found, used, converted or sold, and may be prosecuted for such offense therein, and, upon conviction, shall be punished as provided for the offense of larceny committed within this state.


WVC 61 - 3 - 20 §61-3-20. Embezzlement.
If any officer, agent, clerk or servant of this state, or of any county, district, school district or municipal corporation, or of any banking institution, or other corporation, or any officer of public trust in this state, or any agent, clerk or servant of any firm or person, or company or association of persons not incorporated, embezzles or fraudulently converts to his own use, bullion, money, bank notes, drafts, security for money, or any effects or property of any other person, which shall have come into his possession, or been placed under his care or management, by virtue of his office, place or employment, he shall be guilty of the larceny thereof. If such guilty person be an officer, agent, clerk or servant of any banking institution, he shall be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be imprisoned in the penitentiary not less than ten years. And it shall not be necessary to describe in the indictment, or to identify upon the trial, the particular bullion, money, bank note, draft or security for money which is so taken, converted to his own use or embezzled by him.

And whenever any officer, agent, clerk or servant of this state, or of any county, district, school district or municipal corporation, shall appropriate or use for his own benefit, or for the benefit of any other person, any bullion, money, bank notes, drafts, security for money or funds belonging to this state or to any such county, district, school district or municipal corporation, he shall be held to have embezzled the same and be guilty of the larceny thereof. In the prosecution of any such officer, agent, clerk or servant of this state or of any county, district, school district or municipal corporation charged with appropriation or use for his own benefit or the benefit of any other person, any bullion, money, bank notes, drafts, security for money or funds belonging to this state or to any county, district, school district or municipal corporation, it shall not be necessary to describe in the indictment, or to identify upon the trial, the particular bullion, money, bank notes, drafts, security for money or funds appropriated or used for his own benefit or for the benefit of any other person.


WVC 61 - 3 - 20 A §61-3-20a. Embezzlement by misuse of power of attorney or other fiduciary relationship; penalty.
Any person who holds a fiduciary power of attorney or who has a fiduciary relationship with a person and in so doing wilfully and with intent to defraud embezzles, misappropriates or fraudulently converts for his or her own benefit, or for the benefit of another, the assets or property, real or personal, with which he or she has been entrusted, or misuses or misappropriates funds from the person to whom he or she owes a fiduciary duty or misuses any account, line of credit or credit card of the principal for purposes not contemplated by the terms of the power of attorney instrument or fiduciary relationship, or for purposes not intended by the principal in the execution of the power of attorney or for purposes not intended by the fiduciary relationship, shall be held to have embezzled the same and, upon conviction, shall be deemed guilty of the larceny thereof.


WVC 61-3-21 §61-3-21. Embezzlement by carrier or other person.
If any carrier or other person to whom money or other property which may be the subject of larceny may be delivered to be carried for hire, or if any other person who may be intrusted with such property, embezzle or fraudulently convert to his own use, or secrete with intent to do so, any such property, either in mass or otherwise, before delivery thereof at the place at which, or to the person to whom, they were to be delivered, he shall be deemed guilty of the larceny thereof.


WVC 61-3-22 §61-3-22. Falsifying accounts; penalty.
If any officer, clerk or agent of this state, or of any county, district, school district or municipal corporation thereof, or of any banking institution or incorporated company, or any clerk or agent of any firm or person or association of persons not incorporated, make, alter or omit to make any entry in any book of account of, or in any account kept by such state, county, district, school district, municipal corporation, banking institution, incorporated company, firm or person, or association of persons, or mutilate, destroy or conceal any such account or book of accounts, with intent in so doing to conceal, the true state of any account, or to defraud the state or any county, district, school district, municipal corporation, banking institution, company, firm or person, or with intent to enable or assist any person to obtain money to which he was not entitled, such officer, clerk or agent shall be guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction, shall be confined in the penitentiary not less than one nor more than ten years.


WVC 61 - 3 - 22 A §61-3-22a. Possession or use of automated sales suppression devices; penalty.

     (a) General. -- When used in this article, words defined in subsection (b) of this section shall have the meanings ascribed to them in this section, except in those instances where a different meaning is provided in this article or the context in which the word is used clearly indicates that a different meaning is intended by the Legislature.

     (b) Definitions. --

     (1) "Automated sales suppression device" or "zapper" means a software program, carried on a memory stick or removable compact disc, accessed through an Internet link, or accessed through any other means, that falsifies the electronic records of electronic cash registers and other point-of-sale systems, including, but not limited to, transaction data and transaction reports.

     (2) "Electronic cash register" means a device that keeps a register or supporting documents through the means of an electronic device or computer system designed to record transaction data for the purpose of computing, compiling or processing retail sales transaction data in whatever manner.

     (3) "Phantom-ware" means a hidden, preinstalled or installed at a later time programming option embedded in the operating system of an electronic cash register or hardwired into the electronic cash register that can be used to create a virtual second till or may eliminate or manipulate transaction records that may or may not be preserved in digital formats to represent the true or manipulated record of transactions in the electronic cash register.

     (4) "Transaction data" includes items purchased by a customer, the price for each item, a taxability determination for each item, a segregated tax amount for each of the taxed items, the amount of cash or credit tendered, the net amount returned to the customer in change, the date and time of the purchase, the name, address and identification number of the vendor and the receipt or invoice number of the transaction.

     (5) "Transaction report" means a report documenting, but not limited to, the sales taxes collected, media totals and discount voids at an electronic cash register that is printed on cash register tape at the end of a day or shift, or a report documenting every action at an electronic cash register that is stored electronically.

     (c) It is unlawful to willfully and knowingly sell, purchase, install, transfer or possess in this state any automated sales suppression device or zapper or phantom-ware.

     (d) Any person convicted of a violation of subsection (c) of this section is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in a correctional institution for not less than one nor more than five years, or fined not less than $10,000 nor more than $100,000, or both confined and fined.

     (e) Any person violating subsection (c) of this section is liable for all taxes and penalties due the state as the result of the fraudulent use of an automated sales suppression device, zapper or phantom-ware and shall forfeit all profits associated with the sale or use of an automated sales suppression device or phantom-ware.

     (f) An automated sales suppression device or phantom-ware and any cash register or device containing such device or software is contraband and, as such, subject to seizure and destruction by any duly authorized law-enforcement agency in the state, including the Criminal Investigation Division of the State Tax Department.
WVC 61-3-23 §61-3-23. Destroying or concealing will; embezzlement by fiduciary; penalty.
If any person fraudulently destroy or conceal any will or codicil, with intent to prevent the probate thereof, he shall be guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction, be confined in the penitentiary not less than one nor more than five years. If any guardian, personal representative, or other fiduciary, shall wilfully and knowingly fail to make and return an inventory of any personal property (of which an inventory is required by law to be made) which may come to his hands as such, or wilfully and knowingly fail or refuse to produce any such property for appraisement in the manner required by law, or wilfully and knowingly conceal or embezzle any such property, he shall be guilty of the larceny thereof; and the failure of any such guardian, personal representative or other fiduciary to account for and pay over or deliver, when directed by the court, as required by law, any money, bullion, bank notes or other property, determined by the proper officer of court to be due and payable, shall be prima facie evidence that such guardian, personal representative or other fiduciary has embezzled the same.


WVC 61-3-24 §61-3-24. Obtaining money, property and services by false pretenses; disposing of property to defraud creditors; penalties.
(a) (1) If a person obtains from another by any false pretense, token or representation, with intent to defraud, any money, goods or other property which may be the subject of larceny; or

(2) If a person obtains on credit from another any money, goods or other property which may be the subject of larceny, by representing that there is money due him or her or to become due him or her, and assigns the claim for such money, in writing, to the person from whom he or she obtains such money, goods or other property, and afterwards collects the money due or to become due, without the consent of the assignee, and with the intent to defraud;

(3) Such person is guilty of larceny. If the value of the money, goods or other property is one thousand dollars or more, such person is guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be imprisoned in the penitentiary not less than one year nor more than ten years, or, in the discretion of the court, be confined in jail not more than one year and be fined not more than two thousand five hundred dollars. If the value of the money, goods or other property is less than one thousand dollars, such person is guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in jail not more than one year or fined not more than two thousand five hundred dollars, or both.

(b) If a person obtains by any false pretense, token or representation, with intent to defraud, the signature of another to a writing, the false making of which would be forgery, the person is guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be imprisoned in the penitentiary not less than one year nor more than five years, or, in the discretion of the court, be confined in jail not more than one year and fined not more than two thousand five hundred dollars.

(c) (1) If a person removes any of his or her property out of any county with the intent to prevent the same from being levied upon by any execution; or

(2) If a person secretes, assigns or conveys, or otherwise disposes of any of his or her property with the intent to defraud any creditor or to prevent the property from being made liable for payment of debts; or

(3) If a person receives the property of another with the intent to defraud any creditor or to prevent the property from being made liable for the payment of debts;

(4) The person is guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than two thousand five hundred dollars and be confined in jail not more than one year.

(d) If a person, firm or corporation obtains labor, services or any other such thing of value from another by any false pretense, token or representation, with intent to defraud, the person, firm or corporation is guilty of theft of services. If the value of the labor, services or any other such thing of value is one thousand dollars or more, the person, firm or corporation is guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be imprisoned in the penitentiary not less than one year nor more than ten years, or, in the discretion of the court, be confined in jail not more than one year and be fined not more than two thousand five hundred dollars. If the value of the labor, services or any other such thing of value is less than one thousand dollars, the person, firm or corporation is guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in jail not more than one year or fined not more than two thousand five hundred dollars, or both, in the discretion of the court.

(e) Theft of services includes the obtaining of a stop payment order on a check, draft or order for payment of money owed for services performed in good faith and in substantial compliance with a written or oral contract for services, with the fraudulent intent to permanently deprive the provider of such labor, services or other such thing of value of the payment represented by such check, draft or order. Notwithstanding the penalties set forth elsewhere in this section, any person, firm or corporation violating the provisions of this subsection is guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than two times the face value of the check, draft or order.

(f) Prosecution for an offense under this section does not bar or otherwise affect adversely any right or liability to damages, forfeiture or other civil remedy arising from any or all elements of the criminal offense.


WVC 61-3-24a §61-3-24a. Attempted or fraudulent use, forgery, traffic of credit cards; possession and transfer of credit cards and credit card making equipment; false or fraudulent use of telephonic services; penalties.
(a) As used in this section:

(1) "Counterfeit credit card" means the following:

(A) Any credit card or a representation, depiction, facsimile, aspect or component thereof that is counterfeit, fictitious, altered, forged, lost, stolen, incomplete or obtained in violation of this section, or as part of a scheme to defraud; or

(B) Any invoice, voucher, sales draft or other reflection or manifestation of such a card.

(2) "Credit card making equipment" means any equipment, machine, plate mechanism, impression or any other contrivance which can be used to produce a credit card, a counterfeit credit card, or any aspect or component of either.

(3) "Traffic" means:

(A) To sell, transfer, distribute, dispense or otherwise dispose of any property; or

(B) To buy, receive, possess, obtain control of or use property with the intent to sell, transfer, distribute, dispense or otherwise dispose of such property.

(4) "Notice" means either information given in person or information given in writing to the person to whom the number, card or device was issued. The sending of a notice in writing by registered or certified mail in the United States mail, duly stamped and addressed to such person at his last known address, is prima facie evidence that such notice was duly received. A cardholder's knowledge of the revocation of his or her credit card may be reasonably inferred by evidence that notice of such revocation was mailed to him or her, at least four days prior to his or her use or attempted use of the credit card, by first class mail at his or her last known address.

(b) (1) It is unlawful for any person knowingly to obtain or attempt to obtain credit, or to purchase or attempt to purchase any goods, property or service, by the use of any false, fictitious or counterfeit credit card, telephone number, credit number or other credit device, or by the use of any credit card, telephone number, credit number or other credit device of another beyond or without the authority of the person to whom such card, number or device was issued, or by the use of any credit card, telephone number, credit number or other credit device in any case where such card, number or device has been revoked and notice of such revocation has been given to the person to whom issued.

(2) It is unlawful for any person knowingly to obtain or attempt to obtain, by the use of any fraudulent scheme, device, means or method, telephone or telegraph service or the transmission of a message, signal or other communication by telephone or telegraph, or over telephone or telegraph facilities with intent to avoid payment of charges therefor.

(3) Any person who violates any provision of this subsection, if the credit, goods, property, service or transmission is of the value of one thousand dollars or more, is guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be imprisoned in the penitentiary not less than one year nor more than ten years or, in the discretion of the court, be confined in jail not more than one year and be fined not more than two thousand five hundred dollars; and if of less value, is guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in jail not more than one year or fined not more than two thousand five hundred dollars, or both.

(c) A person is guilty of forgery of a credit card when he or she makes, manufactures, presents, embosses, alters or utters a credit card with intent to defraud any person, issuer of credit or organization providing money, goods, services, or anything else of value in exchange for payment by credit card and he or she is guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be imprisoned in the penitentiary not less than one year nor more than ten years, or, in the discretion of the court, be confined in jail not more than one year and fined not less than fifty nor more than two thousand five hundred dollars.

(d) Any person who traffics in or attempts to traffic in ten or more counterfeit credit cards or credit card account numbers of another in any six-month period is guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be imprisoned in the penitentiary not less than one year nor more than ten years, or, in the discretion of the court, be confined in jail not more than one year and fined not less than fifty nor more than two thousand five hundred dollars.

(e) A person who receives, possesses, transfers, buys, sells, controls or has custody of any credit card making equipment with intent that the equipment be used in the production of counterfeit credit cards is guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be imprisoned in the penitentiary not less than one year nor more than ten years, or, in the discretion of the court, be confined in jail not more than one year and fined not less than one thousand nor more than five thousand dollars.

(f) A person who knowingly receives, possesses, acquires, controls or has custody of a counterfeit credit card is guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in jail not exceeding six months or fined not more than five hundred dollars, or both.


WVC 61-3-24b §61-3-24b. Making, selling, possessing, transferring or advertising for sale a device or plans for a device designed to obtain or use telephone or telegraph service or facilities by false or fraudulent means; penalty.
It shall be unlawful for any person knowingly to make, sell, offer or advertise for sale, possess, or give or otherwise transfer to another any instrument, apparatus, equipment, or device or plans or instructions for making or assembling any instrument, apparatus, equipment, or device which has been designed, adapted, used, or employed with the intent or for the purpose of (1) obtaining telephone or telegraph service or the transmission of a message, signal or other communication by telephone or telegraph, or over telephone or telegraph facilities without the payment of charges therefor, or (2) concealing or assisting another to conceal from any supplier of telephone or telegraph service or from any person charged with the responsibility of enforcing this section, the existence or place of origin or of destination of any message, signal, or other communication by telephone or telegraph, or over telephone or telegraph facilities.

Any person who violates any provision of this section is guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be punished by imprisonment in the county jail not exceeding twelve months, or by fine not exceeding five hundred dollars, or by both such fine and imprisonment at the discretion of the court. Any such instrument, apparatus, equipment, or device, or plans or instructions therefor, may be seized by court order or under the warrant of a justice; and, upon the conviction of any person owning same or having any interest therein for a violation of any provision of this section, which conviction has become final, such instrument, apparatus, equipment, device, plans or instructions shall be destroyed as contraband by the sheriff of the county in which such person was convicted.


WVC 61-3-24c §61-3-24c. Intercepting or monitoring customer telephone calls; penalty.
(a) It is unlawful for any person, firm or corporation to intercept or monitor, or to attempt to intercept or monitor, the transmission of a message, signal or other communication by telephone between an employee or similar agent of such person, firm or corporation and a customer of such person, firm or corporation unless such person, firm or corporation does all of the following:

(1) Notifies each employee or agent subject to interception or monitoring that their telephone messages are subject to interception or monitoring.

(2) Provides telephone instruments for employee's personal use which are not subject to intercepting or monitoring.

Any person, firm or corporation violating the provisions of this section is guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than fifty nor more than two hundred dollars, or imprisoned in the county jail not more than one year, or both fined and imprisoned.

(b) Nothing contained in this section shall require marking of telephone instruments nor require consent to interception or monitoring, in the case of a wiretap or other form of monitoring which is engaged in for the sole purpose of law enforcement and which is lawful in all other respects.

(c) The public service commission shall not issue any rule or regulation requiring or suggesting the monitoring of any message, signal or other communication by telephone to or from any telephone utility customer so as to obtain the content or substance of any such communication.


WVC 61-3-24D §61-3-24d. Fraudulent schemes; cumulation of amounts where common scheme exists; penalties.
(a) Any person who willfully deprives another of any money, goods, property or services by means of fraudulent pretenses, representations or promises shall be guilty of the larceny thereof.

(b) In determining the value of the money, goods, property or services referred to in subsection (a) of this section, it shall be permissible to cumulate amounts or values where such money, goods, property or services were fraudulently obtained as part of a common scheme or plan.

(c) A violation of law may be prosecuted under this section notwithstanding any other provision of this code.


WVC 61 - 3 - 24 E §61-3-24e. Omission to subscribe for workers' compensation insurance; failure to file a premium tax report or pay premium taxes; false testimony or statements; failure to file reports; penalties; asset forfeiture; venue.
(1) Failure to subscribe:

(A) Responsible person. Any person who individually or as owner, partner, president, other officer, or manager of a sole proprietorship, firm, partnership, company, corporation or association, who, as a person who is responsible for and who is required by specific assignment, duty or legal duty, which is either expressed or inherent in laws which require the employer's principals to be informed and to know the facts and laws affecting the business organization and to make internal policy and decisions which ensure that the individual and organization comply with the general laws and provisions of chapter twenty-three of this code, knowingly and willfully fails to subscribe for and maintain workers' compensation insurance shall be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction, shall be imprisoned in a state correctional facility not less than one nor more than ten years, or in the discretion of the court, be confined in a county or regional jail not more than one year and shall be fined not more than two thousand five hundred dollars.

(B) Any corporation, association or partnership who, as an employer as defined in chapter twenty-three of this code, knowingly and willfully fails to subscribe for and maintain workers' compensation insurance shall be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction, shall be fined not less than two thousand five hundred dollars nor more than ten thousand dollars.

(2) Failure to pay:

(A) Any person who individually or as owner, partner, president, other officer or manager of a sole proprietorship, firm, partnership, company, corporation or association, who, as a responsible person as defined in this section, knowingly and willfully fails to make premium tax payments to the Workers' Compensation Fund or premiums to a private carrier as required by chapter twenty-three of this code, shall be guilty of the larceny of the premium owed and, if the amount is one thousand dollars or more, such person shall be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be imprisoned in a state correctional facility not less than one nor more than ten years or, in the discretion of the court, be confined in a county or regional jail not more than one year and shall be fined not more than two thousand five hundred dollars. If the amount is less than one thousand dollars, such person shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in a county or regional jail for a term not to exceed one year or fined an amount not to exceed two thousand five hundred dollars, or both, in the discretion of the court.

(B) Any corporation, association, company or partnership which, as an employer as defined in chapter twenty-three of this code, knowingly and willfully fails to make premium tax payments to the Workers' Compensation Fund or premiums to a private carrier as required by chapter twenty-three of this code shall be guilty of the larceny of the premium owed, and, if the amount is one thousand dollars or more, such corporation, association, company or partnership shall be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than two thousand five hundred dollars nor more than ten thousand dollars. If the amount is less than one thousand dollars, such corporation, association, company or partnership shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined an amount not to exceed two thousand five hundred dollars.

(C) Any person who individually or as owner, partner, president, other officer, or manager of a sole proprietorship, firm, partnership, company, corporation or association, who, as a responsible person, as defined in this section, knowingly and willfully and with fraudulent intent sells, transfers or otherwise disposes of substantially all of the employer's assets for the purpose of evading the payment of workers' compensation premium taxes to the Workers' Compensation Fund, or premiums to a private carrier as required by chapter twenty-three of this code, shall be guilty of the larceny of the premium owed and, if the amount is one thousand dollars or more, such person shall be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be imprisoned in a state correctional facility not less than one nor more than ten years or, in the discretion of the court, be confined in a county or regional jail not more than one year and shall be fined not more than two thousand five hundred dollars. If the amount is less than one thousand dollars, such person shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in a county or regional jail for a term not to exceed one year or fined an amount not to exceed two thousand five hundred dollars, or both, in the discretion of the court.

(D) Any corporation, association, company or partnership which, as an employer as defined in chapter twenty-three of this code, knowingly and willfully and with fraudulent intent sells, transfers or otherwise disposes of substantially all of the employer's assets for the purpose of evading the payment of workers' compensation premium taxes to the Workers' Compensation Fund, or premiums to a private carrier as required by chapter twenty-three of this code shall be guilty of the larceny of the premium owed, and, if the amount is one thousand dollars or more, such corporation, association, company or partnership shall be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than two thousand five hundred dollars nor more than ten thousand dollars. If the amount is less than one thousand dollars, such corporation, association, company or partnership shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined an amount not to exceed two thousand five hundred dollars.

(3) Failure to file premium tax reports:

(A) Any person who individually or as owner, partner, president, other officer, or manager of a sole proprietorship, firm, partnership, company, corporation or association, who, as a responsible person as defined in this section, knowingly and willfully fails to file a premium tax report with the Workers' Compensation Fund or a premium report to a private carrier as required by chapter twenty-three of this code, shall be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be imprisoned in a state correctional facility not less than one nor more than ten years, or in the discretion of the court, be confined in a county or regional jail for a term not to exceed one year and shall be fined not more than two thousand five hundred dollars.

(B) Any corporation, association, company or partnership which, as an employer as defined in chapter twenty-three of this code, knowingly and willfully fails to file a premium tax report with the Workers' Compensation Fund or a premium report to a private carrier as required by chapter twenty-three of this code, shall be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than two thousand five hundred dollars nor more than ten thousand dollars.

(4) Failure to file other reports:

(A) Any person, individually or as owner, partner, president or other officer, or manager of a sole proprietorship, firm, partnership, company, corporation or association who, as a responsible person as defined in this section, knowingly and willfully fails to file any report, other than a premium tax report, required by such chapter shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in a county or regional jail for a term not to exceed one year or fined an amount not to exceed two thousand five hundred dollars, or both, in the discretion of the court.

(B) Any corporation, association, company or partnership which, as an employer as defined in chapter twenty-three of this code, knowingly and willfully fails to file any report, other than a premium tax report, with the Workers' Compensation Fund or Insurance Commissioner as required by chapter twenty-three of this code, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined an amount not to exceed two thousand five hundred dollars.

(5) False testimony or statements:

Any person, individually or as owner, partner, president, other officer, or manager of a sole proprietorship, firm, partnership, company, corporation or association who, as a responsible person as defined in this section, knowingly and willfully makes a false report or statement under oath, affidavit, certification or by any other means respecting any information required to be provided under chapter twenty-three of this code shall be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in a state correctional facility for a definite term of imprisonment which is not less than one year nor more than three years or fined not less than one thousand dollars nor more than ten thousand dollars, or both, in the discretion of the court. In addition to any other penalty imposed, the court shall order any defendant convicted under this section to make full restitution of all moneys paid by or due to the Workers' Compensation Fund, Insurance Commissioner or private carrier as the result of a violation of this section. The restitution ordered shall constitute a judgment against the defendant and in favor of the State of West Virginia Workers' Compensation Commission, Insurance Commissioner or private carrier.

(6) Asset forfeiture:

(A) The court, in imposing sentence on a person or entity convicted of an offense under this section, shall order the person or entity to forfeit property, real or personal, that constitutes or is derived, directly or indirectly, from gross proceeds traceable to the commission, Insurance Commissioner or private carrier of the offense. Any person or entity convicted under this section shall pay the costs of asset forfeiture.

(B) For purposes of subdivision (A) of this subsection, the term "payment of the costs of asset forfeiture" means:

(i) The payment of any expenses necessary to seize, detain, inventory, safeguard, maintain, advertise, sell or dispose of property under seizure, detention, forfeiture or of any other necessary expenses incident to the seizure, detention, forfeiture, or disposal of such property, including payment for:

(I) Contract services;

(II) The employment of outside contractors to operate and manage properties or provide other specialized services necessary to dispose of such properties in an effort to maximize the return from such properties; and

(III) Reimbursement of any state or local agency for any expenditures made to perform the functions described in this subparagraph;

(ii) The compromise and payment of valid liens and mortgages against property that has been forfeited, subject to the discretion of the Workers' Compensation Fund to determine the validity of any such lien or mortgage and the amount of payment to be made, and the employment of attorneys and other personnel skilled in state real estate law as necessary;

(iii) Payment authorized in connection with remission or mitigation procedures relating to property forfeited; and

(iv) The payment of state and local property taxes on forfeited real property that accrued between the date of the violation giving rise to the forfeiture and the date of the forfeiture order.

(7) Venue:

Venue for prosecution of any violation of this section shall be either the county in which the defendant's principal business operations are located or in Kanawha County where the Workers' Compensation Fund is located.


WVC 61 - 3 - 24 F §61-3-24f. Wrongfully seeking workers' compensation; false testimony or statements; penalties; venue.
(1) Any person who shall knowingly and with fraudulent intent secure or attempt to secure compensation from the Workers' Compensation Fund, a private carrier or from a self-insured employer:

(A) That is larger in amount than that to which he or she is entitled; or

(B) That is longer in term than that to which he or she is entitled; or

(C) To which he or she is not entitled, shall be guilty of a larceny and, if the amount is one thousand dollars or more, such person shall be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be imprisoned in a state correctional facility not less than one nor more than ten years or, in the discretion of the court, be confined in a county or regional jail not more than one year and shall be fined not more than two thousand five hundred dollars. If the amount is less than one thousand dollars, such person shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in a county or regional jail for a term not to exceed one year or fined an amount not to exceed two thousand five hundred dollars, or both, in the discretion of the court.

(2) Any person who shall knowingly and willfully make a false report or statement under oath, affidavit, certification or by any other means respecting any information required to be provided under chapter twenty-three of this code shall be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in a state correctional facility for a definite term of imprisonment which is not less than one year nor more than three years or fined not less than one thousand dollars nor more than ten thousand dollars, or both, in the discretion of the court.

(3) In addition to any other penalty imposed, the court shall order any person convicted under this section to make full restitution of all moneys paid by the Workers' Compensation Fund, private carrier or self-insured employer as the result of a violation of this section. The restitution ordered shall constitute a judgment against the defendant and in favor of the state of West Virginia Workers' Compensation Commission, private carrier or self-insured employer.

(4) If the person so convicted is receiving compensation from such fund, private carrier or employer, he or she shall, from and after such conviction, cease to receive such compensation as a result of any alleged injury or disease.

(5) Venue for prosecution of any violation of this section shall either be the county in which the claimant resides, the county in which the claimant is employed or working, or in Kanawha County where the Workers' Compensation Fund is located.


WVC 61 - 3 - 24 G §61-3-24g. Workers' compensation health care offenses; fraud; theft or embezzlement; false statements; penalties; notice; prohibition against providing future services; penalties; asset forfeiture; venue.

     (1) Any person who knowingly and willfully executes, or attempts to execute, a scheme or artifice:

     (A) To defraud the Workers' Compensation Fund, private carrier or a self-insured employer in connection with the delivery of or payment for workers' compensation health care benefits, items or services;

     (B) To obtain, by means of false or fraudulent pretenses, representations, or promises any of the money or property owned by or under the custody or control of the Workers' Compensation Fund, private carrier or a self-insured employer in connection with the delivery of or payment for workers' compensation health care benefits, items or services; or

     (C) To make any charge or charges against any injured employee or any other person, firm or corporation which would result in a total charge for the treatment or service rendered in excess of the maximum amount set forth in the Workers' Compensation Commission's schedule of maximum reasonable amounts to be paid for the treatment or services issued pursuant to subsection (a), section three article four, chapter twenty-three of this code is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be imprisoned in a state correctional facility not less than one year nor more than ten years or, in the discretion of the court, be confined in a county or regional jail not more than one year and shall be fined not more than two thousand five hundred dollars.

     (2) Any person who, in any matter involving a health care program related to workers' compensation insurance, knowingly and willfully:

     (A) Falsifies, conceals or covers up by any trick, scheme or device a material fact; or

     (B) Makes any materially false, fictitious or fraudulent statement or representation, or makes or uses any materially false writing or document knowing the same to contain any materially false, fictitious or fraudulent statement or entry, is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in a state correctional facility for a definite term of imprisonment which is not less than one year nor more than three years or fined not less than one thousand dollars nor more than ten thousand dollars, or both, in the discretion of the court.

     (3) Any person who willfully embezzles, steals or otherwise unlawfully converts to the use of any person other than the rightful owner, or intentionally misapplies any of the moneys, funds, securities, premiums, credits, property or other assets of a health care program related to the provision of workers' compensation insurance, is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be imprisoned in a state correctional facility for not less than one year nor more than ten years or fined not less than ten thousand dollars, or both, in the discretion of the court.

     (4) Any health care provider who fails, in violation of subsection (5) of this section to post a notice, in the form required by the Workers' Compensation Commission, in the provider's public waiting area that the provider cannot accept any patient whose treatment or other services or supplies would ordinarily be paid for from the Workers' Compensation Fund, private carrier or by a self-insured employer unless the patient consents, in writing, prior to the provision of the treatment or other services or supplies, to make payment for that treatment or other services or supplies himself or herself, is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined one thousand dollars.

     (5) Any person convicted under the provisions of this section shall, after such conviction, be barred from providing future services or supplies to injured employees for the purposes of Workers' Compensation and shall cease to receive payment for services or supplies. In addition to any other penalty imposed, the court shall order any defendant convicted under this section to make full restitution of all moneys paid by or due to the Workers' Compensation Fund, private carrier or self-insured employer as the result of a violation of this section. The restitution ordered shall constitute a judgment against the defendant and in favor of the state of West Virginia Workers' Compensation Commission, Insurance Commissioner, private carrier or self-insured employer.

     (6) (A) The court, in imposing sentence on a person convicted of an offense under this section, shall order the person to forfeit property, real or personal, that constitutes or is derived, directly or indirectly, from gross proceeds traceable to the commission of the offense. Any person convicted under this section shall pay the costs of asset forfeiture.

     (B) For purposes of subdivision (A) of this subsection, the term "payment of the costs of asset forfeiture" means:

     (i) The payment of any expenses necessary to seize, detain, inventory, safeguard, maintain, advertise, sell or dispose of property under seizure, detention or forfeiture, or of any other necessary expenses incident to the seizure, detention, forfeiture or disposal of the property, including payment for:

     (I) Contract services;

     (II) The employment of outside contractors to operate and manage properties or provide other specialized services necessary to dispose of the properties in an effort to maximize the return from the properties; and

     (III) Reimbursement of any state or local agency for any expenditures made to perform the functions described in this subparagraph;

     (ii) The compromise and payment of valid liens and mortgages against property that has been forfeited, subject to the discretion of the Workers' Compensation Fund to determine the validity of the lien or mortgage and the amount of payment to be made, and the employment of attorneys and other personnel skilled in state real estate law as necessary;

     (iii) Payment authorized in connection with remission or mitigation procedures relating to property forfeited; and

     (iv) The payment of state and local property taxes on forfeited real property that accrued between the date of the violation giving rise to the forfeiture and the date of the forfeiture order.

     (7) Venue for prosecution of any violation of this section shall be either the county in which the defendant's principal business operations are located or in Kanawha County where the Workers' Compensation Fund is located.


WVC 61 - 3 - 24 H §61-3-24h. Providing false documentation to workers' compensation, to the insurance commissioner or a private carrier of workers' compensation insurance; altering documents or certificates from workers' compensation; penalties; venue.
(1) Any person, firm, partnership, company, corporation association or medical provider who submits false documentation to workers' compensation, the insurance commissioner or a private carrier of workers' compensation insurance with the intent to defraud the Workers' Compensation Commission, the Insurance Commissioner or a private carrier of workers' compensation insurance shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in jail for a term not to exceed one year or fined an amount not to exceed two thousand five hundred dollars, or both, in the discretion of the court.

(2) Any person, firm, partnership, company, corporation, association or medical provider who alters, falsifies, defaces, changes or modifies any certificate or other document which would indicate good standing with the Workers' Compensation Commission, Insurance Commissioner or private carrier concerning workers' compensation insurance coverage or endorsement by workers' compensation for medical services shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in jail for a term not to exceed one year or fined an amount not to exceed two thousand five hundred dollars, or both, in the discretion of the court.

(3) Venue for prosecution of any violation of this section shall be either the county in which the claimant resides, a defendant's principal business operations are located, or in Kanawha County where the Workers' Compensation Fund is located.


WVC 61-3-25 §61-3-25. Casting away, destroying or interfering with floating craft or material; penalty.
If any person wilfully cast away or otherwise destroy any vessel within any county with intent to injure or defraud any owner thereof, or any owner of any property on board the same, or insurer of such a vessel or property, or any part thereof, he shall be deemed guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in the penitentiary of this state not less than one nor more than five years; or, if any person take, carry away, remove, injure, destroy, break, cut, detach, untie, loosen, impair, weaken, or otherwise interfere with any rope, line, fastening, connecting or other appliance used to tie, moor, attach or fasten to a bank of any stream, any floating craft, lumber, timber or material, the property of another, with intent to injure, defraud or damage such other person, or to cause such floating craft, lumber, timber or material to become adrift, or to float away, without the consent of the owner thereof, he shall be deemed guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in the penitentiary of this state not less than one nor more than five years.


WVC 61-3-26 §61-3-26. Interference with or destruction of buoys, signal lights or other aids to navigation; penalty.
If any person or persons shall wilfully or maliciously interfere with, injure or destroy any buoy, lamp, lantern, signal light or other aid to navigation erected or maintained by the government of this state, or of the United States, in this state, every person so offending shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction, be punished by a fine not exceeding five hundred dollars, or by imprisonment in the jail of the county not exceeding six months, or both, according to the aggravation of the offense, in the discretion of the court.


WVC 61-3-27 §61-3-27. Malicious killing of animals by poison or otherwise; penalty.
If a person maliciously administers poison to, or exposes poison with the intent that it should be taken by, any horse, cow or other animal of another person, or if any person maliciously maims, kills, or causes the death of any horse, cow or other animal of another person, of the value of one hundred dollars or more, the person is guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction, shall be imprisoned in the penitentiary not less than one year nor more than ten years; and, if the horse, cow or other animal is of less value than one hundred dollars, the person is guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction, shall be confined in jail not more than three months and fined not more than five hundred dollars: Provided, That this section shall not be construed to include dogs.


WVC 61 - 3 - 28 §61-3-28. Offenses against railroad property and persons on railroad property; definitions.
(a) As used in this section:

(1) "Bodily injury" means substantial physical pain, illness or any impairment of physical injury.

(2) "Railroad" means any form of nonhighway ground transportation that runs on rails or electromagnetic guideways, including:

(i) Commuter or other short-haul railroad passenger service in a metropolitan or suburban area; and

(ii) High-speed ground transportation systems that connect metropolitan areas but does not include rapid transit operations in an urban area that are not connected to the general railroad system of transportation;

(3) "Railroad carrier" means a person providing railroad transportation; railroad carrier including a right-of-way, track, bridge, yard, shop, station, tunnel, viaduct, trestle, depot, warehouse, terminal, railroad signal system, train control system, centralized dispatching system, or any other structure, appurtenance, or equipment owned, leased, or used in the operation of any railroad carrier including a train, locomotive, engine, railroad car, work equipment, rolling stock, or safety device. "Railroad property" does not include administrative buildings, administrative offices, or administrative office equipment;

(4) "Right-of-way" means the track or roadbed owned, leased, or operated by a railroad carrier which is located on either side of its tracks and which is readily recognizable to a reasonable person as being railroad property or is reasonably identified as such by fencing or appropriate signs;

(5) "Yard" means a system of parallel tracks, crossovers, and switches where railroad cars are switched and made up into trains, and where railroad cars, locomotives and other rolling stock are kept when not in use or when awaiting repairs.

(b) Whoever willfully damages or attempts to damage railroad property or willfully endangers or attempts to endanger the safety of another, by:

(1) Taking, removing, altering, or otherwise vandalizing a railroad sign, placard or marker;

(2) Throwing or dropping an object capable of causing significant damage to railroad property at or on a locomotive, railroad car or train;

(3) Shooting a firearm or other dangerous weapon at a locomotive, railroad car or train;

(4) Removing appurtenances from, damaging, or otherwise impairing the operation of any railroad signal system, including a train control system, centralized dispatching system, or highway-railroad grade crossing warning signal, on a railroad owned, leased, or operated by any railroad carrier, and without consent of the railroad carrier involved;

(5) Interfering or tampering with, or obstructing in any way, or threatening to interfere with, tamper with or obstruct in any way any railcar or locomotive, switch, frog, rail, roadbed, sleeper, viaduct, bridge, trestle, culvert, embankment, structure, or appliance pertaining to or connected with any railroad carrier without consent of the railroad carrier involved; or

(6) Taking, stealing, removing, changing, adding to, altering, or in any manner interfering with any part of the operating mechanism of any locomotive, engine, tender, coach, car, caboose, or motor car used or capable of being used by any railroad carrier in this state without consent of the railroad carrier is guilty of a felony.

If railroad property damage does not exceed $1,000 and no bodily injury occurs to another as a result of any of the aforesaid acts, upon conviction thereof, the person shall be fined not less than $500 nor more than $5,000, confined in a regional jail for not more than one year, or both. If bodily injury occurs to another not acting with or in connection with the perpetrator as a result of any of the aforesaid acts or if railroad property damage exceeds $1,000, upon conviction thereof, the person shall be fined not less $1,000 nor more than $10,000, committed to the custody of the Commission of Corrections for not less than one nor more than ten years, or both.

(d) The provisions of this section do not apply to any person employed by a railroad who is performing the duties assigned by the railroad or who is otherwise performing within the scope of his or her employment.


WVC 61 - 3 - 29 §61-3-29. Damage or destruction of railroad or public utility company property, or real or personal property used for producing, generating, transmitting, distributing, treating or collecting electricity, natural gas, coal, water, wastewater, stormwater, telecommunications or cable service; penalties; restitution.
(a) Any person who knowingly and willfully damages or destroys any real or personal property owned by a railroad company, or public utility company, or any real or personal property used for producing, generating, transmitting, distributing, treating or collecting electricity, natural gas, coal, water, wastewater, stormwater, telecommunications or cable service, is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than $2,000, or confined in jail not more than one year, or both fined and confined.

(b) Any person who knowingly and willfully: (1) Damages or destroys any real or personal property owned by a railroad company, or public utility company, or any real or personal property used for producing, generating, transmitting, distributing, treating or collecting electricity, natural gas, coal, water, wastewater, stormwater, telecommunications or cable service; and (2) creates a substantial risk of serious bodily injury to another or results in the interruption of service to the public is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than $5,000, or confined in a state correctional facility not less than one nor more than three years, or both fined and imprisoned.

(c) Any person who knowingly and willfully: (1) Damages or destroys any real or personal property owned by a railroad company, or public utility company, or any real or personal property used for producing, generating, transmitting, distributing, treating or collecting electricity, natural gas, coal, water, wastewater, stormwater, telecommunications or cable service; and (2) causes serious bodily injury to another is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than $5,000 nor more than $50,000, or confined in a state correctional facility not less than one nor more than five years, or both fined and imprisoned.

(d) Nothing in this section may be construed to limit or restrict the ability of an entity referred to in subsection (a), (b) or (c) of this section or a property owner or other person who has been damaged or injured as a result of a violation of this section from seeking recovery for damages arising from violation of this section.


WVC 61 - 3 - 30 §61-3-30. Removal, injury to or destruction of property, monuments designating land boundaries and of certain no trespassing signs; penalties.
(a) If any person unlawfully, but not feloniously, takes and carries away, or destroys, injures or defaces any property, real or personal, of another, he or she is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than five hundred dollars, or confined in the county or regional jail not more than one year, or both fined and imprisoned.

(b) Any person who unlawfully, willfully and intentionally destroys, injures or defaces the real or personal property of one or more other persons or entities during the same act, series of acts or course of conduct causing a loss in the value of the property in an amount of two thousand five hundred dollars or more, is guilty of the felony offense of destruction of property and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than two thousand five hundred dollars or imprisoned in the state correctional facility for not less than one year nor more than ten years, or in the discretion of the court, confined in the county or regional jail not more than one year, or both fined and imprisoned.

(c) If any person breaks down, destroys, injures, defaces or removes any monument erected for the purpose of designating the boundaries of a municipality, tract or lot of land, or any tree marked for that purpose, or any sign or notice upon private property designating no trespassing upon the property, except signs or notices posted in accordance with the provisions and purposes of sections seven, eight and ten, article two, chapter twenty of this code, he or she is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than twenty dollars nor more than two hundred dollars, or confined in the county or regional jail not less than one nor more than six months, or both fined and imprisoned. Magistrates have concurrent jurisdiction of all offenses arising under the provisions of this section. The provisions of this paragraph do not apply to the owner, or his or her agent, of the lands on which such signs or notices are posted.


WVC 61-3-31 §61-3-31. Damage to or destruction of property by bailee for hire or loan; penalty; damages recoverable in civil action.
If any bailee for hire or loan of any property shall wilfully, or with gross negligence, damage or destroy the property of any person, while the same is in the custody or possession of such bailee, he shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction shall be fined not exceeding one hundred dollars, or be imprisoned in the county jail for a term not exceeding thirty days, in the discretion of the court, and shall be liable to the owner or owners of such property for the value thereof, or the injury done to the same, in a civil action.


WVC 61-3-32 §61-3-32. Removal out of county of property securing claim; penalties; fraudulent disposition of personal property in possession by virtue of lease; notice to return; failure to return; penalty; right to immediate possession.
(a) Any debtor under any security instrument conveying personal property, who retains possession of such personal property, and who, without the consent of the owner of the claim secured by such security instrument, and with intent to defraud, removes or causes to be removed any of the property securing such claim out of the county where it is situated at the time it became security for such claim or out of a county to which it was removed by virtue of a former consent of the owner of the claim under this section, or, with intent to defraud, secretes or sells the same, or converts the same to his own use, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, be fined not more than five hundred dollars, or imprisoned not more than six months, or both, in the discretion of the court.

(b) Any person in possession or control of any personal property by virtue of or subject to a written lease who, with intent to defraud and without written consent of the owner, disposes of such property by sale or transfer, or, after receiving a written notice to return the property or otherwise make the property available to the lessor, secretes or converts such property to his own use and in so doing places the property in a location other than the locations described in the written lease, or removes or causes to be removed such property from the state shall be deemed guilty of the larceny of such property.

In any prosecution under the provisions of this subsection, written notice may be mailed by certified mail, addressed to the consumer at the address of the consumer stated in the lease, and served on the consumer within ten days of the expiration of the lease, which notice shall state that the lease has expired and that consumer has ten days from receipt of such notice to return the leased property. Proof that the consumer failed to return the property within ten days of receiving such notice shall in any prosecution under this subsection constitute prima facie evidence that the consumer intended to defraud the owner.

Whenever the consumer is a resident of the county in which the lease was contracted, the dealer, after written notice to the consumer within ten days after the expiration of the lease, has the right to immediate possession of the leased property, without formal process to secure return and possession of the leased property, if this can be done without breach of the peace. The dealer is not liable to the consumer for any damages for any action taken that is reasonable, necessary and incidental to the reclaiming or taking possession of the leased property.


WVC 61-3-33 §61-3-33. Entry upon inclosed lands; penalty; liability for damages.
If any person shall, without the consent of the owner or occupier thereof, enter upon the inclosed lands of another and do any damage, or shall, without such consent, pull down in whole or in part, or injure, any fence of another, or without permission open and leave open the gate or drawbar of another, or enter upon the inclosed lands of another after being forbidden so to do, or enter thereon and curse, or insult, or annoy, the owner thereof or any person rightfully there, he shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction, be fined not less than five nor more than one hundred dollars; and, in default of the payment of the fine, the offender may, in the discretion of the judge or justice, be committed to jail for not less than five days. He shall, moreover, be liable to the party injured for the damages sustained by such injury; and it shall be no defense to any prosecution or suit under this section, that such fence was not a lawful fence.


WVC 61-3-34 §61-3-34. Taking or injuring garden or field crops; penalties.
If a person enters the orchard, field, garden or market garden of another person, without the consent of the owner or occupier thereof, and does any damage to the fruit, vegetables, grain or grass growing or being thereon, or takes, carries away, injures or destroys any of the grain, fruit, grass or vegetables growing or being thereon, the person is guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction, shall be fined not more than five hundred dollars, or confined in jail not exceeding six months, or both. If a person commits any of the acts mentioned herein, and if it is charged in the indictment or information and proved that the property injured or destroyed, or taken or carried away, is of a greater value than one thousand dollars, the person is guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction, shall be imprisoned in the penitentiary not less than one year nor more than ten years, or, in the discretion of the court, be confined in jail not more than one year and fined not less than fifty nor more than two thousand five hundred dollars.


WVC 61-3-35 §61-3-35. Digging cultivated ginseng; penalty.
It shall be unlawful for any person to dig cultivated ginseng or prospect for the same, on the lands of another without the consent of the owner or owners thereof first obtained. The property must be properly posted with "No Trespassing" signs, "Private Property" signs, or other signs that explain to a person to stay off the property. The signs must be of reasonable size to be read by an average person and must be posted at reasonable intervals of at least two hundred feet around the property.

Any person violating this section shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than one hundred dollars.


WVC 61-3-36 §61-3-36. Anchoring or beaching shanty boats on lands of another; penalties.
If any person, being the owner or occupier of any shanty boat, or boat of like kind, who anchors, ties or beaches such boat upon the real estate of another for a longer period than twelve hours, except in case of distress, without the permission of the owner or agent of the owner of such real estate, upon which such boat is anchored, tied or beached, he shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction, shall be fined not more than fifty dollars, or confined in the county jail not more than thirty days, in the discretion of the court. And each twelve hours that such owner or occupier, after having been notified to remove, allows such boat to remain at such place, or anchored, tied or beached upon the premises of such owner, shall be treated as a separate offense. And any such person having been notified to remove such boat, who shall, within thirty days thereafter, gain anchor, tie or beach any boat upon the real estate of such owner, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction, shall be fined not exceeding fifty dollars and imprisoned in the county jail not exceeding thirty days. Any justice of the peace in any county of the state where such offense or offenses shall be committed shall have jurisdiction thereof.


WVC 61-3-37 §61-3-37. False statement as to financial condition of person, firm or corporation; penalty.
Any person who shall knowingly make or cause to be made, either directly or indirectly, or through any agency whatsoever, any false statement in writing, with intent that it shall be relied upon, respecting the financial condition, or means or ability to pay, of himself, or any other person, firm or corporation, in whom or in which he is interested, or for whom or for which he is acting, for the purpose of procuring in any form whatsoever, either the delivery of personal property, the payment of cash, the making of a loan or credit, the extension of a credit, the discount of an account receivable, or the making, acceptance, discount, sale or indorsement of a bill of exchange, or promissory note, for the benefit either of himself or of such person, firm or corporation; or who, knowing that a false statement in writing has been made, respecting the financial condition or means or ability to pay, of himself, or such person, firm or corporation in which he is interested, or for whom he is acting, procures, upon the faith thereof, for the benefit either of himself, or of such person, firm or corporation, either or any of the things of benefit mentioned herein; or who, knowing that a statement in writing has been made, respecting the financial condition or means or ability to pay of himself or such person, firm or corporation in which he is interested, or for whom he is acting, represents on a later day, either orally or in writing, that such statement theretofore made, if then again made on such day, would be then true, when in fact such statement, if then made, would be false, and procures upon the faith thereof, for the benefit either of himself or of such other person, firm or corporation, either or any of the things of benefit mentioned herein, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be punished by confinement in jail for not more than one year, or by a fine of not more than one thousand dollars, or both fine and imprisonment, in the discretion of the court.


WVC 61-3-38 §61-3-38. Publication of false advertisements; penalty.
Any person, firm, corporation or association, or their agents or employees, who, with intent to sell, or in anywise dispose of, merchandise, securities, service, or anything offered by such person, firm, corporation or association, directly or indirectly, to the public for sale or distribution, or with intent to increase the consumption thereof, or to induce the public in any manner to enter into any obligation relating thereto, or to acquire title thereto, or an interest therein, causes, directly or indirectly, to be made, published, disseminated, circulated or placed before the public, in this state, in a newspaper or other publication, or in the form of a book, notice, handbill, poster, bill, circular, pamphlet or letter, or over any radio station, or in any other way, an advertisement of any sort regarding merchandise, securities, service or anything so offered to the public, which advertisement contains any assertion, representation or statement of fact which is untrue and deceptive, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof shall be punished by a fine of not less than ten nor more than one hundred dollars, and such violation, by an agent or employee, shall be deemed an offense as well by the principal or employer, and they may be indicted for the same, either jointly or severally.


WVC 61-3-39 §61-3-39. Obtaining property in return for worthless check; penalty.
It is unlawful for any person, firm or corporation to obtain any money, services, goods or other property or thing of value by means of a check, draft or order for the payment of money or its equivalent upon any bank or other depository, knowing at the time of the making, drawing, issuing, uttering or delivering of the check, draft or order that there is not sufficient funds on deposit in or credit with such bank or other depository with which to pay the same upon presentation. The making, drawing, issuing, uttering or delivery of any such check, draft or order, for or on behalf of any corporation, or its name, by any officer or agent of such corporation, shall subject such officer or agent to the penalties of this section to the same extent as though such check, draft or order was his own personal act, when such agent or officer knows that such corporation does not have sufficient funds on deposit in or credit with such bank or depository from which such check, draft or order can legally be paid upon presentment.

This section shall not apply to any such check, draft or order when the payee or holder knows or has been expressly notified prior to the acceptance of same or has reason to believe that the drawer did not have on deposit or to his credit with the drawee sufficient funds to insure payment as aforesaid, nor shall this section apply to any postdated check, draft or order.

No prosecution shall be confined to the provisions of this section by virtue of the fact that worthless checks, drafts or orders may be employed in the commission of some other criminal act.

A person who violates the provisions of this section, if the amount of the check, draft or order is less than five hundred dollars, is guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, the person shall be fined not more than two hundred dollars, or confined in jail not more than six months, or both. A person who violates the provisions of this section, if the amount of the check, draft or order is five hundred dollars or more, is guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction thereof, the person shall be fined not more than five hundred dollars, or imprisoned in the penitentiary not less than one year nor more than ten years, or both.


WVC 61 - 3 - 39 A §61-3-39a. Making, issuing, etc., worthless checks on a preexisting debt; penalty.
(a) It is unlawful for any person, firm or corporation to make, draw, issue, utter or deliver any check, draft or order for the payment of money or its equivalent on a preexisting debt upon any bank or other depository, knowing or having reason to know there is not sufficient funds on deposit in or credit with the bank or other depository with which to pay the check, draft or order upon presentation. The making, drawing, issuing, uttering or delivering of any check, draft or order on a preexisting debt, for or on behalf of any corporation, or its name, by any officer or agent of the corporation, shall subject the officer or agent to the penalty of this section to the same extent as though the check, draft or order was his or her own personal act.

(b) This section shall not apply to any check, draft or order when the payee or holder knows or has been expressly notified prior to the acceptance of same or has reason to believe that the drawer did not have on deposit or to his or her credit with the drawee sufficient funds to insure payment as aforesaid, nor shall this section apply to any postdated check, draft or order. This section shall not apply when the insufficiency of funds or credit is caused by any adjustment to the drawer's account by the bank or other depository without notice to the drawer or is caused by the dishonoring of any check, draft or order deposited in the account unless there is knowledge or reason to believe that the check, draft or order would be dishonored.

(c) Any person violating the provisions of this section is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than two hundred dollars; and upon a third or subsequent conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than two hundred dollars, or confined in the county or regional jail not more than ten days, or both.


WVC 61 - 3 - 39 B §61-3-39b. Payment as defense.
Payment of a dishonored check, draft or order, made to the magistrate clerk within ten days after the notice mailed to the defendant pursuant to section thirty-nine-g of this article, constitutes a complete defense or ground for dismissal of charges brought under section thirty-nine or section thirty-nine-a of this article.


WVC 61-3-39c §61-3-39c. Reason for dishonor; duty of drawee.
It shall be the duty of the drawee of any check, draft or order, before refusing to pay the same to the holder thereof upon presentation, to cause to be written, printed or stamped in plain language thereon or attached thereto, the reason for drawee's dishonor or refusal to pay same. In all prosecutions under section thirty-nine or thirty-nine-a of this article, the introduction in evidence of any unpaid and dishonored check, draft or other written order, having the drawee's refusal to pay stamped or written thereon, or attached thereto, with the reason therefor as aforesaid:

(a) Shall be prima facie evidence of the making or uttering of said check, draft or other written order, and the due presentation to the drawee for payment and the dishonor thereof, and that the same was properly dishonored for the reasons written, stamped or attached by the drawee on such dishonored checks, drafts or orders; and

(b) Shall be prima facie evidence, as against the maker or drawer thereof, of the withdrawing from deposit with the drawee named in the check, draft or other written order, of the funds on deposit with such drawee necessary to insure payment of said check, draft or other written order upon presentation within a reasonable time after negotiation; and

(c) Shall be prima facie evidence of the drawing, making, uttering or delivering of a check, draft or written order with the knowledge of insufficient funds in or credit with such drawee.


WVC 61-3-39d §61-3-39d. Prima facie evidence of knowledge; identity; penalty for providing false information.
(a) In any prosecution under section thirty-nine of this article, the making, drawing, uttering or delivery of a check, draft or order, the payment of which is refused by the drawee because of lack of funds or credit, shall be prima facie evidence that the drawer has knowledge at the time of making, drawing, issuing, uttering or delivering such check, draft or order that there is not sufficient funds or credit to pay the same, unless the check, draft or order is paid along with any charges or costs authorized by this article.

(b) In any prosecution under section thirty-nine-a of this article, it shall constitute prima facie evidence of the identity of the drawer of a check, draft order if at the time of acceptance of such check, draft or order there is obtained the following information: Name and residence, business or mailing address and either a valid motor vehicle operator's number or the drawer's home or work phone number or place of employment. Such information may be recorded on the check, draft or order itself or may be retained on file by the payee and referred to on the check, draft or order by identifying number or other similar means.

(c) Any person who shall provide false information when information is requested prior to accepting a check, draft or order either at the time such check, draft or order is presented or for the purpose of obtaining a check cashing identification card or similar check cashing privilege shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than two hundred dollars, or imprisoned not more than thirty days, or both fined and imprisoned.


WVC 61 - 3 - 39 E §61-3-39e. Notice of dishonor by payee; service charge.
The payee or holder of a check, draft or order which has been dishonored because of insufficient funds or credit may send notice thereof to the drawer of the check, draft or order. The payee or holder of any dishonored check may impose a fee of up to twenty-five dollars a worthless check. This fee may not be imposed or collected after a complaint for warrant has been delivered to magistrate court. No payee or holder of a check, draft or order which has been dishonored because of insufficient funds or credit shall incur any civil or criminal liability for the sending of a notice substantially in the form provided herein, other provisions of law notwithstanding. The form of the notice shall be substantially as follows:

"You are hereby notified that a check, number .................., issued by you on (date of check), drawn upon (name of bank), and payable to ..............................., has been dishonored. Pursuant to West Virginia law, you have ten days from the date of this notice to tender payment of the full amount of the check plus a fee of $..................... (not to exceed twenty-five dollars a worthless check) to the undersigned at ........................... You are further notified that in the event the above amount is timely paid in full you will not be subject to legal proceedings, civil or criminal.

Dated ......................., 20.....

.................................

(Signed)."

The provisions of this section do not authorize the making of any other written or oral threats of prosecution to enforce or enhance the collection or honoring of the dishonored check, draft or order.

The holder or payee of any check, draft or order shall relinquish the check, draft or order to the maker upon tender of the full amount due at any time before a complaint for warrant has been presented to magistrate court. In the event complaint for warrant has been presented to magistrate court, payment may be made only through the court and any holder or payee unlawfully accepting payment after that time shall be liable for all costs which may be imposed by the magistrate court in the matter, including all costs which may have accrued by the time the magistrate court is notified of the payment.


WVC 61 - 3 - 39 F §61-3-39f. Manner of filing complaint for warrant; form.
(A) Notwithstanding the provisions of section one, article one, chapter sixty-two of this code, a complaint for warrant for violations of section thirty-nine or section thirty-nine-a of this article need not be made upon oath before a magistrate but may be made upon oath before any magistrate court clerk or other court officer authorized to administer oaths or before a notary public in any county of the state and may be delivered by mail or otherwise to the magistrate court of the county wherein venue lies: Provided, That nothing in this section changes the authority and responsibility of the prosecuting attorney to prosecute any person or persons for violations of section thirty-nine or section thirty-nine-a of this article.

(B) A complaint for warrant for violations of section thirty-nine-a of this article shall be deemed sufficient if it is in form substantially as follows:

"State of West Virginia

County of ....................., to wit:

......................................, upon oath complains that:

(a) Within one year past, on the ...... day of ............, 20...., in the county stated above, ............................. ("the maker") unlawfully issued and delivered to ........................... a check, draft or order with the following words and figures:

........................ 20 .... No...........

..............................................

(Name of Bank)

Pay to the Order of ..................... $.......... Dollars

For......................................................... when the maker did not have funds on deposit in or credit with this bank with which to pay the check, draft or order upon presentation against the peace and dignity of the State of West Virginia. The complainant therefore prays a warrant issue and that the maker be apprehended and held to answer the warrant and dealt with in relation thereto according to the law.

(b) At the time the check, draft or order was delivered and before it was accepted there was either on the check or on a record in the possession of the complainant the following information regarding the identity of the maker:

(1) Name....................................................

(2) Residence address.......................................

(3) Business address........................................

(4) Mailing address.........................................

(5) Motor vehicle operator's number.........................

(6) Home phone..............................................

(7) Work phone..............................................

(8) Place of employment.....................................

That since the time the check, draft or order was delivered the complainant has ascertained to the best of his or her knowledge and belief the following facts concerning the maker:

Full name .......................................................

Home address ....................................................

Home phone no............... Business phone no...................

Place of employment .............................................

Race ............ Sex .............. Height .....................

Date of birth ...................................................

DayMonthYear

..................................., Complainant

.................................................

AddressPhone No.

(c) The complainant's bank or financial institution has imposed on or collected from the complainant a service charge in the amount of $........................ in connection with the check, draft or order described above.

Taken, subscribed and sworn to before me, this .............. day of ......................, 20.....

.............................................

.............................................

(Title)

My commission expires the ........ day of .................., 20....."

(C) The failure to supply information indicated in parts (b) or (c) of the foregoing complaint for warrant shall not affect the sufficiency of the complaint.


WVC 61 - 3 - 39 G §61-3-39g. Complaint; notice of complaint; issuance of warrant; payment procedures; costs.
After receipt of a complaint for warrant for a violation of section thirty-nine or thirty-nine-a of this article the magistrate court shall proceed with the issuance of the warrant as is provided by law: Provided, That no warrant may issue for an offense under section thirty-nine or thirty-nine-a of this article which, upon conviction, would be punishable as a misdemeanor, unless the payee or holder of the check, draft or order which has been dishonored has sent notice thereof to the drawer of the check, draft or order in accordance with the provisions of section thirty-nine-e of this article, or unless notice has been sent by the magistrate as hereinafter provided. Proof that the notice was sent by the payee or holder may be evidenced by presentation of a return receipt indicating that the notice was mailed to the drawer by certified mail, or, in the event the mailed notice was not received or was refused by the drawer, by presentation of the mailed notice itself. The magistrate court shall receive and hold the check, draft or order.

Upon receipt of a complaint for a misdemeanor warrant unaccompanied by proof that notice was sent by the payee or holder, the magistrate court shall immediately prepare and mail to the drawer of the check, draft or order a notice in form substantially as follows. The magistrate court shall impose any service charge reflected in the complaint as having been imposed on the payee or holder by the payee's or holder's bank or financial institution in connection with the check, draft or order and additional court costs in the amount of twenty-five dollars. This notice shall be mailed to the drawer by United States mail, first class and postpaid, at the address provided at the time of presenting the check, draft or order. Service of this notice is complete upon mailing. The notice shall be in form substantially as follows:

"You are hereby notified that a complaint for a warrant for your arrest has been filed with this office to the following effect and purpose by .............. who upon oath complains that on the ....... day of ..............., 20...., you did unlawfully issue and deliver unto him a certain check, draft or order in the amount of .............. drawn on ....................................... (name of bank or financial institution) ................. where you did not have funds on deposit in or credit with the bank or financial institution with which to pay the check, draft or order upon presentation and pray that a warrant issue and that you be apprehended wherever you may be found by an officer authorized to make an arrest and dealt with in accordance with the laws of the state of West Virginia.

"A warrant for arrest will be issued on or after the ......... day of ......................., 20......

"You can nullify the effect of this complaint and avoid arrest by paying to the magistrate court clerk at ...................... the amount due on the check, draft or order; service charges imposed on the payee or holder by the payee's or holder's bank or financial institution in connection with the check, draft or order in the amount of ..........; and the costs of this proceeding in the amount of twenty-five dollars on or before the .......... day of ...................., 20......, at which time you will be given a receipt with which you can obtain the check, draft or order from the magistrate court. The complainant is forbidden by law to accept payment after the complaint is filed.

Magistrate Court of .................. County

.............................................

Date: .............................."

This notice shall give the drawer of any such check, draft or order ten days within which to make payment to magistrate court. In the event the drawer pays the total amount set forth in the notice to the magistrate court within the ten-day period, no warrant may issue. The payment may be made to the magistrate court in person or by mail by cash, certified check, bank draft or money order and, in the event the payment is made by mail, the magistrate court clerk shall immediately mail to the maker of the check, draft or order the receipt required by this section. In the event the total amount is not so paid the court shall proceed with the issuance of the warrant as is provided by law.

Upon receipt of payment of the total amount the magistrate court clerk shall issue to the drawer a receipt sufficiently describing the check, draft or order with which receipt the drawer is entitled to receive the dishonored check, draft or order from the magistrate court holding it. The magistrate court clerk shall forward the amount of the check, draft or order, together with any service charge reflected on the complaint as having been imposed on the payee or holder by the payee's or holder's bank or financial institution in connection with the check, draft or order, to the payee or holder thereof, along with a description of the check, draft or order sufficient to enable the person filing the complaint to identify it and the transaction involved. Costs collected shall be dealt with as is provided by law for other criminal proceedings.

The drawer of a check, draft or order against whom a warrant has been issued may at any time prior to trial pay to the court the amount of the check, draft or order; any service charge reflected in the complaint as having been imposed on the payee or holder by the payee's or holder's bank or financial institution in connection with the check, draft or order; and the court costs which would be assessed if the person were found guilty of the offense charged. These costs shall be imposed in accordance with the provisions of section two, article three, chapter fifty of this code.


WVC 61 - 3 - 39 H §61-3-39h. Payment of costs in worthless check cases; disposition of certain costs.
(a) In any prosecution under section thirty-nine or thirty-nine-a of this article, the costs that may otherwise be imposed against the drawer of any check, draft or order shall be imposed on the person initiating the prosecution if:

(1) Payment of the check, draft or order is accepted by the payee or holder thereof after the filing of a complaint for warrant and the charge is subsequently withdrawn or dismissed at the request of the complainant: Provided, That the provisions of this subdivision do not apply where a charge is dismissed and restitution is paid as a condition of a plea agreement. The defendant shall be assessed costs for the prosecution of each charge of which he or she stands convicted and the fee for court costs assessed pursuant to section thirty-nine-g of this article for each charge dismissed as a result of the plea agreement;

(2) The payee or holder had reason to believe that the check, draft or order would be dishonored;

(3) The check, draft or order was postdated; or

(4) The matter is dismissed for failure to prosecute.

(b) Costs collected by magistrate court for issuance of notice as authorized by section thirty-nine-g of this article may not be paid into the special county fund created by the provisions of section four, article three, chapter fifty of this code but shall be accounted for separately and retained by the county in a fund designated the Worthless Check Fund until the sheriff issues warrants in furtherance of the allowable expenses specifically provided for by this section. Such costs may not be included in any calculation of the amount of funds to be retained by the county under the provisions of section four, article three, chapter fifty of this code.

(c) A county may, after agreement with the court administrator's office of the Supreme Court of Appeals, appropriate and spend from the Worthless Check Fund herein established such sums as are necessary to pay or defray the expenses of providing a deputy sheriff to serve warrants for worthless check offenses and to pay or defray the expenses of providing additional deputy clerks in the office of the magistrate court clerk. After payment of these expenses, or after a determination that these services are not necessary, a county may appropriate and spend from the fund the sums necessary to defray:

(1) The expenses of providing bailiff and service of process services by the sheriff;

(2) The cost of acquiring or renting magistrate court offices and providing utilities and telephones and telephone service to such offices;

(3) The cost of complying with section thirty-nine-i of this article; and

(4) The expenses of other services are provided to magistrate courts by the county.


WVC 61-3-39i §61-3-39i. Preparation of list of worthless check warrants.
Beginning on the first day of July, one thousand nine hundred eighty-three, the magistrate court clerk of every county shall, between the first and fifth day of each month thereafter, prepare a cumulative list of all check warrants issued by the magistrates of the county during the preceding twelve calendar months and after the effective date of this section: Provided, That upon completion of each cumulative list, the list which was completed for the next preceding month and any copy thereof shall be destroyed by the magistrate court clerk. The persons charged in such warrants shall be listed alphabetically. Such list shall also contain the total number of warrants issued against each named person for the period covered by the report, the number assigned to each warrant, and the date each such warrant was issued. A copy of such cumulative list of worthless check warrants shall be forthwith forwarded to each magistrate in the county and to the prosecuting attorney thereof. Upon the request of magistrates or prosecutors in other counties of this state, such lists shall be regularly forwarded to them.


WVC 61-3-39j §61-3-39j. Use of worthless check list upon receipt of complaint for warrant.
On and after the first day of July, one thousand nine hundred eighty-three, when a complaint for worthless check warrant is received by a magistrate court, the person receiving the complaint shall consult the current list of worthless check warrants for the county and any current lists of other counties in his possession to determine whether the defendant named in the complaint for warrant is also named on the list or lists as a person who has had worthless check warrants issued against him during the period covered by the lists. If the list or lists consulted indicate that the person named in the complaint has had not more than one worthless check warrant issued against him within the time period covered by the lists, the person receiving the complaint for warrant shall proceed to have a warrant issued or a notice served, as may be appropriate, in accordance with the provisions of section thirty-nine-g of this article. If the list or lists consulted indicate that the person named in the complaint has had two or more worthless check warrants issued against him within the time period covered by the lists, the person receiving the complaint for warrant shall not cause a warrant to be issued, but shall instead forthwith prepare a "Notice of Multiple Worthless Check Warrants," which shall be in a form substantially as follows:

"NOTICE OF MULTIPLE WORTHLESS CHECK WARRANTS
THIS NOTICE IS TO BE ISSUED ONLY WHEN AN INDIVIDUAL HAS HAD TWO OR MORE WORTHLESS CHECK WARRANTS ISSUED IN THE PRECEDING TWELVE MONTHS

To: Prosecuting Attorney of ............................. County From: Magistrate Court of ............................... County

This is to notify you that .............................. who resides at ...................................................... has issued worthless checks during the preceding twelve months for which warrants have been issued.

In accordance with the provisions of section thirty-nine-i, article three, chapter sixty-one of the code of West Virginia you have ten days to advise this court on how to proceed in this matter."

A list of the worthless check warrants shall be attached to said notice, along with information concerning the check which is the subject of the pending complaint for worthless check warrant. Warrant numbers, check numbers, dates of checks, amounts of checks, payees, and drawee financial institutions for the checks listed shall be set forth.

Immediately upon preparation of the said notice, a copy thereof shall be forwarded to the prosecuting attorney of each county upon whose list of worthless check warrants the defendant's name appears.


WVC 61-3-39k §61-3-39k. Duties of prosecuting attorney upon receipt of notice of multiple worthless check warrants; magistrate court clerk to advise complainant.
(a) Within ten days after receiving a notice of multiple worthless check warrants forwarded in accordance with the provisions of the preceding section, a prosecuting attorney shall review the information contained therein, may consult additional current lists of worthless check warrants and make other investigation, and shall make a written recommendation to the magistrate court which forwarded the notice:

(1) That a warrant should be issued or a notice should be forwarded, as may be appropriate, in accordance with the provisions of section thirty-nine-g of this article, or

(2) That a warrant should be issued for an offense defined under section twenty-four of this article, or

(3) That no action should be taken by the magistrate court pending a presentation to the appropriate grand jury of a bill seeking an indictment for an offense defined under section twenty-four of this article.

(b) Upon receipt of the recommendation of the prosecuting attorney, the magistrate court clerk of the magistrate court holding the pending complaint for worthless check warrant shall forward a copy of the prosecuting attorney's recommendation to the complainant, shall inform the complainant that the prosecuting attorney's recommendation is advisory only, and shall request the complainant to advise the court in what manner he desires to proceed.


WVC 61-3-39l §61-3-39l. Checks on consumer deposit accounts to show date account was opened; consumer deposit account defined.
(a) Beginning on the first day of July, one thousand nine hundred eighty-four, all checks, drafts or similar negotiable or nonnegotiable instruments or orders of withdrawal which are thereafter printed to be used for drawing against funds held in a consumer deposit account by a supervised financial organization located in the state of West Virginia shall have clearly printed on the face thereof a four or five-digit combination of numbers and letters as follows:

(1) In the case of a consumer deposit account which has been open for less than one year, a five-digit combination. The first two digits, running from 01 through 12, shall numerically identify the month the account was opened, followed by a hyphen, and the fourth and fifth digits shall be the last two numbers of the year in which the account was opened.

(2) In the case of a consumer deposit account which has been open for one year or more, a four digit combination which shall be "1 Yr. +": Provided, That a new account or an account which has been open for less than one year may be treated as an account which has been open for one year or more when a person authorized to draw against funds in the account shall demonstrate to the supervised financial organization through the production of account statements that he has had a demand or other similar deposit account or share account at the same or another financial institution for twelve months immediately preceding his request for printed checks.

(b) For purposes of this section the term "consumer deposit account" means a demand or other similar deposit account or share account established and maintained by a natural person with a supervised financial organization and operated primarily for personal, family or household purposes. The term "supervised financial organization" shall have the same meaning as is ascribed to such term in section one hundred two, article one, chapter forty-six-a of this code.

(c) The commissioner of banking is authorized and empowered to order any supervised financial institution to comply with the provisions of this section and may apply to any state or federal court of competent jurisdiction for appropriate orders, writs, processes and remedies in aid of enforcement.


WVC 61 - 3 - 39 M §61-3-39m. Creation and operation of a program for worthless check offenders; acceptance of person in program.
(a) A prosecuting attorney may create within his or her office a worthless check restitution program for persons who have violated sections thirty-nine or thirty-nine-a of this article. This program may be conducted by the prosecuting attorney in conjunction with a law-enforcement agency or by a private entity under contract with the prosecuting attorney.

(b) The prosecuting attorney may adopt standards to determine the appropriateness of an individual case for the program. In developing these standards, the prosecuting attorney should consider the following factors:

(1) The amount of the check, draft or order made, drawn, issued, uttered or delivered;

(2) The person's criminal record;

(3) The number of times the person has participated in the program; and

(4) The number of warrants or cases pending against the person for violations of sections thirty-nine or thirty-nine-a of this article.

(c) Except as provided in section thirty-nine-o of this article, nothing in this section shall preclude the prosecuting attorney from prosecuting violations of sections thirty-nine or thirty-nine-a of this article.

(d) Nothing in this section may be construed or interpreted to mandate funding for any worthless check restitution program created in a prosecuting attorney's office or to require any appropriation by the Legislature.

(e) Notwithstanding any other provision of law to the contrary, no case is appropriate for referral to the program unless notice has been provided pursuant to section thirty-nine-e or thirty-nine-g of this article.


WVC 61 - 3 - 39 N §61-3-39n. Notice to persons accepted to the worthless check restitution program.
(a) Upon approval of an individual case for referral to the worthless check restitution program, a representative of the program shall send a notice by registered or certified mail to the person named in the complaint or warrant.

(b) This notice must contain:

(1) The date and amount of the check, draft or order;

(2) The name of the payee or holder;

(3) The date by which the individual must contact the designated representative of the worthless check restitution program;

(4) A demand for full restitution of the face amount of the check, draft or order and any fees reflected in the complaint or warrant as having been imposed on the payee or holder by the payee's or holder's bank or financial institution; and

(5) A statement that failure to pay restitution and fees may result in criminal prosecution.


WVC 61 - 3 - 39 O §61-3-39o. Agreement to suspend prosecution of a person accepted into the restitution program.
(a) The prosecuting attorney may enter into an agreement with a participant of the worthless check restitution program to suspend prosecution for a period to be determined by the prosecuting attorney.

(b) To remain eligible for the worthless check restitution program, the participant shall:

(1) Contact a representative of the program before the date required by the notice sent pursuant to section thirty-nine-n of this article;

(2) Agree to comply with all the program terms;

(3) Complete a class conducted by the prosecuting attorney, his or her designee, or a private entity under contract with the prosecuting attorney, which offers offender education and instruction;

(4) Pay a fee in the amount of ten dollars to be deposited in the "worthless check fund" established pursuant to the provisions of section thirty-nine-h of this article;

(5) Pay the fee required to participate in the class;

(6) Pay full victim restitution; and

(7) Pay all fees for participation in the program, unless those fees are waived.

(c) The prosecuting attorney shall agree not to file criminal charges if the participant in the program completes the conditions of the agreement.


WVC 61 - 3 - 39 P §61-3-39p. Fees for participation in the worthless check restitution program.
(a) The prosecuting attorney, his or her designee, or a private entity under contract with the prosecuting attorney may collect a fee not to exceed one hundred dollars from any person participating in the worthless check restitution program: Provided, That the prosecuting attorney shall waive the fee if he or she determines that the person is indigent and unable to pay the fee.

(b) All fees collected pursuant to subsection (a) of this section by the prosecutor shall be remitted to the sheriff. The sheriff shall establish a special fund in the county treasury, designated the worthless check restitution program fund, in which the sheriff shall deposit all fees remitted by the prosecutor. The county commission shall appropriate money from the fund for the administration of the worthless check restitution program. The county commission shall also appropriate any excess money from the fund to supplement the annual operation expense appropriation of the office of the prosecuting attorney, if the prosecuting attorney certifies in writing to the county commission that a surplus exists in the fund at the end of the fiscal year.


WVC 61 - 3 - 39 Q §61-3-39q. Statements by individuals referred to or participating in the worthless check restitution program.
Any statement made by a person referred to the worthless check restitution program in connection with the determination of his or her eligibility for participation in the program and any statement made or information given by that person while participating in the program is inadmissible in any civil or criminal action or proceeding.


WVC 61-3-40 §61-3-40. Fraudulently obtaining food or lodging; penalty.
Every person who shall, at any hotel, inn, eating, lodging or boardinghouse, or restaurant, receive or cause to be furnished any food or accommodation, with intent to defraud the owner or keeper of such hotel, inn, eating, lodging or boardinghouse, or restaurant, and any person who shall obtain credit at any hotel, inn, eating, lodging or boardinghouse, or restaurant, by the use of any false pretense or device, or by depositing in such hotel, inn, eating, lodging or boardinghouse, or restaurant, any baggage or property of less value than the amount of such credit, or of the bill by such person incurred, with such fraudulent intent, and any person who, after obtaining credit or accommodation at any hotel, inn, eating, lodging or boardinghouse, or restaurant, shall abscond from such hotel, inn, eating, lodging or boardinghouse, or restaurant, or shall remove or attempt to remove therefrom any baggage or personal property of any kind subject to the lien provided for in section five, article eleven, chapter thirty-eight of this code, with intent to defraud the owner or keeper of such hotel, inn, eating, lodging or boardinghouse, or restaurant, without first having paid, satisfied or arranged all claims or bills for lodging, entertainment or accommodation, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than twenty-five nor more than two hundred dollars, and may, in the discretion of the court or justice trying the case, be confined in the county jail for a term of not less than ten nor more than thirty days. A justice of the peace for the county wherein the offense was committed shall have concurrent jurisdiction of such offense with the circuit or other courts of such county.


WVC 61 - 3 - 41 §61-3-41. Employees conservators of the peace; special railroad policemen; penalties.
The conductor of every passenger car and flag person and brake person employed on such car, as well as the conductor of every train of railroad or traction cars, shall have all the powers of a conservator of the peace while in charge of such car or train.

Any railroad company owning, or leasing and operating, or using any railroad or traction line or system lying wholly or partially within this state, whether such railroad be operated by steam or electric power, may apply to the Governor to appoint such citizen or citizens of this state as such railroad company may designate, to act as special police officers for such railroad or traction company, with the consent of such citizen or citizens; and the Governor may, upon such application, appoint and commission such person or persons, or so many of them as he may deem proper, as such special police officers. Every police officer so appointed shall appear before some person authorized to administer oaths and take and subscribe the oath prescribed in the fifth section of the fourth article of the Constitution, and shall file such oath with the clerk of the county commission, or other tribunal in lieu thereof, of the county in which he shall reside. He or she shall also file certified copies of such oath in the office of the Secretary of State, and in the office of the clerk of the county commission, or other tribunal established in lieu thereof, of each county through which such railroad or any portion thereof may extend. Every police officer appointed under the provisions of this section shall be a conservator of the peace within each county in which any part of such railroad may be situated, and in which such oath or a certified copy thereof shall have been filed with the clerk of the county commission or other tribunal established in lieu thereof; and, in addition thereto, he shall possess and may exercise all the powers and authority, and shall be entitled to all the rights, privileges and immunities within such counties, as are now or hereafter may be vested in or conferred upon a deputy sheriff of such county. Any appointment made by the Governor under the provisions of this section may be revoked by him or her for good cause shown, and such police officers may be removed from office for official misconduct, incompetence, habitual drunkenness, neglect of duty or gross immorality, in the same manner in which regularly elected or appointed county officers may be removed from office. Whenever any such railroad company shall desire to dispense with the services of any police officer, it may file a notice to that effect, under its corporate seal, attested by its secretary, in each of the several offices in which such oath or certified copy thereof shall have been filed; and, thereupon, the powers of the police officer shall cease and determine. Police officers may wear such uniform and badge of authority, or either, as the railroad company, upon whose application they were appointed, may designate, and such railroad company shall pay them for all services rendered pursuant to his or her appointment.


WVC 61-3-42 §61-3-42. Intoxication of person in charge of locomotive engine or car; penalties.
If any person, while in charge of a locomotive engine, whether the same be driven by steam, electricity or other motive power, running upon the railroad or traction lines of any corporation, or while acting as conductor or brakeman of any car or train of cars on such railroad or traction line, be intoxicated, he shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not exceeding five hundred dollars and imprisoned in the county jail not less than two nor more than twelve months; and for the second offense he shall be guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction, shall be confined in the penitentiary not less than one nor more than three years.


WVC 61-3-43 §61-3-43. Jumping on or off car or train in motion; driving vehicle upon track or bridge except at crossings; penalty.
If any person, not a passenger or employee, shall be found trespassing upon any railroad or traction car or train of any railroad in this state, by jumping on or off any car or train in motion, on its arrival at or departure from any station or depot of such railroad, or on the passage of any such car or train over any part of such railroad; or shall drive any horse or any horse-drawn or motor-driven vehicle across or upon any railroad track or bridge, except at public, private or farm crossings, such person so offending shall be deemed a disorderly person and guilty of a misdemeanor, and, on conviction thereof, shall be punished by a fine not exceeding twenty-five dollars, or by imprisonment in the county jail not exceeding thirty days, or both. Justices of the peace shall have concurrent jurisdiction to try all offenders under this section.


WVC 61-3-44 §61-3-44. Procuring gas, water or electricity, by device, with intent to defraud; penalty.
Every person who, with intent to injure or defraud, procures, makes, or causes to be made, any pipe, tube, wire, or other conductor of gas, water or electric energy, and connects the same, or causes it to be connected, with any main, service pipe or other pipe for conducting or supplying gas, or water, or any wires or other conductor of electric energy, in such manner as to supply gas, water or electric energy to any lamp, motor, burner, orifice, or any other device, by or at which gas, water or electric energy is consumed, around or without passing through the meter provided for measuring and registering the quantity of gas, water or electric energy consumed, or in any other manner so as to evade payment therefor, and every person who, with like intent, injures or alters any gas, water or electric meter, or obstructs its action, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in the county jail not exceeding twelve months, or fined not exceeding one thousand dollars, or both, in the discretion of the court.


WVC 61 - 3 - 45 §61-3-45. Tampering with pipes, tubes, wires or electrical conductors; penalty.
Every person who, with intent to injure or defraud, connects, or causes to be connected, any pipe, tube, wire, electrical conductor or other instrument with any main, service pipe, or other pipe or conduit or flume for conducting water, or with any main, service pipe, or other pipe or conduit for conducting oil, natural gas, or with any main, service wire or other electric conductor used for the purpose of conducting electric energy for light, heat or motive services, for the purpose of taking therefrom water, oil, natural gas, telecommunications service, or electric energy, without the knowledge of the owner thereof and with intent to evade payment therefor, is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in jail not exceeding twelve months, or fined not exceeding two thousand dollars, or both, in the discretion of the court.


WVC 61-3-45a §61-3-45a. Unlawful opening of pipes, pipelines, tanks, etc.; penalties.
Every person who, with intent to injure, or for the purpose of destroying, injuring, impairing, breaking, damaging or unlawfully opening, or of taking, stealing, and carrying away, or of permitting or causing to escape on the ground or into the air, any of the contents thereof, shall open, or cause to be opened, in any manner, any pipe or pipes or line of pipe or pipes or any tank, receptacle or container connected therewith, containing or used and useful in transporting or storing petroleum, crude or refined, gasoline, gas (natural, casinghead or manufactured), or any of the by-products of petroleum or gas, either liquid or gaseous, belonging to another, without such other's consent, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction thereof, shall be punished by confinement in the county jail not less than two nor more than twelve months, and in addition thereto, in the discretion of the court, may be fined not exceeding three hundred dollars. Every person, upon conviction for the second or any subsequent offense under this section shall be guilty of a felony and shall be confined in the penitentiary of this state not less than one nor more than three years. Justices of the peace shall have concurrent jurisdiction with the circuit, criminal or intermediate courts to enforce the misdemeanor penalties prescribed by this section.


WVC 61-3-46 §61-3-46. Use of slugs, false coins, etc., in coin-box telephone; penalty.
Any person who shall operate, or cause to be operated, or attempt to operate any coin-box telephone designed to receive lawful coin of the United States of America, in connection with the use or enjoyment of any telephone service, by means of a slug or any false, counterfeited, mutilated, sweated or foreign coin, or by any means, method, trick or device whatsoever, not lawfully authorized by the owner, lessee or licensee of such coin-box telephone shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be punished by imprisonment in the county jail not exceeding twelve months, or by a fine not exceeding five hundred dollars, or both at the discretion of the court.


WVC 61-3-47 §61-3-47. Dams or obstructions in watercourses; penalty.
No person may fell any timber and permit the same to remain in any navigable or floatable stream of this state when to do so obstructs the passage of boats, rafts, staves, ties or timber of any kind.

Except as may be provided in chapter twenty or twenty-two of this code, no person may construct or maintain any dam or other structure in any stream or watercourse, which in any way prevents or obstructs the free and easy passage of fish up or down such stream or watercourse, without first providing as a part of such dam or other structure a suitable fish ladder, way or flume, so constructed as to allow fish easily to ascend or descend the same; which ladder, way or flume shall be constructed only upon plans, in a manner, and at a place, satisfactory to the division of natural resources: Provided, That if the director of the division of natural resources determines that there is no substantial fish life in such stream or watercourse, or that the installation of a fish ladder, way or flume would not facilitate the free and easy passage of fish up or down a stream or watercourse, or that an industrial development project requires the construction of such dam or other structure and the installation of an operational fish ladder, way or flume is impracticable, the director may, in writing, permit the construction or maintenance of a dam or other structure in a stream or watercourse without providing a suitable fish ladder, way or flume; and in all navigable and floatable streams provisions shall be made in such dam or structure for the passage of boats and other crafts, logs and other materials: Provided, however, That this section does not relieve such person from liability for damage to any riparian owner on account of the construction or maintenance of such dam.

Any person who violates any of the provisions of this section is guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not exceeding one thousand dollars, or imprisoned in the county jail not exceeding one year, or both fined and imprisoned, and, whether a conviction is had under this section or not, such violation is a nuisance, which may be abated at the suit of any citizen or taxpayer, the county commission of the county, or, as to fish ladders, at the suit of the director of the division of natural resources, and, if the same endangers county roads, the county commission may abate such nuisance peaceably without such suit.


WVC 61-3-48 §61-3-48. Offenses involving damage to shrubbery, flowers, trees and timber; limitation of section; penalties.
(a) It is unlawful to break, cut, take or carry away, or in any manner to damage any of the shrubbery or flowers, including everything under the title of flora, whether wild or cultivated, growing within one hundred yards on either side of any public road in this state, without the permission in writing of the owner or tenant of the land upon which the shrubbery or flowers, including everything under the title of flora, are growing.

(b) It is unlawful for any person to enter upon the lands or premises of another without written permission of the owner of the lands or premises, in order to break, cut, take or carry away or in any manner to damage or cause to be broken, cut, taken or carried away or in any manner damaged, any trees or timber on the land.

(c) It is unlawful for any person willfully or knowingly to have in his possession, or to haul along any public road in this state, any trees, shrubbery or flowers, including everything under the title of flora, which are protected by this section, unless the person so having in his possession or hauling the trees, shrubbery or flowers, and any other plant, has permission in writing so to do from the owner or tenant of the land from which they have been taken.

(d) At the request of a law-enforcement officer, a person engaged in any act which would constitute an offense under the provisions of subsection (a), (b) or (c) of this section if such act were done without the required permission specified therein, shall display the written permission to such officer.

(e) Notwithstanding the provisions of this section or section forty-eight-a of this article:

(1) An employee of the department of highways or of a county or municipality performing roadside maintenance shall obtain the permission of an owner before engaging in any act specified in subsection (a), (b) or (c) of this section but is not required to obtain the permission in writing or to display the written permission as provided in subsection (d) of this section; and

(2) When any of the acts specified in subsection (a), (b) or (c) of this section are permitted pursuant to an existing contract with the owner or a predecessor in title to the subject real estate, or by virtue of a judgment or decree of a court of competent jurisdiction, or by other operation of civil law, then a public utility as defined in section two, article one, chapter twenty-four of this code, or any other person or entity holding such existing rights, shall not be required to obtain any further permission of the present owner to exercise such existing rights: Provided, That the holder of such existing rights shall notify the owner of the land of the holder's intent to perform proposed work upon such lands, by first class United States mail, postage prepaid, addressed to the person and address of record upon the current land books in the assessor's office in the county in which the land is situate: Provided, however, That if the proposed work includes several tracts within a larger area, then notice shall be sufficient if provided by publication in a newspaper of general circulation within the county, describing the boundaries and type of work proposed within such area of work. Where prior notice is not practical by reason of a sudden emergency which endangers persons or property of either the owner of the real property, the holder of such rights, the general public or public service, then the owner of the real property shall be notified that such emergency work has been performed, such notice to be by first class United States mail, as above provided for prior notice to the current owner as indicated in the land book records. Where the emergency work was performed on several tracts within a larger area, then the notice shall be sufficient if made by publication in a newspaper of general circulation within the county.

(f) Any person who violates the provisions of subsection (a) or (c) of this section shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, for the first offense shall be fined not more than fifty dollars, and for subsequent offenses shall be confined in the county jail for not more than three months, or fined not more than fifty dollars, or both, for each offense.

(g) Any person who violates the provisions of subsection (b) of this section shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, for the first offense shall be fined not less than fifty dollars, and for subsequent offenses shall be confined in the county jail for not less than three months, or fined not less than fifty dollars, or both, for each offense.

(h) Magistrates shall have concurrent jurisdiction with circuit courts for offenses under this section.


WVC 61-3-48a §61-3-48a. Cutting, damaging or carrying away without written permission, timber, trees, growing plants or the products thereof; treble damages provided.
Any person who enters upon the land or premises of another without written permission from the owner of the land or premises in order to cut, damage or carry away or cause to be cut, damaged or carried away, any timber, trees, logs, posts, fruit, nuts, growing plant or product of any growing plant, shall be liable to the owner in the amount of three times the value of the timber, trees, growing plants or products thereof, which shall be in addition to and notwithstanding any other penalties by law provided.


WVC 61 - 3 - 49 §61-3-49. Purchase of scrap metal by scrap metal purchasing businesses, salvage yards or recycling facilities; certificates, records and reports of such purchases; criminal penalties.

     (a) For the purposes of this section, the following terms have the following meanings.

     (1) "Business registration certificate" has the same meaning ascribed to it in section two, article twelve, chapter eleven of this code.

     (2) "Purchaser" means any person in the business of purchasing scrap metal or used auto parts, any salvage yard owner or operator, or any public or commercial recycling facility owner or operator, or any agent or employee thereof, who purchases any form of scrap metal or used auto parts.

     (3) "Scrap metal" means any form of copper, aluminum, brass, lead or other nonferrous metal of any kind, a catalytic converter or any materials derived from a catalytic converter, or steel railroad track and track material.

     (b) In addition to any requirement necessary to do business in this state, a scrap metal dealer shall:

     (1) Have a current valid business registration certificate from the Tax Commissioner;

     (2) Register any scales used for weighing scrap metal with the Division of Labor Weights and Measures office;

     (3) Provide a notice of recycling activity to the Department of Environmental Protection; and

     (4) Register as a scrap metal dealer with the Secretary of State, who is hereby directed to maintain a list of scrap metal dealers and make it publically available. The list shall include the dealer's business address, hours of operation, physical address, phone number, facsimile number, if any, and the name of the owners or principal officers of the business.

     (c) Any purchaser of scrap metal shall make a record of such purchase that shall contain the following information for each transaction:

     (1) The full name, permanent home and business addresses and telephone number, if available, of the seller;

     (2) A description and the motor vehicle license number of any vehicle used to transport the purchased scrap metal to the place of purchase;

     (3) The time and date of the transaction;

     (4) A complete description of the kind, character and weight of the scrap metal purchased; and

     (5) A statement of whether the scrap metal was purchased, taken as collateral for a loan or taken on consignment.

     (d) A purchaser also shall require and retain from the seller of the scrap metal the following:

     (1) A signed certificate of ownership of the scrap metal being sold or a signed authorization from the owner of the scrap metal to sell said scrap metal; and

     (2) A photocopy of a valid driver's license or identification card issued by the West Virginia Division of Motor Vehicles of the person delivering the scrap metal, or in lieu thereof, any other valid photo identification of the seller issued by any other state or the federal government: Provided, That, if the purchaser has a copy of the seller's valid photo identification on file, the purchaser may reference the identification that is on file, without making a separate photocopy for each transaction.

     (e) It is unlawful for any purchaser to purchase any scrap metal without obtaining and recording the information required under subsections (c) and (d) of this section. The provisions of this subsection do not apply to purchases made at wholesale under contract or as a result of a bidding process: Provided, That the purchaser retains and makes available for review consistent with subsection (g) of this section the contract, bill of sale or similar documentation of the purchase made at wholesale under contract or as a result of a bidding process: Provided, however, That the purchaser may redact any pricing or other commercially sensitive information from said contract, bill of sale or similar documentation before making it available for inspection.

     (f) No purchaser of scrap metal may knowingly purchase or possess a stainless steel or aluminum beer keg, whether damaged or undamaged, or any reasonably recognizable part thereof, for the intended purpose of reselling as scrap metal unless the purchaser receives the keg or keg parts from the beer manufacturer or its authorized representative.

     (g) Using a form provided by the West Virginia State Police, or his or her own form, a purchaser of scrap metal shall retain the records required by this section at his or her place of business for not less than three years after the date of the purchase. Upon completion of a purchase, the records required to be retained at a purchaser's place of business shall be available for inspection by any law-enforcement officer or, upon written request and during the purchaser's regular business hours, by any investigator employed by a public utility or railroad to investigate the theft of public utility or railroad property: Provided, That in lieu of the purchaser keeping the records at their place of business, the purchaser shall file the records with the local detachment of the State Police and with the chief of police of the municipality or the sheriff of the county wherein he or she is transacting business within seventy-two hours of completion of the purchase. The records shall be retained by the State Police and the chief of police of the municipality or the sheriff for a period of not less than three years.

     (h) To the extent otherwise permitted by law, any investigator employed by a public utility or railroad to investigate the theft of public utility or railroad property may accompany a law- enforcement officer upon the premises of a purchaser in the execution of a valid warrant or assist law enforcement in the review of records required to be retained pursuant to this section.

     (i) Upon the entry of a final determination and order by a court of competent jurisdiction, scrap metal found to have been misappropriated, stolen or taken under false pretenses may be returned to the proper owner of such material.

     (j) Nothing in this section applies to scrap purchases by manufacturing facilities that melt, or otherwise alter the form of scrap metal and transform it into a new product or to the purchase or transportation of food and beverage containers or other nonindustrial materials having a marginal value per individual unit.

     (k) (1) Nothing in this section applies to a purchaser of a vehicle on which a catalytic converter is installed, a purchaser of a catalytic converter intended for installation on a vehicle owned or leased by the purchaser, or any person who purchases, other than for purposes of resale, a catalytic converter or a motor vehicle on which a catalytic converter is installed, for personal, family, household or business use.

     (2) In transactions not exempted by subdivision (1) of this subsection, any person delivering five or more automobile catalytic converters to a scrap metal dealer shall, in addition to the requirements set forth in subsection (c) of this section, execute a document stating he or she is the lawful owner of the catalytic converters, or authorized by the lawful owner to sell the catalytic converters. Next to his or her signature he or she shall place a clear impression of his or her index finger or thumb that is in ink and free of smearing. This documentation shall be maintained consistent with subsection (c) of this section.

     (l) Any person who knowingly or with fraudulent intent violates any provision of this section for which no penalty is specifically set forth, including the knowing failure to make a report or the knowing falsification of any required information, is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction of a first offense thereof, shall be fined not less than $1,000 nor more than $3,000; upon conviction of a second offense thereof, shall be fined not less than $2,000 and not more than $4,000 and, notwithstanding the provisions of section five, article twelve, chapter eleven of this code, the court in which the conviction occurred shall issue an order directing the Tax Commissioner to suspend for a period of six months any business registration certificate held by that person; and upon conviction of a third or subsequent offense thereof shall be fined not less than $3,000 and not more than $5,000 and, notwithstanding the provisions of section five, article twelve, chapter eleven of this code, the court in which the conviction occurred shall issue an order directing the Tax Commissioner to cancel any business registration certificate held by that person and state the date said cancellation shall take effect.

     (m) No person may have or take possession of any scrap metal that he or she knows, or has reason to know, has been stolen or unlawfully obtained. Any person violating this subsection is guilty of larceny.

     (n) No scrap metal dealer may purchase, possess or receive scrap metal that the scrap metal dealer knows, or has reason to know, has been stolen or unlawfully obtained by the seller. Any person violating this subsection is guilty of larceny.

     (o) No scrap metal dealer may purchase, possess or receive any of the following items of scrap metal, or any reasonably recognizable part thereof, without obtaining written documentation which reflects that the seller is authorized to possess and sell the item or items and that the seller is in lawful possession of the item of scrap metal:

     (1) Utility access covers;

     (2) Street light poles or fixtures;

     (3) Road or bridge guard rails;

     (4) Water meter covers;

     (5) Highway or street signs;

     (6) Traffic directional or traffic control signs;

     (7) Traffic light signals;

     (8) Any metal marked with any form of the name or initials of a governmental entity;

     (9) Property marked as or readily identifiable as owned by a telephone, cable, electric, water or other utility provider;

     (10) Property owned and marked by a railroad;

     (11) Cemetery markers or vases;

     (12) Historical markers;

     (13) Utility manhole covers and storm water grates; and

     (14) Fire hydrant or fire hydrant caps; or

     (15) Twisted pair copper telecommunications wiring of twenty- five pair or greater in nineteen, twenty-two, twenty-four or twenty-six gauge.

     (p) Nothing in this section prohibits a scrap dealer from purchasing or taking possession of scrap metal knowing or have reason to know that it is stolen or obtained illegally if it is done pursuant to a written agreement with law-enforcement officials.
WVC 61-3-49a §61-3-49a. Unlawful sale of used, secondhand, rebuilt, repossessed, etc., watches and clocks; penalty; revocation of license to sell.
It shall be unlawful for any person, firm, corporation, association or copartnership, either foreign or domestic, to display, barter, sell, offer or expose for sale, any clock or watch or other instrument or contrivance by which the progress of time is perceived or measured, or which instrument or contrivance is intended for such use, and which has before been used, rebuilt, repossessed, reconstructed or reconditioned, without at all times having the same marked by label plainly written or printed in the English language, and attached thereto, with the words thereon, "used," "secondhand," "rebuilt," "repossessed," "reconstructed" or "reconditioned," as the case may be.

Any person, firm, corporation, association or copartnership, foreign or domestic, who or which shall violate the provisions of this section, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction thereof, shall, for the first offense, be fined not less than twenty-five nor more than one hundred dollars; and for a second offense shall be fined not less than fifty dollars nor more than two hundred fifty dollars, and in addition thereto, the owner, manager or acting agent of the seller shall be imprisoned in the county jail not less than ten nor more than sixty days; and upon conviction for a third or subsequent offense, shall be fined not less than one hundred dollars nor more than five hundred dollars, and in addition thereto the owner, manager or acting agent of the seller shall be confined in the county jail not less than thirty days nor more than six months, at the discretion of the court, and upon conviction for such third or subsequent offense, in addition to the penalty herein provided, the license of the offender for the sale of merchandise shall be revoked and shall not be renewed for the period of six months from the date of such third conviction, and then only upon the offender executing bond with approved security in the sum of one thousand dollars, conditioned that he or it will not violate the provisions of this section.


WVC 61 - 3 - 49 B §61-3-49b. Disruption of communications and utilities services.

     (a) Any person who causes a disruption of communications services or public utility services by the theft or by intentionally damaging communications or public utility equipment and by such conduct causes:

     (1) A disruption of communication services or public utility services to ten or more households or subscribers; or

     (2) A loss in the value of the property in an amount of one thousand dollars or more, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, for a first offense, shall be sentenced to not more than two thousand hours of court-approved community service or fined not more than $10,000, or both. For a second offense, the person is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be imprisoned in a state correctional facility not less than one nor more than five years or fined not more than $10,000, or both. For third and subsequent offenses, the person is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be imprisoned in a correctional facility for not less than one nor more than ten years, or fined not more than $10,000, or both.

     (b) As used in this section, communications and public utility equipment includes but is not limited to public safety communications towers and equipment, telephone lines, communications towers and tower equipment, radio towers and tower equipment, railroad and other industrial safety communication devices or systems, electric towers and equipment and electric transmission and distribution lines.
WVC 61-3-50 §61-3-50. Unauthorized transferral of recorded sounds; sale and possession; penalties; civil action; definition.
(a) No person shall knowingly and willfully for commercial advantage or private financial gain transfer by electronic or mechanical means or cause to be transferred by electronic or mechanical means with intent to sell for profit the recorded sounds contained on any phonograph record, disc, tape, film or other device without the permission of the owner of such recorded sounds or his authorized representative, or to knowingly, or with reasonable grounds to know, sell or possess with intent to sell any phonograph record, disc, tape, film or other device containing such unauthorized transferred recorded sounds. This paragraph applies to sound recordings initially fixed prior to the fifteenth day of February, one thousand nine hundred seventy-two.

No person shall knowingly and willfully for commercial advantage or private financial gain offer for sale, sell, rent, transport, cause the sale, resale, rental or transportation of or possess for one or more of these purposes a recording of a live performance with the knowledge that the live performance has been recorded or fixed without the consent of the owner.

No person shall knowingly and willfully for commercial advantage or private financial gain record or fix or cause to be recorded or fixed on any type of recording device a live performance with the knowledge that the live performance is being recorded or fixed without the consent of the owner.

No person shall knowingly and willfully for commercial advantage or private financial gain offer for sale, sell, rent, transport, or cause the sale, resale, rental or transportation of or possess for one or more of these purposes, any phonograph record, disc, tape, film, video tape, video cassette or other device which fails to clearly and conspicuously disclose the actual name and address of the manufacturer thereof.

(b) Any owner of such recorded sounds, images or any audio-visual combination and any person lawfully transferring such sounds by agreement with such owner shall have a cause of action for the unauthorized transferral of such sounds and shall be entitled to treble damages resulting therefrom.

(c) (1) For the purpose of this section, the term "owner" means the person vested with the rights to and ownership of the original fixation of sounds, images or any audio-visual combination embodied in the master phonograph record, master disc, master tape, master film or other device used for transferring sounds or images on phonograph records, discs, tapes, films, video tapes or video cassettes or other similar articles upon which sounds, images or any audio-visual combination are recorded and from which the transferred recorded sounds and/or images are directly derived.

In the absence of a written agreement or law to the contrary, the performer or performers of a live performance are presumed to own the rights to record or fix the sounds, images or any audio-visual combination of a live performance. A person who is authorized to maintain custody and control over business records that reflect whether or not the owner or owners of a live performance consented to having a live performance recorded or fixed is a proper witness in a proceeding regarding the issue of consent.

(2) For the purposes of this section, the term "manufacturer" means the person who transfers, authorizes or causes the transfer of a recording of sounds, images or any audio-visual combination to a phonograph record, disc, tape, film, video tape, video cassette or other device.

(d) (1) Any person convicted of an offense under this section involving less than one hundred unlawful sound recordings or less than twenty unlawful audio-visual recordings shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than one thousand dollars, or imprisoned for not more than one year in jail or both fined and imprisoned.

(2) Any person convicted of an offense under this section involving at least one hundred but less than one thousand unlawful sound recordings or at least twenty but less than sixty-five audio-visual recordings shall be guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than one thousand dollars nor more than five thousand dollars, or imprisoned for not more than two years in the penitentiary or both fined and imprisoned.

(3) Any person convicted of an offense under this section involving at least one thousand unlawful sound recordings or at least sixty-five unlawful audio-visual recordings shall be guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than five thousand dollars nor more than ten thousand dollars, or imprisoned for not more than five years in the penitentiary or both fined and imprisoned.

(4) Any person convicted of a second or subsequent offense under this section shall be guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than one thousand dollars nor more than ten thousand dollars, or imprisoned for not more than five years or both fined and imprisoned.

(5) Any unauthorized recorded sounds or images produced in violation of this section and any equipment used for such purpose shall be confiscated by the appropriate law-enforcement agency.

If a person is convicted of any violation under this chapter, the court in its judgment of conviction shall order the forfeiture and destruction or release to a law-enforcement agency for use in official agency business of all infringing recordings and of any equipment or components used or intended to be used in the production of the recordings. All infringing phonograph records, discs, tapes, films, video tapes, video cassettes or other devices shall be destroyed once they are no longer needed for court proceedings. Nothing contained herein shall apply to televisions and radio stations licensed by the federal communications commission or to educational institutions, when the purpose of such reproduction is limited and used for criticism, comments, news reporting, archival or educational purposes.


WVC 61-3-51 §61-3-51. Precious metals and gem dealers; records; prohibited acts.
(a) Each person, firm or corporation in the business of purchasing precious metals or precious gems, or both, for any purpose other than personal, family or household use, shall be subject to the provisions of this section. Each such purchaser shall secure from the seller of the precious metal or precious gem sufficient proof of lawful ownership or a sworn affidavit of ownership, the original of which shall be retained by the purchaser.

(b) Each such purchaser of a precious metal or precious gem shall truly and accurately list each purchase in a permanent record book clearly showing the kind, character and amount of metal or gem purchased, any special or unique quality or item of description concerning the metal or gem purchased; the date of purchase, the full name and residence address and mailing address of the seller, and any telephone number of the seller. Such record book shall be open to inspection by any law-enforcement officer in this state during normal business hours of the purchaser. If any such purchase is made within a municipality, the purchaser shall report all the information required by this section in writing to the chief of the police department of the municipality within twenty-four hours of the purchase. If any such purchase is made outside of a municipality, the purchaser shall report all the information required by this section in writing to the sheriff of the county wherein the purchase was made within twenty-four hours of the purchase. The information required by this section shall be preserved for a period of not less than three years.

(c) Each such purchaser of a precious metal or precious gem shall not, for a period of ten calendar days after the purchase, dispose of such metal or gem, remove such metal or gem from the state or alter in any way the form or substance of such metal or gem.

(d) As used in this section, "precious metal" means any gold, silver, platinum or other valuable metal; and "precious gem" means any diamond, pearl, emerald, ruby, sapphire or similar precious stone.

(e) Any person, firm or corporation violating any provision of this section shall be guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in the penitentiary not less than one nor more than two years, or, in the discretion of the court, be confined in jail not more than one year or shall be fined not less than one hundred dollars nor more than five thousand dollars, or both fined and so confined in either the penitentiary or jail, all in the discretion of the court.


WVC 61 - 3 - 52 §61-3-52. Wrongful injuries to timber; criminal penalties.
(a) Any person who willfully and maliciously and with intent to do harm unlawfully enters upon the lands of another, cuts down, injures, removes or destroys any timber, without the permission of the owner or his or her representative is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than three times the value of timber injured, removed or destroyed, or confined in the county or regional jail for thirty days, or both: Provided, That if the timber is valued at one thousand dollars or less, the fine shall be no more than one thousand dollars: Provided, however, That a person convicted of a first offense violation of the provisions of this section in which the timber is valued at more than one thousand dollars is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in a correctional facility for not less than one nor more than two years, or fined not more than three times the value of the timber injured, removed or destroyed, or both fined and confined: Provided further, That a person convicted of a second or subsequent violation of the provisions of this section is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in a correctional facility for not less than one nor more than three years, or fined not more than three times the value of the timber injured, removed or destroyed, or both fined and confined.

(b) The necessary trimming and removal of timber to permit the construction, repair, maintenance, cleanup and operations of pipelines and utility lines and appurtenances of public utilities, public service corporations and to aid registered land surveyors and professional engineers in the performance of their professional services, and municipalities, and pipeline companies, or lawful operators and product purchasers of natural resources other than timber shall not be considered a willful and intentional cutting down, injuring, removing or destroying of timber.

(c) The necessary trimming and removal of timber for boundary line maintenance, for the construction, maintenance and repair of streets, roads and highways or for the control and regulation of traffic thereon by the state and its political subdivisions or registered land surveyors and professional engineers shall not be considered a willful and intentional cutting down, injuring, removing or destroying of timber.

(d) No fine or imprisonment imposed pursuant to this section shall be construed to limit any cause of action by a landowner for recovery of damages otherwise allowed by law. If a person charged or convicted under the provisions of this section enters into an agreement with a landowner to make financial restitution for the landowner's timber damages, any applicable statute of limitations effecting the landowner's cause of action shall be tolled from the date the agreement was entered into until a breach of the agreement occurs.

(e) If a criminal action is brought under the provisions of this section, the county prosecutor shall publish a Class II legal advertisement in compliance with the provisions of article three, chapter fifty-nine of this code in the county where the property involved is located which provides a description of the property and a general summary of the timber damages. If a landowner suffering timber damages is not aware of those damages prior to the publication of the Class II legal advertisement, any applicable statute of limitations effecting the landowner's cause of action for the recovery of damages shall be tolled from the time the damages were incurred, and may not commence until the date the final Class II legal advertisement is published.


WVC 61-3-53 §61-3-53. Unauthorized use of dumpsters.
(a) Any person who without authorization dumps garbage or trash, or assists in the unauthorized dumping of garbage or trash, in a dumpster or other solid waste container which is located on the property of another person and leased or otherwise owned or maintained by another person is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be punished in accordance with subsection (b) of this section. The act of throwing isolated objects into a dumpster or other solid waste container in the prevention or elimination of litter is specifically excepted from any penalties under this section.

(b) Any person convicted of a misdemeanor under subsection (a) of this section shall be subject to the following penalties:

(1) Upon a first conviction under this section, the defendant shall be fined not less than fifty dollars nor more than two hundred fifty dollars.

(2) Upon a second conviction under this section, the defendant shall be fined not less than two hundred fifty dollars nor more than five hundred dollars.

(3) Upon any subsequent conviction in excess of a second conviction under this section, the defendant shall be fined not less than five hundred dollars nor more than one thousand dollars, or imprisoned in the county jail not less than thirty days nor more than sixty days, or both fined and imprisoned.

Notwithstanding the provisions of section four, article eleven-a of this chapter or section two-a, article three, chapter fifty of this code, the magistrate or court may order restitution not to exceed the value of unauthorized solid waste services received.


WVC 61-3-54 §61-3-54. Taking identity of another person; penalty.
Any person who knowingly takes the name, birth date, social security number or other identifying information of another person, without the consent of that other person, with the intent to fraudulently represent that he or she is the other person for the purpose of making financial or credit transactions in the other person's name, is guilty of a felony, and upon conviction, shall be punished by confinement in the penitentiary not more than five years, or fined not more than one thousand dollars, or both: Provided, That the provisions of this section do not apply to any person who obtains another person's drivers license or other form of identification for the sole purpose of misrepresenting his or her age.


WVC 61 - 3 - 55 §61-3-55. Failure to pay for gasoline.
Any person who knowingly and willfully drives a motor vehicle off the premises of an establishment where gasoline offered for retail sale was dispensed into the fuel tank of the motor vehicle with the intent to avoid payment for the gasoline that was so dispensed shall be deemed to be guilty of the larceny thereof. In addition to the penalties provided for by the provisions of section thirteen, article three of this chapter, upon a second conviction for larceny of gasoline, the court shall order the suspension of the person's license to drive a motor vehicle for six months, and upon a third or subsequent conviction, the court shall order the suspension of the person's license to drive a motor vehicle for one year.

Whenever a second or subsequent offense is had under the provisions of this section, the clerk of the court shall transmit a certified abstract of the judgment to the division of motor vehicles within seventy-two hours of the conviction. Upon receipt of the abstract of judgment the division of motor vehicles shall enter an order suspending the person's license to operate a motor vehicle for the appropriate time period.


WVC 61 - 3 - 56 §61-3-56. Scanning device or reencoder fraud; felony; definitions; and penalties.
(a) As used in this section, the term:

(1) "Authorized user" means the person to whom a payment card is issued or any other person acting with the permission of the person to whom the card is issued;

(2) "Merchant" means an owner or operator of any retail mercantile establishment or any agent, employee, lessee, consignee, officer, director, franchisee or independent contractor of the owner or operator. A "merchant" also means a person who receives from an authorized user of a payment card, or someone the person believes to be an authorized user, a payment card or information from a payment card, or what the person believes to be a payment card or information from a payment card, as the instrument for obtaining, purchasing or receiving goods, services, money or anything else of value from the person;

(3) "Payment card" means a credit card, charge card, debit card, hotel key card, stored value card or any other card that is issued to an authorized card user and that allows the user to obtain, purchase or receive goods, services, money or anything else of value from a merchant;

(4) "Reencoder" means an electronic device that places encoded information from the magnetic strip or stripe of a payment card onto the magnetic strip or stripe of a different payment card; and

(5) "Scanning device" means a scanner, reader or any other electronic device that is used to access, read, scan, obtain, memorize or store, temporarily or permanently, information encoded on the magnetic strip or stripe of a payment card.

(b) Any person who uses a scanning device to access, read, obtain, memorize or store, temporarily or permanently, information encoded on the magnetic strip or stripe of a payment card without the permission of the authorized user of the payment card and with the intent to defraud the authorized user, the issuer of the authorized user's payment card or a merchant is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than two thousand five hundred dollars or confined in a county or regional jail for not more than one year, or both.

(c) Any person who uses a reencoder to place information encoded on the magnetic strip or stripe of a payment card onto the magnetic strip or stripe of a different card without the permission of the authorized user of the card from which the information is being reencoded and with the intent to defraud the authorized user, the issuer of the authorized user's payment card or a merchant is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than two thousand five hundred dollars or confined in a county or regional jail not more than one year, or both.

(d) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsections (b) and (c) of this section, any person who is convicted of the provisions of subsection (b) or (c) of this section who has previously been convicted of a violation of either subsection shall be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction, shall be imprisoned in a state correctional facility for not less than one nor more than three years or fined not more than five thousand dollars, or both.


WVC 61 - 3 - 57 §61-3-57. Possession of bogus receipts or universal product codes with intent to defraud; penalties.
Any person who, with intent to defraud, possesses fifteen or more fraudulently obtained or counterfeit sales receipts or fraudulently obtained or counterfeit universal product codes, or possesses a device the purpose of which is to manufacture counterfeit retail sales receipts or counterfeit universal product code labels, is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than five hundred dollars nor more than five thousand dollars or imprisoned in a state correctional facility not less than one year nor more than three years, or both.


WVC 61 - 3 - 58 §61-3-58. Unlawful operation of a recording device.
(a)(1) Any person who knowingly operates the audiovisual recording function of any device in a motion picture theater in order to record the motion picture that is being exhibited, without the written consent of the motion picture theater owner, and with intent to distribute, or cause the distribution of, multiple copies of the motion picture, for pecuniary gain, is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than five hundred dollars nor more than one thousand dollars or imprisoned in a correctional facility for not more than one nor more than ten years, or both fined and imprisoned.

(2) Any person who knowingly operates the audiovisual recording function of any device in a motion picture theater in order to record the motion picture that is being exhibited, without the written consent of the motion picture theater owner, and with intent to distribute, or cause the distribution of, multiple copies of the motion picture, but not for pecuniary gain, is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than one hundred dollars nor more than five hundred dollars or imprisoned in a correctional facility for not less than one year nor more than three years, or both fined and imprisoned, or, in the discretion of the court, be confined in a regional jail not more than one year and fined not more than one thousand dollars.

(3) Any person who knowingly operates the audiovisual recording function of any device in a motion picture theater in order to record the motion picture that is being exhibited, without the written consent of the motion picture theater owner, and without the intent to distribute, or cause the distribution of, multiple copies of the motion picture, is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than one hundred dollars.

(4) Any person who commits the acts described in subdivision (1) of this subsection is civilly liable for actual damages arising from his or her distribution of copies of the motion picture. A conviction for the offense described in subdivision (1) of this subsection is not a prerequisite to the maintenance of a civil action authorized by this subdivision.

(b) The term "audiovisual recording function" means the capability of a device to record or transmit a motion picture or any part thereof by means of any technology now known or later developed.

(c) The term "motion picture theater" means a movie theater, screening room, or other venue that is being utilized primarily for the exhibition of a motion picture at the time of the offense.

(d) The owner or lessee of a motion picture theater, or the authorized agent or employee of the owner or lessee, who alerts law-enforcement authorities of an alleged violation of this section shall not be liable in any civil action arising out of measures taken by the owner, lessee, agent or employee in the course of subsequently detaining a person that the owner, lessee, agent or employee in good faith believed to have violated this section while awaiting the arrival of law-enforcement authorities, unless the plaintiff can show by clear and convincing evidence that such measures were manifestly unreasonable or the period of detention was unreasonably long.

(e) This section does not prevent any lawfully authorized investigative, law-enforcement protective, or intelligence gathering employee or agent, of the local, state or federal government, from operating any audiovisual recording device in a motion picture theater, as part of lawfully authorized investigative, protective, law enforcement, or intelligence gathering activities.

(f) Nothing in this section prevents prosecution, instead, under any other provision of law providing for greater penalty.


WVC -3A- ARTICLE 3A. SHOPLIFTING.


WVC 61 - 3 A- 1 §61-3A-1. Shoplifting defined.
(a) A person commits the offense of shoplifting if, with intent to appropriate merchandise without paying the merchant's stated price for the merchandise, such person, alone or in concert with another person, knowingly:

(1) Conceals the merchandise upon his or her person or in another manner; or

(2) Removes or causes the removal of merchandise from the mercantile establishment or beyond the last station for payment; or

(3) Alters, transfers or removes any price marking affixed to the merchandise; or

(4) Transfers the merchandise from one container to another; or

(5) Causes the cash register or other sales recording device to reflect less than the merchant's stated price for the merchandise; or

(6) Removes a shopping cart from the premises of the mercantile establishment; or

(7) Repudiates a card-not-present credit or debit transaction after having taken delivery of merchandise ordered from the merchant and does not return the merchandise or attempt to make other arrangements with the vendor.

(b) A person also commits the offense of shoplifting if such person, alone or in concert with another person, knowingly and with intent obtains an exchange or refund or attempts to obtain an exchange or refund for merchandise which has not been purchased from the mercantile establishment.


WVC 61-3A-2 §61-3A-2. Evidence.
(a) Evidence of stated price or ownership of merchandise may include, but is not limited to:

(1) The actual merchandise alleged to have been shoplifted; or

(2) The unaltered content of the price tag or marking from such merchandise; or

(3) Properly identified photographs of such merchandise.

(b) Any merchant may testify at a trial as to the stated price or ownership of merchandise, as well as to other matters pertaining to the case.


WVC 61-3A-3 §61-3A-3. Penalties.
A person convicted of shoplifting shall be punished as follows:

(a) First offense conviction. -- Upon a first shoplifting conviction:

(1) When the value of the merchandise is less than or equal to five hundred dollars, the person is guilty of a misdemeanor and shall be fined not more than two hundred fifty dollars.

(2) When the value of the merchandise exceeds five hundred dollars, the person is guilty of a misdemeanor and shall be fined not less than one hundred dollars nor more than five hundred dollars, and such fine shall not be suspended, or the person shall be confined in jail not more than sixty days, or both.

(b) Second offense conviction. -- Upon a second shoplifting conviction:

(1) When the value of the merchandise is less than or equal to five hundred dollars, the person is guilty of a misdemeanor and shall be fined not less than one hundred dollars nor more than five hundred dollars, and such fine shall not be suspended, or the person shall be confined in jail not more than six months or both.

(2) When the value of the merchandise exceeds five hundred dollars, the person is guilty of a misdemeanor and shall be fined not less than five hundred dollars and shall be confined in jail for not less than six months nor more than one year.

(c) Third offense conviction. -- Upon a third or subsequent shoplifting conviction, regardless of the value of the merchandise, the person is guilty of a felony and shall be fined not less than five hundred dollars nor more than five thousand dollars, and shall be imprisoned in the penitentiary for not less than one year nor more than ten years. At least one year shall actually be spent in confinement and not subject to probation: Provided, That an order for home detention by the court pursuant to the provisions of article eleven-b, chapter sixty-two of this code may be used as an alternative sentence to the incarceration required by this subsection.

(d) Mandatory penalty. -- In addition to the fines and imprisonment imposed by this section, in all cases of conviction for the offense of shoplifting, the court shall order the defendant to pay a penalty to the mercantile establishment involved in the amount of fifty dollars, or double the value of the merchandise involved, whichever is higher. The mercantile establishment shall be entitled to collect such mandatory penalty as in the case of a civil judgment. This penalty shall be in addition to the mercantile establishment's rights to recover the stolen merchandise.

(e) In determining the number of prior shoplifting convictions for purposes of imposing punishment under this section, the court shall disregard all such convictions occurring more than seven years prior to the shoplifting offense in question.


WVC 61-3A-4 §61-3A-4. Shoplifting constitutes breach of peace; detention.
An act of shoplifting as defined herein, is hereby declared to constitute a breach of peace and any owner of merchandise, his agent or employee, or any law-enforcement officer who has reasonable ground to believe that a person has committed shoplifting, may detain such person in a reasonable manner and for a reasonable length of time not to exceed thirty minutes, for the purpose of investigating whether or not such person has committed or attempted to commit shoplifting. Such reasonable detention shall not constitute an arrest nor shall it render the owner of merchandise, his agent or employee, liable to the person detained.


WVC 61 - 3 A- 4 A §61-3A-4a. Criminal offenses involving theft detection shielding devices; detention.
(a) As used in this section:

(1) "Theft detection device" means any tag or other device that is used to prevent or detect theft and that is attached to merchandise held for resale by a merchant or to property of a merchant.

(2) "Theft detection device remover" means any tool or device specifically designed or manufactured to be used to remove a theft detection device from merchandise held for resale by a merchant or property of a merchant.

(3) "Theft detection shielding device" means any laminated or coated bag or device designed to shield merchandise held for resale by a merchant or property of a merchant from being detected by an electronic or magnetic theft alarm sensor.

(b) A person commits unlawful distribution of a theft detection shielding device when he or she knowingly manufactures, sells, offers to sell or distribute any theft detection shielding device.

(c) A person commits unlawful possession of a theft detection shielding device when he or she knowingly possesses any theft detection shielding device with the intent to commit theft or retail theft.

(d) A person commits unlawful possession of a theft detection shielding device remover when he or she knowingly possesses any theft detection device remover with the intent to use such tool to remove any theft detection device from any merchandise without the permission of the merchant or person owning or holding said merchandise.

(e) A person commits unlawful use of a theft detection shielding device or a theft detection shielding remover when he or she uses or attempts to use either device while committing a violation of this article.

(f) A person commits unlawful removal of a theft detection device when he or she intentionally removes any theft detection device by the use of manual force or by any tool or device, which is not specifically designed or manufactured to remove theft detection devices, from merchandise prior to purchase.

(g) Any person convicted for violating the provisions of subsections (b), (c), (d) or (e) of this section is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in a county or regional jail facility for not less than thirty days nor more than one year, and fined not less than two hundred fifty dollars nor more than one thousand dollars.

(h) Any person convicted of violating the provisions of subsection (f) of this section is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than one hundred dollars nor more than five hundred dollars, and such fine shall not be suspended, or the person shall be confined in the county or regional jail not more than sixty days, or both.

(i) The activation of an anti-shoplifting or inventory control device as a result of a person exiting the establishment or a protected area within the establishment shall constitute reasonable cause for the detention of the person so exiting by the owner or operator or the establishment or by an agent or employee of the owner or operator, provided sufficient notice has been posted to advise the patrons that such a device is being utilized. Each such detention shall be made only in a reasonable manner and only for a reasonable period of time sufficient for any inquiry into the circumstances surrounding the activation of the device or for the recovery of goods.

(j) Such taking into custody and detention by a law-enforcement officer, merchant, or merchant's employee, if done in compliance with all the requirements of this section, does not render such law-enforcement officer, merchant, or merchant's employee criminally or civilly liable for false arrest, false imprisonment, or unlawful detention.


WVC 61-3A-5 §61-3A-5. Civil liability.
(a) General rule. -- Any person who commits any of the acts described in section one of this article shall be civilly liable:

(1) To restore the merchandise to the mercantile establishment; and

(2) If such merchandise is not recoverable or is damaged, for actual damages, including the value of the merchandise involved in the shoplifting; and

(3) For other actual damages arising from the incident, not including the loss of time or loss of wages incurred by the mercantile establishment or any merchant in connection with the apprehension and processing of the suspect; and

(4) In all cases, for a penalty to be paid to the mercantile establishment in the amount of fifty dollars or double the value of the merchandise, whichever is higher.

(b) Costs and attorneys' fees. -- A merchant who is a prevailing party under this section is entitled to costs.

(c) Effect of conviction. -- A conviction for the offense of theft by shoplifting is not a prerequisite to the maintenance of a civil action authorized by this section. However, a merchant who has recovered the penalty prescribed by section three of this article is not entitled to recover the penalty imposed by this section.

(d) Right to demand payment. -- The fact that a mercantile establishment may bring an action against an individual as provided in this section does not limit the right of such establishment to demand, orally or in writing, that a person who is liable for damages or a penalty under this section remit said damages or penalty prior to the commencement of any legal action.


WVC 61 - 3 A- 6 §61-3A-6. Definitions.
(a) "Card-not-present credit or debit transaction" means a credit or debit sale of merchandise by telephone, mail order, internet or other means that does not require the cardholder's signature or physical presentation of the credit or debit card to the merchant.

(b) "Conceal" means to hide, hold or carry merchandise so that, although there may be some notice of its presence, it is not visible through ordinary observation.

(c) "Merchant" means an owner or operator of any mercantile establishment and includes the merchant's employees, servants, security agents or other agents.

(d) "Mercantile establishment" means any place where merchandise is displayed, held or offered for sale, either at retail or wholesale. "Mercantile establishment" does not include adjoining parking lots or adjoining areas of common use with other establishments.

(e) "Merchandise" means any goods, foodstuffs, wares or personal property, or any part or portion thereof of any type or description displayed, held or offered for sale, or a shopping cart.

(f) "Value of the merchandise" means the merchant's stated price of the merchandise, or, in the event of altering, transferring or removing a price marking or causing a cash register or other sales device to reflect less than the retail value of the merchandise, as defined in section one of this article, the difference between the merchant's stated price of the merchandise and the altered price.


WVC -3B- ARTICLE 3B. TRESPASS.


WVC 61-3B-1 §61-3B-1. Definitions.
As used in this article:

(1) "Structure" means any building of any kind, either temporary or permanent, which has a roof over it, together with the curtilage thereof.

(2) "Conveyance" means any motor vehicle, vessel, railroad car, railroad engine, trailer, aircraft or sleeping car, and "to enter a conveyance" includes taking apart any portion of the conveyance.

(3) An act is committed "in the course of committing" if it occurs in an attempt to commit the offense or in flight after the attempt or commission.

(4) "Posted land" is that land upon which reasonably maintained signs are placed not more than five hundred feet apart along and at each corner of the boundaries of the land, upon which signs there appears prominently in letters of not less than two inches in height the words "no trespassing" and in addition thereto the name of the owner, lessee or occupant of the land. The signs shall be placed along the boundary line of posted land in a manner and in a position as to be clearly noticeable from outside of the boundary line. It shall not be necessary to give notice by posting on any enclosed land or place not exceeding five acres in area on which there is a dwelling house or property that by its nature and use is obviously private in order to obtain the benefits of this article pertaining to trespass on enclosed lands.

(5) "Cultivated land" is that land which has been cleared of its natural vegetation and is presently planted with a crop, orchard, grove, pasture or trees or is fallow land as part of a crop rotation.

(6) "Fenced land" is that land which has been enclosed by a fence of substantial construction, whether with rails, logs, post and railing, iron, steel, barbed wire, other wire or other material, which stands at least three feet in height. For the purpose of this article, it shall not be necessary to fence any boundary or part of a boundary of any land which is formed by water and is posted with signs pursuant to the provisions of this article.

(7) Where lands are posted, cultivated or fenced as described herein, then such lands, for the purpose of this article, shall be considered as enclosed and posted.

(8) "Trespass" under this article is the willful unauthorized entry upon, in or under the property of another, but shall not include the following:

(a) Entry by the state, its political subdivisions or by the officers, agencies or instrumentalities thereof as authorized and provided by law.

(b) The exercise of rights in, under or upon property by virtue of rights-of-way or easements by a public utility or other person owning such right-of-way or easement whether by written or prescriptive right.

(c) Permissive entry, whether written or oral, and entry from a public road by the established private ways to reach a residence for the purpose of seeking permission shall not be trespass unless signs are posted prohibiting such entry.

(d) Entry performed in the exercise of a property right under ownership of an interest in, under or upon such property.

(e) Entry where no physical damage is done to property in the performance of surveying to ascertain property boundaries, and in the performance of necessary work of construction, maintenance and repair of a common property line fence, or buildings or appurtenances which are immediately adjacent to the property line and maintenance of which necessitates entry upon the adjoining owner's property.


WVC 61-3B-2 §61-3B-2. Trespass in structure or conveyance.
Any person who knowingly enters in, upon or under a structure or conveyance without being authorized, licensed or invited, or having been authorized, licensed or invited is requested to depart by the owner, tenant or the agent of such owner or tenant, and refuses to do so, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than one hundred dollars.

If the offender is armed with a firearm or other dangerous weapon while in the structure or conveyance, with the unlawful and felonious intent to do bodily injury to a human being in said structure or conveyance at the time the offender knowingly trespasses, such offender shall, notwithstanding the provisions of section one, article seven, chapter sixty-one of this code, be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than one hundred dollars nor more than five hundred dollars, or be confined in the county jail for a period not to exceed twelve months, or both such fine and imprisonment.


WVC 61 - 3 B- 3 §61-3B-3. Trespass on property other than structure or conveyance.
(a) It is an unlawful trespass for any person to knowingly, and without being authorized, licensed or invited, to enter or remain on any property, other than a structure or conveyance, as to which notice against entering or remaining is either given by actual communication to such person or by posting, fencing or cultivation.

(b) First offense conviction. -- Upon a first trespassing conviction pursuant to subsection (a):

The person is guilty of a misdemeanor and shall be fined not less than $100 nor more than $500.

(c) Second offense conviction. -- Upon a second trespassing conviction pursuant to subsection (a):

The person is guilty of a misdemeanor and shall be fined not less than $500 nor more than $1,000.

(d) Third offense conviction. -- Upon a third and subsequent trespassing conviction pursuant to subsection (a):

The person is guilty of a misdemeanor and shall be fined not less than $1,000 nor more than $1,500.

(e) If the offender defies an order to leave, personally communicated to him by the owner, tenant or agent of such owner or tenant, or if the offender opens any door, fence or gate, and thereby exposes animals, crops or other property to waste, destruction or freedom, or causes any damage to property by such trespassing on property other than a structure or conveyance, he shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than $100 nor more than $500 or imprisoned in the county jail for a period not to exceed six months, or both such fine and imprisonment.

(c) If the offender is armed with a firearm or other dangerous weapon with the unlawful and felonious intent to do bodily injury to a human being during his commission of the offense of trespass on property other than a structure or conveyance, such offender shall, notwithstanding section one, article seven, chapter sixty-one of this code, be guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in the county jail for a term not to exceed six months, or fined not more than $100, or both such fine and imprisonment.

(d) Notwithstanding and in addition to any other penalties provided by law, any person who performs or causes damage to property in the course of a willful trespass shall be liable to the property owner in the amount of twice the amount of such damage. However, this article shall not apply in a labor dispute.


WVC 61 - 3 B- 4 §61-3B-4. Trespass on student residence premises or student facility premises of an institution of higher education.
(a) For the purposes of this section:

(1) "Residence hall" means housing or a unit of housing provided primarily for students as a temporary or permanent dwelling place or abode and owned, operated or controlled by an institution of higher education.

(2) "Student facility" means a facility owned, operated or controlled by an institution of higher education at which alcoholic liquor or nonintoxicating beer is purchased, sold or served to students enrolled at such institution, but does not include facilities at which athletic events are regularly scheduled and an admission fee is generally charged.

(3) "Institution of higher education" means any state university, state college or state community college under the control, supervision and management of the West Virginia board of trustees or West Virginia board of directors, or any other university, college or institution of higher education in the state subject to rules for accreditation under the provisions of section seven, article four, chapter eighteen-b of this code.

(4) "Person authorized to have access to a residence hall or student facility" means:

(A) A student who resides or dwells in the residence hall; or

(B) An invited guest of a student who resides or dwells in the residence hall; or

(C) A parent, guardian or person who has legal custody of a student who resides or dwells in the residence hall; or

(D) An employee of the institution of higher education who is required by such employment by such institution to be in the residence hall or student facility and who is acting within the scope of his or her employment; or

(E) A delivery person, repair person or other such person who is not an employee of the institution of higher education but who nonetheless has a legitimate commercial reason to be in the residence hall or student facility and who is acting pursuant to such legitimate commercial reason.

(b) If a person authorized to have access to a residence hall or a student facility enters such residence hall or student facility and by such presence or acts interferes with the peaceful or orderly operation of such residence hall or student facility, such person may be asked to leave such residence hall or student facility. If a person not authorized to have access to a residence hall or student facility enters such a residence hall or student facility, that person may be asked to leave such residence hall or student facility notwithstanding the fact that he or she has not interfered with the peaceful or orderly operation of such residence hall or student facility or otherwise committed a breach of the peace or violated any statute or ordinance. Such request to leave may be made by the president or other administrative head of the institution of higher education, an employee designated by the president to maintain order in the residence hall or student facility, a campus police officer appointed pursuant to the provisions of section five, article four, chapter eighteen-b of this code, or a municipal police officer, a sheriff or deputy sheriff, or a member of the West Virginia state police.

(c) It shall be unlawful for a person to remain in a residence hall or student facility after being asked to leave as provided for in subsection (b) of this section.

(d) Any person who violates the provisions of subsection (c) of this section shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined fifteen dollars. For any second or subsequent conviction for a violation occurring within one year after a previous violation for similar conduct, such person shall be fined an amount not to exceed one hundred dollars.

(e) This section shall not be construed to be in derogation of the common law, nor shall the provisions of this section contravene or infringe upon existing statutes related to the same subject.


WVC 61 - 3 B- 5 §61-3B-5. Trespass on state government property; aiding and abetting; penalties.
(a) Notwithstanding any provision of this code to the contrary, any person who knowingly and willfully violates an administrative order of a court, a rule or emergency rule promulgated by the secretary of administration, a joint rule of the Senate and House of Delegates or a rule of the Senate or House of Delegates relating to access to government buildings or facilities or portions thereof under their control or who knowingly and willfully aids or abets another to violate such an order, rule or joint rule is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction, shall be confined for not more than thirty days or fined more than five hundred dollars, or both.

(b) Any person who violates the provisions of subsection (a) of this section with the intent to commit a crime which constitutes a misdemeanor is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction, shall be confined in a county or regional jail for not more than one year or fined not more than one thousand dollars, or both.

(c) Any person who violates the provisions of subsection (a) of this section with the intent to commit a crime which constitutes a felony is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction, shall be incarcerated in a state correctional facility for not less than one nor more than five years or fined not more than five thousand dollars, or both.


WVC -3C- ARTICLE 3C. WEST VIRGINIA COMPUTER CRIME AND ABUSE ACT.


WVC 61-3C-1 §61-3C-1. Short title.
This act shall be known and may be cited as the "West Virginia Computer Crime and Abuse Act."


WVC 61-3C-2 61-3C-2. Legislative findings.
The Legislature finds that:

(a) The computer and related industries play an essential role in the commerce and welfare of this state.

(b) Computer-related crime is a growing problem in business and government.

(c) Computer-related crime has a direct effect on state commerce and can result in serious economic and, in some cases, physical harm to the public.

(d) Because of the pervasiveness of computers in today's society, opportunities are great for computer related crimes through the introduction of false records into a computer or computer system, the unauthorized use of computers and computer facilities, the alteration and destruction of computers, computer programs and computer data, and the theft of computer resources, computer software and computer data.

(e) Because computers have now become an integral part of society, the Legislature recognizes the need to protect the rights of owners and legitimate users of computers and computer systems, as well as the privacy interest of the general public, from those who abuse computers and computer systems.

(f) While various forms of computer crime or abuse might possibly be the subject of criminal charges or civil suit based on other provisions of law, it is appropriate and desirable that a supplemental and additional statute be provided which specifically proscribes various forms of computer crime and abuse and provides criminal penalties and civil remedies therefor.


WVC 61 - 3 C- 3 §61-3C-3. Definitions.

     As used in this article, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise:

     (a) "Access" means to instruct, communicate with, store data in, retrieve data from, intercept data from or otherwise make use of any computer, computer network, computer program, computer software, computer data or other computer resources.

     (b) "Authorization" means the express or implied consent given by a person to another to access or use said person's computer, computer network, computer program, computer software, computer system, password, identifying code or personal identification number.

     (c) "Computer" means an electronic, magnetic, optical, electrochemical or other high-speed data processing device performing logical, arithmetic or storage functions and includes any data storage facility or communication facility directly related to or operating in conjunction with such device. The term "computer" includes any connected or directly related device, equipment or facility which enables the computer to store, retrieve or communicate computer programs, computer data or the results of computer operations to or from a person, another computer or another device, file servers, mainframe systems, desktop personal computers, laptop personal computers, tablet personal computers, cellular telephones, game consoles and any other electronic data storage device or equipment, but such term does not include an automated typewriter or typesetter, a portable hand-held calculator or other similar device.

     (d) "Computer contaminant" means any set of computer instructions that are designed to damage or destroy information within a computer, computer system or computer network without the consent or permission of the owner of the information. They include, but are not limited to, a group of computer instructions commonly called viruses or worms that are self-replicating or self- propagating and are designed to contaminate other computer programs or computer data, consume computer resources or damage or destroy the normal operation of the computer.

     (e) "Computer data" means any representation of knowledge, facts, concepts, instruction or other information computed, classified, processed, transmitted, received, retrieved, originated, stored, manifested, measured, detected, recorded, reproduced, handled or utilized by a computer, computer network, computer program or computer software and may be in any medium, including, but not limited to, computer printouts, microfilm, microfiche, magnetic storage media, optical storage media, punch paper tape or punch cards, or it may be stored internally in read- only memory or random access memory of a computer or any other peripheral device.

     (f) "Computer network" means a set of connected devices and communication facilities, including more than one computer, with the capability to transmit computer data among them through such communication facilities.

     (g) "Computer operations" means arithmetic, logical, storage, display, monitoring or retrieval functions or any combination thereof and includes, but is not limited to, communication with, storage of data in or to, or retrieval of data from any device and the human manual manipulation of electronic magnetic impulses. A "computer operation" for a particular computer shall also mean any function for which that computer was designed.

     (h) "Computer program" means an ordered set of computer data representing instructions or statements, in a form readable by a computer, which controls, directs or otherwise influences the functioning of a computer or computer network.

     (I) "Computer software" means a set of computer programs, procedures and associated documentation concerned with computer data or with the operation of a computer, computer program or computer network.

     (j) "Computer services" means computer access time, computer data processing or computer data storage and the computer data processed or stored in connection therewith.

     (k) "Computer supplies" means punch cards, paper tape, magnetic tape, magnetic disks or diskettes, optical disks or diskettes, disk or diskette packs, paper, microfilm and any other tangible input, output or storage medium used in connection with a computer, computer network, computer data, computer software or computer program.

     (l) "Computer resources" includes, but is not limited to, information retrieval; computer data processing, transmission and storage; and any other functions performed, in whole or in part, by the use of a computer, computer network, computer software or computer program.

     (m) "Owner" means any person who owns or leases or is a licensee of a computer, computer network, computer data, computer program, computer software, computer resources or computer supplies.

     (n) "Person" means any natural person, general partnership, limited partnership, trust, association, corporation, joint venture or any state, county or municipal government and any subdivision, branch, department or agency thereof.

    (o) "Property" includes:

     (1) Real property;

     (2) Computers and computer networks;

     (3) Financial instruments, computer data, computer programs, computer software and all other personal property regardless of whether they are:

     (I) Tangible or intangible;

     (ii) In a format readable by humans or by a computer;

     (iii) In transit between computers or within a computer network or between any devices which comprise a computer; or

     (iv) Located on any paper or in any device on which it is stored by a computer or by a human; and

     (4) Computer services.

     (p) "Value" means having any potential to provide any direct or indirect gain or advantage to any person.

     (q) "Financial instrument" includes, but is not limited to, any check, draft, warrant, money order, note, certificate of deposit, letter of credit, bill of exchange, credit or debit card, transaction authorization mechanism, marketable security or any computerized representation thereof.

     (r) "Value of property or computer services" shall be: (1) The market value of the property or computer services at the time of a violation of this article; or (2) if the property or computer services are unrecoverable, damaged or destroyed as a result of a violation of section six or seven of this article, the cost of reproducing or replacing the property or computer services at the time of the violation.
WVC 61-3C-4 §61-3C-4. Computer fraud; access to Legislature computer; criminal penalties.
(a) Any person who, knowingly and willfully, directly or indirectly, accesses or causes to be accessed any computer, computer services or computer network for the purpose of (1) executing any scheme or artifice to defraud or (2) obtaining money, property or services by means of fraudulent pretenses, representations or promises is guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than ten thousand dollars or imprisoned in the penitentiary for not more than ten years, or both fined and imprisoned.

(b)(1) Any person who, knowingly and willfully, directly or indirectly, accesses, attempts to access, or causes to be accessed any data stored in a computer owned by the Legislature without authorization is guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than five thousand dollars or imprisoned in the penitentiary for not more than five years, or both fined and imprisoned.

(2) Notwithstanding the provisions of section seventeen of this article to the contrary, in any criminal prosecution under this subsection against an employee or member of the Legislature, it shall not be a defense (A) that the defendant had reasonable grounds to believe that he or she had authorization to access the data merely because of his or her employment or membership, or (B) that the defendant could not have reasonably known he or she did not have authorization to access the data: Provided, That the joint committee on government and finance shall promulgate rules for the respective houses of the Legislature regarding appropriate access of members and staff and others to the legislative computer system.


WVC 61-3C-5 §61-3C-5. Unauthorized access to computer services.
Any person who knowingly, willfully and without authorization, directly or indirectly, accesses or causes to be accessed a computer or computer network with the intent to obtain computer services shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than two hundred dollars nor more than one thousand dollars or confined in the county jail not more than one year, or both.


WVC 61-3C-6 §61-3C-6. Unauthorized possession of computer data or programs.
(a) Any person who knowingly, willfully and without authorization possesses any computer data or computer program belonging to another and having a value of five thousand dollars or more shall be guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than ten thousand dollars or imprisoned in the penitentiary for not more than ten years, or both.

(b) Any person who knowingly, willfully and without authorization possesses any computer data or computer program belonging to another and having a value of less than five thousand dollars shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof shall be fined not more than one thousand dollars or confined in the county jail for not more than one year, or both.


WVC 61 - 3 C- 7 §61-3C-7. Alteration, destruction, etc., of computer equipment.
(a) Misdemeanor offenses. -- Any person who knowingly, willfully and without authorization, directly or indirectly, tampers with, deletes, alters, damages or destroys or attempts to tamper with, delete, alter, damage or destroy any computer, computer network, computer software, computer resources, computer program or computer data or who knowingly introduces, directly or indirectly, a computer contaminant into any computer, computer program or computer network which results in a loss of value of property or computer services up to one thousand dollars, is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than one thousand dollars or confined in the county or regional jail not more than six months, or both.

(b) Felony offenses. -- Any person who knowingly, willfully and without authorization, directly or indirectly, damages or destroys or attempts to damage or destroy any computer, computer network, computer software, computer resources, computer program or computer data by knowingly introducing, directly or indirectly, a computer contaminant into any computer, computer program or computer network which results in a loss of value of property or computer services more than one thousand dollars is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than two hundred dollars and not more than ten thousand dollars or confined in a state correctional facility not more than ten years, or both, or, in the discretion of the court, be fined not less than two hundred nor more than one thousand dollars and confined in the county or regional jail not more than one year.


WVC 61-3C-8 §61-3C-8. Disruption of computer services.
Any person who knowingly, willfully and without authorization, directly or indirectly, disrupts or degrades or causes the disruption or degradation of computer services or denies or causes the denial of computer services to an authorized recipient or user of such computer services, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than two hundred nor more than one thousand dollars or confined in the county jail not more than one year, or both.


WVC 61-3C-9 §61-3C-9. Unauthorized possession of computer information, etc.
Any person who knowingly, willfully and without authorization, possesses any computer data, computer software, computer supplies or a computer program which he knows or reasonably should know was obtained in violation of any section of this article shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than two hundred nor more than one thousand dollars or confined in the county jail for not more than one year, or both.


WVC 61-3C-10 §61-3C-10. Disclosure of computer security information.
Any person who knowingly, willfully and without authorization discloses a password, identifying code, personal identification number or other confidential information about a computer security system to another person shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than five hundred dollars or confined in the county jail for not more than six months, or both.


WVC 61-3C-11 §61-3C-11. Obtaining confidential public information.
Any person who knowingly, willfully and without authorization accesses or causes to be accessed any computer or computer network and thereby obtains information filed by any person with the state or any county or municipality which is required by law to be kept confidential shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than five hundred dollars or confined in the county jail not more than six months, or both.


WVC 61-3C-12 §61-3C-12. Computer invasion of privacy.
Any person who knowingly, willfully and without authorization accesses a computer or computer network and examines any employment, salary, credit or any other financial or personal information relating to any other person, after the time at which the offender knows or reasonably should know that he is without authorization to view the information displayed, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than five hundred dollars or confined in the county jail for not more than six months, or both.


WVC 61-3C-13 §61-3C-13. Fraud and related activity in connection with access devices.
(a) As used in this section, the following terms shall have the following meanings:

(1) "Access device" means any card, plate, code, account number, or other means of account access that can be used, alone or in conjunction with another access device, to obtain money, goods, services, or any other thing of value, or that can be used to initiate a transfer of funds (other than a transfer originated solely by paper instrument);

(2) "Counterfeit access device" means any access device that is counterfeit, fictitious, altered, or forged, or an identifiable component of an access device or a counterfeit access device;

(3) "Unauthorized access device" means any access device that is lost, stolen, expired, revoked, canceled, or obtained without authority;

(4) "Produce" includes design, alter, authenticate, duplicate, or assemble;

(5) "Traffic" means transfer, or otherwise dispose of, to another, or obtain control of with intent to transfer or dispose of.

(b) Any person who knowingly and willfully possesses any counterfeit or unauthorized access device shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than one thousand dollars or confined in the county jail for not more than six months, or both.

(c) Any person who knowingly, willfully and with intent to defraud possesses a counterfeit or unauthorized access device or who knowingly, willfully and with intent to defraud, uses, produces or traffics in any counterfeit or unauthorized access device shall be guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than ten thousand dollars or imprisoned in the penitentiary not more than ten years, or both.

(d) This section shall not prohibit any lawfully authorized investigative or protective activity of any state, county or municipal law-enforcement agency.


WVC 61-3C-14 §61-3C-14. Endangering public safety.
Any person who accesses a computer or computer network and knowingly, willfully and without authorization (a) interrupts or impairs the providing of services by any private or public utility; (b) interrupts or impairs the providing of any medical services; (c) interrupts or impairs the providing of services by any state, county or local government agency, public carrier or public communication service; or otherwise endangers public safety shall be guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than fifty thousand dollars or imprisoned not more than twenty years, or both.


WVC 61 - 3 C- 14 A §61-3C-14a. Obscene, anonymous, harassing and threatening communications by computer, cell phones and electronic communication devices; penalty.
     (a) It is unlawful for any person, with the intent to harass or abuse another person, to use a computer, mobile phone, personal digital assistant or other electronic communication device to:

     (1) Make contact with another without disclosing his or her identity with the intent to harass or abuse;

     (2) Make contact with a person after being requested by the person to desist from contacting them;

     (3) Threaten to commit a crime against any person or property; or

     (4) Cause obscene material to be delivered or transmitted to a specific person after being requested to desist from sending such material.

     (b) For purposes of this section:

     (1) "Electronic communication device" means and includes a telephone, wireless phone, computer, pager or any other electronic or wireless device which is capable of transmitting a document, image, voice, e-mail or text message using such device in an electronic, digital or analog form from one person or location so it may be viewed or received by another person or persons at other locations.

     (2) "use of a computer, mobile phone, personal digital assistant or other electronic communication device" includes, but is not limited to, the transmission of text messages, electronic mail, photographs, videos, images or other nonvoice data by means of an electronic communication system, and includes the transmission of such data, documents, messages and images to another's computer, e-mail account, mobile phone, personal digital assistant or other electronic communication device.

     (3) "obscene material" means material that:

     (A) An average person, applying contemporary adult community standards, would find, taken as a whole, appeals to the prurient interest, is intended to appeal to the prurient interest, or is pandered to a prurient interest;

     (B) An average person, applying contemporary adult community standards, would find, depicts or describes, in a patently offensive way, sexually explicit conduct consisting of an ultimate sexual act, normal or perverted, actual or simulated, an excretory function, masturbation, lewd exhibition of the genitals, or sadomasochistic sexual abuse; and

     (C) A reasonable person would find, taken as a whole, lacks literary, artistic, political or scientific value.

     (c) It is unlawful for any person to knowingly permit a computer, mobile phone or personal digital assistant or other electronic communication device under his or her control to be used for any purpose prohibited by this section.

     (d) Any offense committed under this section may be determined to have occurred at the place at which the contact originated or the place at which the contact was received or intended to be received.

     (e) Any person who violates a provision of this section is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than $500 or confined in jail not more than six months, or both fined and confined. For a second or subsequent offense, the person is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than $1,000 or confined in jail for not more than one year, or both fined and confined.
WVC 61 - 3 C- 14 B §61-3C-14b. Soliciting, etc. a minor via computer; penalty.
Any person over the age of eighteen, who knowingly uses a computer to solicit, entice, seduce or lure, or attempt to solicit, entice, seduce or lure, a minor known or believed to be at least four years younger than the person using the computer or a person he or she believes to be such a minor, to commit any illegal act proscribed by the provisions of article eight, eight-b, eight-c or eight-d of this chapter, or any felony offense under section four hundred one, article four, chapter sixty-a of this code, is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than five thousand dollars or imprisoned in a state correctional facility not less than two nor more than ten years, or both.


WVC 61-3C-15 §61-3C-15. Computer as instrument of forgery.
The creation, alteration or deletion of any computer data contained in any computer or computer network, which if done on a tangible document or instrument would constitute forgery under section five, article four, chapter sixty-one of this code will also be deemed to be forgery. The absence of a tangible writing directly created or altered by the offender shall not be a defense to any crime set forth in section five, article four, chapter sixty-one if a creation, alteration or deletion of computer data was involved in lieu of a tangible document or instrument.


WVC 61-3C-16 61-3C-16. Civil relief; damages.
(a) Any person whose property or person is injured by reason of a violation of any provision of this article may sue therefor in circuit court and may be entitled to recover for each violation:

(1) Compensatory damages;

(2) Punitive damages; and

(3) Such other relief, including injunctive relief, as the court may deem appropriate.

Without limiting the generality of the term, "damages" shall include loss of profits.

(b) At the request of any party to an action brought pursuant to this section, the court may, in its discretion, conduct all legal proceedings in such a manner as to protect the secrecy and security of the computer network, computer data, computer program or computer software involved in order to prevent any possible recurrence of the same or a similar act by another person or to protect any trade secret or confidential information of any person. For the purposes of this section "trade secret" means the whole or any portion or phase of any scientific or technological information, design, process, procedure or formula or improvement which is secret and of value. A trade secret shall be presumed to be secret when the owner thereof takes measures to prevent it from becoming available to persons other than those authorized by the owner to have access thereto for a limited purpose.

(c) The provisions of this section shall not be construed to limit any person's right to pursue any additional civil remedy otherwise allowed by law.

(d) A civil action under this section must be commenced before the earlier of: (1) Five years after the last act in the course of conduct constituting a violation of this article; or (2) two years after the plaintiff discovers or reasonably should have discovered the last act in the course of conduct constituting a violation of this article.


WVC 61-3C-17 §61-3C-17. Defenses to criminal prosecution.
(a) In any criminal prosecution under this article, it shall be a defense that:

(1) The defendant had reasonable grounds to believe that he had authority to access or could not have reasonably known he did not have authority to access the computer, computer network, computer data, computer program or computer software in question; or,

(2) The defendant had reasonable grounds to believe that he had the right to alter or destroy the computer data, computer software or computer program in question; or,

(3) The defendant had reasonable grounds to believe that he had the right to copy, reproduce, duplicate or disclose the computer data, computer program, computer security system information or computer software in question.

(b) Nothing in this section shall be construed to limit any defense available to a person charged with a violation of this article.


WVC 61-3C-18 §61-3C-18. Venue.
For the purpose of criminal and civil venue under this article, any violation of this article shall be considered to have been committed:

(1) In any county in which any act was performed in furtherance of any course of conduct which violates this article;

(2) In the county of the principal place of business in this state of the aggrieved owner of the computer, computer data, computer program, computer software or computer network, or any part thereof;

(3) In any county in which any violator had control or possession of any proceeds of the violation or any books, records, documentation, property, financial instrument, computer data, computer software, computer program, or other material or objects which were used in furtherance of or obtained as a result of the violation;

(4) In any county from which, to which, or through which any access to a computer or computer network was made, whether by wires, electromagnetic waves, microwaves or any other means of communication; and

(5) In the county in which the aggrieved owner or the defendant resides or either of them maintains a place of business.


WVC 61-3C-19 §61-3C-19. Prosecution under other criminal statutes not prohibited.
Criminal prosecution pursuant to this article shall not prevent prosecution pursuant to any other provision of law.


WVC 61-3C-20 §61-3C-20. Personal jurisdiction.
Any person who violates any provision of this article and, in doing so, accesses, permits access to, causes access to or attempts to access a computer, computer network, computer data, computer resources, computer software or computer program which is located, in whole or in part, within this state, or passes through this state in transit, shall be subject to criminal prosecution and punishment in this state and to the civil jurisdiction of the courts of this state.


WVC 61-3C-21 §61-3C-21. Severability.
If any provision of this article or the application thereof to any person or circumstance is held invalid, such invalidity shall not affect any other provisions or applications of this article which can be given effect without the invalid provision or application, and to that end the provisions of this article are declared to be severable.


WVC -3D- ARTICLE 3D. THEFT OF CABLE TELEVISION SERVICES.


WVC 61-3D-1 §61-3D-1. Definitions.
As used in this article:

(1) "Cable system" means any facility within this state consisting of a set of closed transmission paths and associated signal generation, reception and control equipment that is designed to provide cable television service which includes video programming and which is provided to multiple subscribers within a community, and does not include: (A) A facility that serves only to retransmit the television signals of one or more television broadcast stations; (B) a facility that serves only subscribers in one or more multiple unit dwellings under common ownership, control or management, unless that facility or facilities uses any public right-of-way; or (C) a facility of a public utility subject, in whole or in part, to the provisions of chapter twenty-four of this code, except to the extent that those facilities provide video programming directly to subscribers.

(2) "Cable operator" means any person or group of persons: (A) Who provides cable service over a cable system and directly or through one or more affiliates owns a significant interest in the cable system; or (B) who otherwise controls or is responsible for, through any arrangement, the management and operation of a cable system.

(3) "Cable service" means: (A) The one-way transmission to subscribers of video programming or other programming service; and (B) subscriber interaction, if any, which is required for the selection of video programming or other programming service.

(4) "Subscriber" means any person who receives cable television services.

(5) "Unauthorized" means that payment of full compensation for cable television services has been avoided, or has been sought to be avoided, without the consent of the supplier of the service.


WVC 61-3D-2 §61-3D-2. Acquisition of cable television services.
(a) A person who acquires cable television services for himself or another, whether through his own efforts or with the assistance of another, or both, by:

(1) Making or maintaining any unauthorized connection, whether physically, electrically or inductively, to a distribution or transmission line;

(2) Attaching or maintaining the attachment of any unauthorized device to any cable, wire or other component of a cable system or to a television receiving set connected to a cable system;

(3) Making or maintaining any unauthorized modification or alteration to any device installed by a cable system operator; or

(4) Knowingly permits another person to enter upon his or her property for the purpose of securing cable service in an unauthorized manner as described in subdivision (1), (2) or (3) of this subsection shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction, shall be punished in accordance with subsection (c) of this section.

(b) A person who subscribes to and receives cable television services through an authorized connection of a television receiving set at his dwelling and, within his dwelling, makes an authorized or an unauthorized connection of an additional television receiving set or sets or audio system which receives cable television service through such authorized connection, shall not be guilty of a misdemeanor under subsection (a) of this section.

(c) Any person convicted of a misdemeanor under subsection (a) of this section shall be subject to the following penalties:

(1) Upon a first conviction under this section, the defendant shall be fined not less than one hundred dollars, nor more than two hundred fifty dollars.

(2) Upon a second conviction under this section, the defendant shall be fined not less than two hundred fifty dollars, nor more than five hundred dollars, or imprisoned in the county jail not more than thirty days, or both fined and imprisoned.

(3) Upon any subsequent conviction in excess of a second conviction under this section, the defendant shall be fined not less than five hundred dollars, nor more than one thousand dollars, or imprisoned in the county jail not less than thirty days nor more than sixty days, or both fined and imprisoned.

Notwithstanding the provisions of section four, article eleven-a of this chapter or section two-a, article three, chapter fifty of this code, the magistrate or court may order restitution not to exceed the value of unauthorized cable services received.


WVC 61-3D-3 §61-3D-3. Sale or transfer of the device or plan intended for acquisition or diversion.
(a) A person who sells, gives or otherwise transfers to another or offers, advertises or exposes for sale to another any device, mechanism, tool or printed circuit, or any kit, plan or instructional procedure for the making of such device, mechanism, tool or printed circuit, with the knowledge that another will acquire cable television services in violation of this article, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and shall be punishable in accordance with subsection (b) of this section.

(b) A person convicted of a misdemeanor under this section shall be punished as follows:

(1) Upon a first conviction under this section, the defendant shall be fined not less than two hundred fifty dollars, nor more than five hundred dollars.

(2) Upon a second conviction under this section, the defendant shall be fined not less than five hundred dollars, nor more than one thousand dollars, or imprisoned in the county jail not more than thirty days, or both fined and imprisoned.

(3) Upon a third conviction under this section, the defendant shall be fined not less than five hundred dollars, nor more than one thousand dollars, or imprisoned in the county jail not less than sixty days, nor more than one year.


WVC 61-3D-4 §61-3D-4. Evidence.
Evidence that (1) the defendant had possession of or access to the location of distribution or transmission lines or other facilities of a cable system which have been tapped, altered or tampered with or to which any unauthorized connection has been made or to which any unauthorized device has been attached or (2) the defendant had possession of or access to any device installed by a cable system operator to which an unauthorized modification or alteration has been made, may be used, but shall not be required, to establish that a person violated this article.


WVC 61-3E- ARTICLE 3E. OFFENSES INVOLVING EXPLOSIVES.


WVC 61-3E-1 §61-3E-1. Definitions.

As used in this article, unless the context otherwise requires:

(a) "Destructive device" means any bomb, grenade, mine, rocket, missile, pipebomb or similar device containing an explosive, incendiary, explosive gas or expanding gas which is designed or so constructed as to explode by such filler and is capable of causing bodily harm or property damage; any combination of parts, either designed or intended for use in converting any device into a destructive device and from which a destructive device may be readily assembled.

"Destructive device" does not include a firearm as such is defined in section two, article seven of this chapter or model rockets and their components as defined in section twenty-three, article three, chapter twenty-nine of this code.

(b) "Explosive material" means any chemical compound, mechanical mixture or device that is commonly used or can be used for the purpose of producing an explosion and which contains any oxidizing and combustive units or other ingredients in such proportions, quantities or packaging that an ignition by fire, by friction, by concussion, by percussion, by detonator or by any part of the compound or mixture may cause a sudden generation of highly heated gases. These materials include, but are not limited to, powders for blasting, high or low explosives, blasting materials, blasting agents, blasting emulsions, blasting fuses other than electric circuit breakers, detonators, blasting caps and other detonating agents and black or smokeless powders not manufactured or used for lawful sporting purposes or fireworks defined in section twenty-three, article three, chapter twenty-nine of this code which are not used in violation of this article. Also included are all explosive materials listed annually by the office of the state fire marshal and published in the state register, said publication being hereby mandated.

(c) "Hoax bomb" means any device or object that by its design, construction, content or characteristics appears to be, or is represented to be or to contain a destructive device, explosive material or incendiary device as defined in this section, but is, in fact, an inoperative facsimile or imitation of such a destructive device, explosive material or incendiary device.

(d) "Incendiary device" means a container containing gasoline, kerosene, fuel oil, or derivative thereof, or other flammable or combustible material, having a wick or other substance or device which, if set or ignited, is capable of igniting such gasoline, kerosene, fuel oil, or derivative thereof, or other flammable or combustible material: Provided, That no similar device commercially manufactured and used solely for the purpose of illumination shall be deemed to be an incendiary device.

(e) "Legal authority" means that right as expressly stated by statute or law.

(f) "Person" shall mean an individual, corporation, company, association, firm, partnership, society or joint stock company.

(g) "Storage magazine" is defined to mean any building or structure, other than an explosives manufacturing building, approved by the legal authority for the storage of explosive materials.


WVC 61-3E-2 §61-3E-2. Penalties cumulative.
It is the intention of the Legislature in enacting this article that all criminal offenses and penalties defined in this article shall be cumulative and shall be in addition to any other offenses and penalties provided for by law. The Legislature contemplates and authorizes separate and consecutive sentences for the offenses defined in this article and other offenses provided for or defined by law. The Legislature declares as a matter of law that for the offenses defined in this article that involve injuries or death to persons those offenses are separate offenses as to each person whose injury or death results from the conduct proscribed by this article.


WVC 61-3E-3 §61-3E-3. Illegal possession of destructive devices, explosive materials or incendiary devices; penalty.
Any person who possesses or manufactures any explosive material without first obtaining a permit to use explosives from the office of the state fire marshal or who possesses or manufacturers any destructive device or incendiary device shall be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be committed to the custody of the division of corrections for not less than one nor more than ten years or fined not more than five thousand dollars, or both.


WVC 61-3E-4 §61-3E-4. Criminal use of destructive device, explosive material or incendiary device; penalty.
Any person who unlawfully and intentionally damages the property of another or attempts to damage the property of another by the use of a destructive device, explosive material or incendiary device shall be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be committed to the custody of the division of corrections for not less than two nor more than ten years, or fined not more than ten thousand dollars, or both.


WVC 61-3E-5 §61-3E-5. Causing death or injury; penalties.
(a) Any person who violates the provisions of this article which violation causes bodily injury to any person shall be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be committed to the custody of the division of corrections for not less than two nor more than ten years, or fined not more than five thousand dollars, or both.

(b) Any person who violates the provisions of this article which violation causes serious bodily injury to any person shall be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be committed to the custody of the division of corrections for not less than three nor more than fifteen years, or fined not more than ten thousand dollars, or both.

(c) Any person who violates the provisions of this article which violation causes the death of any person shall be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be committed to the custody of the division of corrections for a definite term of years of not less than ten years nor more than forty years. No person sentenced to a period of imprisonment pursuant to the provisions of this subsection shall be eligible for parole prior to having served a minimum of ten years.


WVC 61 - 3 E- 6 §61-3E-6. Causing death or injury to an explosives detection   animal; penalty.
     Any person who violates the provisions of this article which violation causes death, serious or debilitating bodily injury to an explosives detection animal owned or used by a law-enforcement agency, shall be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, be committed to the custody of the Division of Corrections for not less than one year nor more than five years or fined not more than $5,000 or both. Any person convicted of a violation of this section shall be ordered to make restitution to the law-enforcement agency, the Department of Military Affairs and Public Safety or to the State Fire Marshal or other fire prevention or investigation department or agency owning the animal for any veterinary bills, and replacement costs of any disabled or killed animal.
WVC 61-3E-7 §61-3E-7. Manufacture, purchase, sale, advertising for sale, transporting or possession or use of a hoax bomb; possession or use in commission of a felony; penalty.
(a) Any person who knowingly manufactures, purchases, sells, advertises for sale, transports or possesses a hoax bomb with intent to violate any provision of this code shall be guilty of a misdemeanor. Any person convicted of a violation of this section shall be incarcerated in a county or regional jail for not less than six months nor more than one year, or fined five thousand dollars, or both.

(b) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (a) of this section, any person who possesses or uses a hoax bomb to commit or attempt to commit any felony shall be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be committed to the custody of the division of corrections for not less than one nor more than ten years, or fined not more than ten thousand dollars, or both.


WVC 61-3E-8 §61-3E-8. Theft of explosive material from storage magazines or buildings; penalty.
Any person who breaks and enters or shall enter without breaking any storage magazine, shop, office, storehouse, warehouse or any other building or out-house adjoining thereto, any railcar, boat, vessel or motor vehicle within the jurisdiction of any county within this state where explosive material is stored, with the intent to commit larceny shall be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be committed to the custody of the division of corrections for not less than one nor more than ten years or fined not more than ten thousand dollars, or both.


WVC 61-3E-9 §61-3E-9. Receipt, possession, storage, sale or transportation of stolen explosive material; penalty.
Any person who receives, conceals, transports, ships, stores, barters, sells or disposes of any explosive material knowing or have reason to know that such materials is stolen is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be committed to the custody of the division of corrections for not less than one nor more than ten years or fined not more than ten thousand dollars, or both.


WVC 61-3E-10 §61-3E-10. Wanton endangerment involving destructive devices, explosive materials or incendiary devices; penalty.
Any person who wantonly performs any act with a destructive device, explosive material or incendiary device which creates substantial risk of death or serious bodily injury to another shall be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be committed to the custody of the division of corrections for not less than two years nor more than ten years or fined not more than ten thousand dollars, or both.


WVC 61-3E-11 §61-3E-11. Exemptions.
(a) Unless specifically prohibited by any provision of this code or the laws of the United States, nothing in this article shall prohibit the authorized manufacture, sale, transportation, distribution, use or possession of any explosive material by any person holding a permit for such issued by the office of the state fire marshal. Any person performing a lawful activity pursuant to or regulated by the terms of a permit issued by the division of environmental protection, or any office thereof, shall be exempt from the provisions of this article.

(b) Unless specifically prohibited by any other provision of this code or the laws of the United States, nothing in this section shall prohibit the authorized manufacture, transportation, distribution, use or possession of any explosive, destructive device or incendiary device by a member of the armed forces or law-enforcement officers whenever such persons are acting lawfully and in the line of duty; nor shall it prohibit the manufacture, transportation, distribution, use or possession of any explosive material, destructive device or incendiary device to be used solely for lawful scientific research or lawful educational purposes. Any person engaged in otherwise lawful blasting activities failing to obtain a permit or in possession of an expired permit issued by the office of the state fire marshal shall not be construed to be in violation of the article.


WVC 61-3E-12 §61-3E-12. Contraband, seizure, forfeiture.
Any destructive device, explosive material, incendiary device or hoax bomb possessed, involved in, used or intended to be used in a violation of this article or any violation of any criminal law or regulation of this state are hereby declared to be contraband and any property interest therein shall be vested in the state of West Virginia. Said contraband may be seized by the office of the state fire marshal or other law-enforcement agency conducting said investigation and upon application to the circuit court of the county in which said contraband is seized be forfeited to the state of West Virginia for destruction or for training purposes by the office of the state fire marshal or other law-enforcement agency.


WVC 61-3E-13 §61-3E-13. Legislative findings.
The Legislature hereby finds and declares that the seizure and use of items under the provisions of this article is not contemplated to be a forfeiture as the same is used in section five, article XII of the Constitution of West Virginia and to the extent that such seizure and use may be found to be such a forfeiture, the Legislature hereby finds and declares that the proceeds from a seizure and use under this article is not part of net proceeds as the same is contemplated by section five, article XII of the Constitution of West Virginia.


WVC -4- ARTICLE 4. FORGERY AND CRIMES AGAINST THE CURRENCY.


WVC 61-4-1 §61-4-1. Forgery of public record, certificate, return or attestation of court or officer; penalty.
If any person forge a public record, or a certificate, return or attestation of a clerk of a court, notary public, judge, justice, or any public officer, in relation to any matter wherein such certificate, return, or attestation may be received as legal proof, or utter or attempt to employ as true such forged record, certificate, return or attestation, knowing the same to be forged, he shall be guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction, shall be confined in the penitentiary not less than two nor more than ten years.


WVC 61-4-2 §61-4-2. Forgery of official seals; keeping or concealing instrument for forging same; penalty.
If any person forge, or keep or conceal any instrument for the purpose of forging, the seal of a court, or of any public office or body politic or corporate in this state, he shall be deemed guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction, shall be confined in the penitentiary not less than two nor more than ten years.


WVC 61-4-3 §61-4-3. Counterfeiting; penalty.
If any person forge any coin, current by law or usage in this state, or any note or bill of a banking institution, or fraudulently make any base coin, or a note or bill purporting to be the note or bill of a banking institution, when such banking institution does not exist; or utter or attempt to employ as true, or sell, exchange or deliver, or offer to sell, exchange or deliver, or receive on sale, exchange, or delivery, with intent to utter or employ or to have the same uttered or employed as true, any such false, forged, or base coin, note or bill, knowing it to be so, he shall be deemed guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction, shall be confined in the penitentiary not less than two nor more than ten years.


WVC 61-4-4 §61-4-4. Making plates, etc., for forgery; possession of same; penalty.
If any person engrave, stamp, or cast, or otherwise make or mend any plate, block, press or other thing adapted and designed for the forging and false-making of any writing or other thing, the forging or false-making whereof is punishable by this article; or if such person have in his possession any such plate, block, press, or other thing, with intent to use, or cause or permit it to be used, in forging or false-making any such writing or other thing, he shall be deemed guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction, shall be confined in the penitentiary not less than two nor more ten years.


WVC 61-4-5 §61-4-5. Forging or uttering other writing; penalty; creation of unauthorized demand draft.
(a) If any person forge any writing, other than such as is mentioned in the first and third sections of this article, to the prejudice of another's right, or utter or attempt to employ as true such forged writing, knowing it to be forged, he shall be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction, shall be confined in the penitentiary not less than one nor more than ten years, or, in the discretion of the court, be confined in jail not more than one year and be fined not exceeding five hundred dollars.

(b) It is a violation of this section to create a demand draft under the purported authority of another person for the purpose of charging the other person's account with a bank or other financial institution, or to utter or attempt to employ as true such demand draft, if the demand draft is created with the intent to defraud, and either or both of the following elements is present:

(1) The person does not, in fact, have the authority to charge the other person's account; or

(2) The amount of the demand draft exceeds the amount authorized to be charged.

(c) If a person creates a demand draft without authority or which exceeds the amount authorized to be charged to an account, and the demand draft contains the account holder's printed or typewritten name or account number, or a notation that the account holder authorized the draft, or a statement "No signature required", "Authorization on file", "Signature on file", or words to that effect, the demand draft is the equivalent of a check on which the drawer's signature is forged or altered.

(d) For purposes of this section, the term "demand draft" shall have the meaning ascribed to it in section one hundred four, article three, chapter forty-six of this code.


WVC 61-4-6 §61-4-6. Possession of counterfeit with intent to utter; penalty.
If any person have in his possession forged bank notes, or pieces of forged or base coin, such as are mentioned in the third section of this article, knowing the same to be forged or base, with intent to utter or employ the same as true, or to sell, exchange, or deliver them, so as to enable any other person to utter or employ them as true, he shall, if the number of such notes or pieces of coin in his possession, at the same time, be ten or more, be deemed guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction, shall be confined in the penitentiary not less than one nor more than five years, and if the number thereof be less than ten, he shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction, shall be confined in jail not less than six months nor more than one year and be fined not exceeding five hundred dollars.


WVC 61-4-7 §61-4-7. Unauthorized currency; penalty.
If any person shall, without authority of law, issue any note or other security purporting that money or other thing of value is payable by or on behalf of such person, with intent thereby to create a circulating medium, he shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction, shall be confined in jail not more than six months and fined not more than five hundred dollars; and the acceptance of any such note or security shall not operate as a payment of any debt or claim due or to become due to the person so accepting the same: Provided, That nothing in this section shall be so construed as to prevent the giving of checks, promissory notes, single bills, bonds, orders, drafts or bills of exchange for a debt or claim due or to become due.


WVC 61-4-8 §61-4-8. Passing or receiving unauthorized currency knowingly; penalty.
If any person not punishable under the provisions of the preceding section shall knowingly pass or receive in payment any such note or security, he shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction, shall be fined not less than ten nor more than one hundred dollars.


WVC 61 - 4 - 9 §61-4-9. Unauthorized use, transfer, acquisition, alteration or possession of certain benefits.

     (a) For the purposes of this section:

     (1) "Benefits" means any payment, allotments, money, goods or other things of value granted pursuant to a benefit program;

     (2) "Benefit access device" means any card, plate, account number or other means of access that can be used, alone or in conjunction with another access device, to obtain payments, allotments, benefits, money, goods or other things of value that can be used to initiate a transfer of funds;

     (3) "Benefit program" includes the Federal Food Stamp Act, Supplemental Nutritional Assistance Program, Temporary Assistance to Needy Families or other similar state or federal financial assistance program; and

     (4) "Terms of the benefit program" includes all statutes, rules, regulations or other requirements of that specific benefit program for use of the benefits.

     (b) Any person who knowingly uses, transfers, acquires, alters or possesses benefits or one or more benefit access device contrary to the terms of the benefit program shall:

     (1) If the benefits are of a value of less than $1,000, be guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall for a first offense be fined not more than $1,000 or confined in a regional jail for not more than one year, or both fined and confined, and for a second and any subsequent offense shall be fined not more than $1,000 or confined in a regional jail for not less than thirty days and not more than one year;

     (2) If the benefits are of a value of $1,000 or more, but less than $5,000, be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction, shall for a first offense be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned in a state correctional facility for not more than three years, or both fined and imprisoned, and for a second and any subsequent offense shall be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned for not less than six months nor more than five years, or both fined and imprisoned; and

     (3) If the benefits are of a value of $5,000 or more, be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction, fined not more than $250,000 or imprisoned in a state correctional facility for not more than ten years, or both fined and imprisoned.

     (c) Any person who presents, or causes to be presented, benefits or one or more benefit access device for payment, allotments, money, goods or other things of value knowing the same to have been received, transferred or used in any manner in violation of the terms of the benefit program is:

     (1) If the benefits are of a value of less than $1,000, guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction, shall for a first offense be fined not more than $1,000 or confined in a regional jail for not more than one year, or both fined and confined, and for a second and any subsequent conviction shall be fined not more than $1,000 or confined in a regional jail for not less than thirty days and not more than one year;

     (2) If the benefits are of a value of $1,000 or more, guilty of a felony and, upon conviction, shall for a first offense be fined not more than $20,000 or imprisoned in a state correctional facility for not more than five years, or both fined and imprisoned, and for a second and any subsequent conviction shall be fined not more than $20,000 or imprisoned in a state correctional facility for not less than one year nor more than five years, or both fined and imprisoned.

     (d) Notwithstanding the penalties contained in this section, in the case of any individual convicted of an offense under this section, the court may permit the individual to perform work approved by the court, in lieu of confinement, for the purpose of providing restitution for losses incurred by the United States and the state agency as a result of the offense for which the individual was convicted. If the court permits the individual to perform work and the individual agrees, the court shall withhold the imposition of the sentence on the condition that the individual perform the assigned work. Upon the successful completion of the assigned work the court shall waive any confinement from the sentence.

     (e) For purposes of this section, possession of two or more benefit access devices without authorization is prima facie evidence that an individual has knowledge the possession of the benefit access devices is a violation of the terms of the benefit program.

     (f) In determining the value in this section, it is permissible to cumulate amounts or values of benefits.

     (g) Notwithstanding any provision of this code to the contrary, no person who knowingly acquires benefits or one or more benefit access device contrary to the terms of the benefit program may be subject to prosecution under both this section and section four, article five, chapter nine of this code for conduct arising out of the same transaction or occurrence.
WVC -5- ARTICLE 5. CRIMES AGAINST PUBLIC JUSTICE.


WVC 61-5-1 §61-5-1. Perjury and subornation of perjury defined.
(a) Any person who is under an oath or affirmation which has been lawfully administered and who willfully testifies falsely regarding a material matter in a trial of any person, corporation or other legal entity for a felony, or before any grand jury which is considering a felony indictment, shall be guilty of the felony offense of perjury.

(b) Any person who induces or procures another person to testify falsely regarding a material matter in a trial of any person, corporation or other legal entity for a felony, or before any grand jury which is considering a felony indictment, shall be guilty of the felony offense of subornation of perjury.


WVC 61-5-2 §61-5-2. False swearing defined.
To wilfully swear falsely, under oath or affirmation lawfully administered, in a trial of the witness or any other person for a felony, concerning a matter or thing not material, and on any occasion other than a trial for a felony, concerning any matter or thing material or not material, or to procure another person to do so, is false swearing and is a misdemeanor.


WVC 61-5-3 §61-5-3. Penalties for perjury, subordination of perjury, and false swearing.
A person convicted of perjury or subordination of perjury shall be confined in the penitentiary not less than one nor more than ten years, and a person convicted of false swearing shall be fined not more than one thousand dollars, and, in the discretion of the court, confined in jail not more than one year. And in either case the person convicted shall be adjudged forever incapable of holding any office of honor, trust or profit in this state, or of serving as a juror.


WVC 61-5-4 §61-5-4. Bribery or attempted bribery; penalty.
If any person shall bribe, by directly or indirectly giving to or bestowing upon, or shall attempt to bribe by directly or indirectly giving to or bestowing upon, any executive, legislative, judicial, or ministerial officer of this state, or any member of the Legislature, after his election or appointment and either before or after he shall have been qualified or shall have taken his seat, any gift, gratuity, money, testimonial or other valuable thing, or shall make promise thereof, in order to influence him in the performance of any of his official, public duties, or with intent to influence his act, vote, opinion, decision or judgment on any matter, question, cause or proceeding, or to induce or procure him to vote or withhold his vote on any question or proceeding which is then or may thereafter be pending, or may by law come or be brought before him in his official capacity, he shall be guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction, shall be imprisoned in the penitentiary not less than one nor more than ten years, and shall, moreover, be forever disqualified from holding any office or position of honor, trust or profit in this state.


WVC 61-5-5 §61-5-5. Demanding or receiving bribes; penalty.
Any executive, legislative, judicial or ministerial officer, or member of the Legislature, who shall demand, receive or accept any gift, gratuity, money, testimonial or other valuable thing, or shall exact any promise to make such gift or to pay to him, money, testimonial or other valuable thing, or to do any act beneficial to such officer or member of the Legislature, from any person, company or corporation, under an agreement or understanding that his vote, opinion, judgment or decision shall be given or withheld in any particular manner upon a particular side of any question, cause or proceeding, which is, or may be by law brought before him in his official capacity, or that in such capacity he shall make any particular nomination or appointment, or for any vote or influence he may give or withhold as such officer or member of the Legislature, or that such officer will fail to perform or improperly perform any of his official, public duties, shall be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in the penitentiary not less than one nor more than ten years; and in addition thereto such officer or member of the Legislature shall forfeit the office then held by him and shall be forever disqualified from holding any office or position of honor, trust or profit in this state.


WVC 61-5-6 §61-5-6. Receiving bribe by officer in delay of service of process; penalty.
If any officer authorized to serve legal process receive any money or other thing of value for omitting or delaying to perform any duty pertaining to his office, he shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction, shall be confined in jail not more than six months and be fined not exceeding one hundred dollars.


WVC 61-5-7 §61-5-7. Bribery of commissioner of court, auditor, justice of the peace, arbitrator, umpire, juror, or other county official, either elected or appointed; penalty.
Any person who gives or offers, directly or through any other person or persons, or promises, directly or indirectly, to give any money or other thing of value to a commissioner appointed by a court, auditor, justice of the peace, arbitrator, umpire, juror (although not impaneled), or other county official, either elected or appointed, with intent to bias his opinion or influence his decision in relation to any matter in which he is acting or is to act; and any such commissioner, auditor, justice of the peace, arbitrator, umpire, juror, or other county official, either elected or appointed, who corruptly takes or receives such money or other thing of value, or who agrees to take such money or other thing of value to bias or influence his opinion or action or both, shall be guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction, shall be confined in the penitentiary not less than one nor more than ten years, and fined in addition thereto not exceeding five thousand dollars.


WVC 61 - 5 - 8 §61-5-8. Aiding escape and other offenses relating to adults and juveniles in custody or confinement; penalties.
(a) Where any adult or juvenile is lawfully detained in custody or confinement in any jail, state correctional facility, juvenile facility or juvenile detention center, if any other person delivers anything into the place of custody or confinement of the adult or juvenile with the intent to aid or facilitate the adult's or juvenile's escape or attempted escape therefrom, or if the other person forcibly rescues or attempts to rescue an adult or a juvenile therefrom, the other person is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in a state correctional facility not less than one nor more than ten years.

(b) Where any adult or juvenile is lawfully detained in custody or confinement in any jail, a state correctional facility or a juvenile facility or juvenile detention center, if any other person delivers any money or other thing of value, any written or printed matter, any article of merchandise, food or clothing, any medicine, utensil or instrument of any kind to the adult or juvenile without the express authority and permission of the supervising officer and with knowledge that the adult or juvenile is lawfully detained, the other person is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than $50 nor more than $500 and confined in jail not less than three nor more than twelve months: Provided, That the provisions of this section do not prohibit an attorney or his or her employees from supplying any written or printed material to an adult or juvenile which pertains to that attorney's representation of the adult or juvenile.

(c)(1) If any person transports any alcoholic liquor, nonintoxicating beer, poison, implement of escape, dangerous material, weapon, or any controlled substance as defined by chapter sixty-a of this code onto the grounds of any jail, state correctional facility, juvenile facility or juvenile detention center within this state and is unauthorized by law to do so, or is unauthorized by the persons supervising the facility, the person is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than $1,000 nor more than $5,000 or confined in a state correctional facility not less than two years nor more than ten years, or both, or, in the discretion of the court, be confined in jail not more than one year and fined not more than $500.

(2) If any person willfully and knowingly transports or causes to be transported any telecommunications device into or upon any portion of any jail, state correctional facility, juvenile facility or juvenile detention center within this state that is not generally open and accessible to members of the public without prior approval from the warden/administrator or designee and such person is unauthorized by law to do so, or is unauthorized by the persons supervising the facility, the person is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than $100 nor more than $500 or confined in jail not more than one year or both fined and confined.

(d) If any person delivers any alcoholic liquor, nonintoxicating beer, poison, implement of escape, dangerous material, weapon or any controlled substance as defined by chapter sixty-a of this code to an adult or juvenile in custody or confinement in any jail, state correctional facility, juvenile facility or juvenile detention center within this state and is unauthorized by law to do so, or is unauthorized by the persons supervising the facility, the person is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than $1,000 nor more than $5,000 or confined in a state correctional facility not less than one year nor more than five years, or both.

(e) Whoever purchases, accepts as a gift or secures by barter, trade or in any other manner any article or articles manufactured at or belonging to any jail, state correctional facility, juvenile facility or juvenile detention center from any adult or juvenile detained therein is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than $50 nor more than $500 and confined in jail not less than three nor more than twelve months: Provided, That the provisions of this subsection do not apply to articles specially manufactured in any facility under the authorization of the persons supervising the facility and which are offered for sale within or outside of the facility.

(f) Whoever persuades, induces or entices or attempts to persuade, induce or entice any person who is in custody or confined in any jail, state correctional facility, juvenile facility or juvenile detention center to escape therefrom or to engage or aid in any insubordination to the persons supervising the facility is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than $50 nor more than $500 and confined in jail not less than three nor more than twelve months.

(g) (1) An inmate of a jail, state correctional facility, juvenile facility or juvenile detention center having in his or her possession any poison, implement of escape, dangerous material, weapon, telecommunications device or any controlled substance as defined by chapter sixty-a of this code is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than $1,000 nor more than $5,000 or confined in a state correctional facility not less than one year nor more than five years, or both, or, in the discretion of the court, be confined in jail not more than one year and fined not more than $500.

(2) An inmate of a jail, state correctional facility, juvenile facility or juvenile detention center having in his or her possession any alcoholic liquor, nonintoxicating beer, money or other thing of value, any written or printed matter, any article of merchandise, food or clothing, any medicine, utensil or instrument of any kind without the express authority and permission of the supervising officer is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than $50 nor more than $500 and confined in jail not more than twelve months.

(h) As used in this section:

(1) "Dangerous material" means any incendiary material or device, highly flammable or caustic liquid, explosive, bullet or other material readily capable of causing death or serious bodily injury.

(2) "Delivers" means to transfer an item to an adult or juvenile who is detained in custody or confinement in any jail, correctional facility, juvenile facility or juvenile detention center or a building appurtenant to those places. The term includes bringing the item into a jail, correctional facility, juvenile facility or juvenile detention center or a building appurtenant to those places. The term includes putting an item in a place where it may be obtained by an inmate.

(3) "Inmate" means an adult or juvenile who is detained in custody or confinement in any jail, correctional facility, juvenile facility or juvenile detention center, regardless of whether the individual is temporarily absent due to medical treatment, transportation, court appearance or other reason for a temporary absence.

(4) "Implement of escape" means a tool, implement, device, equipment or other item which an inmate is not authorized to possess capable of facilitating, aiding or concealing an escape or attempted escape by an inmate.

(5) "Telecommunication device" means any type of instrument, device, machine or equipment which is capable of transmitting telephonic, electronic, digital, cellular or radio communications or any part of an instrument, device, machine or equipment which is capable of facilitating the transmission of telephonic, electronic, digital, cellular or radio communications regardless of whether the part itself is able to transmit. The term includes, but is not limited to, cellular phones, digital phones and modem equipment devices.

(6) "Weapon" means an implement readily capable of lethal use and includes any firearm, knife, dagger, razor, other cutting or stabbing implement or club. The term includes any item which has been modified or adapted so that it can be used as a firearm, knife, dagger, razor, other cutting or stabbing implement or club. For purposes of this definition, the term "firearm" includes an unloaded firearm or the unassembled components of a firearm.


WVC 61-5-9 §61-5-9. Permitting escape; refusal of custody of prisoner; penalties.
If a jailer or other officer, or private correctional officer aid or voluntarily suffer a prisoner convicted or charged with felony to escape from his custody, he shall be deemed guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction, shall be confined in the penitentiary not less than one nor more than five years. If any such jailer or other officer, or private correctional officer negligently, but not voluntarily, suffer a person convicted of or charged with felony, or voluntarily or negligently suffer a person convicted of or charged with an offense not a felony, to escape from his custody, or willfully refuse to receive into his custody any person lawfully committed thereto, he shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction, shall be confined in jail not less than six months, or be fined not exceeding one thousand dollars, or both such fine and confinement.


WVC 61 - 5 - 10 §61-5-10. Persons in custody of institutions or officers.
Whoever escapes or attempts to escape by any means from the custody of a county sheriff, the director of the regional jail authority, an authorized representative of said persons, a law-enforcement officer, probation officer, employee of the division of corrections, court bailiff, or from any institution, facility, or any alternative sentence confinement, by which he or she is lawfully confined, if the custody or confinement is by virtue of a charge or conviction for a felony, is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in a correctional facility for not more than five years; and if the custody or confinement is by virtue of a charge or conviction for a misdemeanor, is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, he or she shall be confined in a county or regional jail for not more than one year.


WVC 61-5-11 §61-5-11. Escapes and aiding in escapes; terms of confinement in addition to previous sentence.
The terms of confinement specified in section eleven, article four, chapter twenty-five of this code or in sections eight, nine and ten of this article shall be in addition to the period or periods of confinement to which any person convicted under this section may be subject to and shall commence at the expiration of any such former sentence.


WVC 61-5-12 §61-5-12. Escapes from, and other offenses relating to, state benevolent and correctional institution, or private prison or mental health facilities; penalties.
Except where otherwise provided, whoever abducts any person who is an inmate or patient of any state benevolent or correctional institution, private prison or mental health facility is guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be imprisoned in the penitentiary for not more than five years. Whoever persuades, induces or entices, or attempts to persuade, induce or entice, any person who is an inmate or patient of any such institution, private prison or facility to escape therefrom, or whoever conceals or harbors any such person, knowing him or her to have run away from any such institution, private prison or facility, is guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than one hundred dollars nor more than one thousand dollars, and in addition thereto, in the discretion of the court, may be imprisoned in the county jail not more than six months.

Any fugitive from any state benevolent or correctional institution, private prison or mental health facility, may, on the order of the superintendent or other officer of such institution or facility, be arrested and returned to such institution or facility, or to any officer or agent thereof, by any sheriff, police officer or other person, and may also be arrested and returned by any officer or agent of such institution, private prison or facility.

Whoever trespasses, idles, lounges or loiters upon the grounds of any other state benevolent or correctional institution, private prison or mental health facility or communicates, or attempts to communicate, by signals, signs, writings or otherwise with any inmate or patient of such institution, private prison or facility, or conveys or assists in any way in establishing communication between an inmate or patient of such institution, private prison or facility and any person or persons outside thereof, except as authorized by the rules or regulations in force by the authority governing the same, is guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than twenty nor more than five hundred dollars, or imprisoned not more than thirty days in the county jail, or both, in the discretion of the court or magistrate. Whoever, with intent to defraud, purchases, accepts as a gift, or secures by barter or trade, or in any other manner, any article of clothing from an inmate or patient of any state benevolent or correctional institution, private prison or mental health facility issued to him or her, by any officer of such institution or facility, or by any private correctional officer of such private prison for his or her use, or, with such intent, secures any other article or articles belonging to any inmate or patient of such institution, private prison or facility or to such institution, private prison or facility from an inmate or patient thereof, is guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined a sum not less than double the value of such articles, except that in no case shall the fine be less than one hundred dollars. Magistrates shall have jurisdiction of all misdemeanors included in this paragraph, concurrently with the circuit court.


WVC 61-5-12a §61-5-12a. Escape from custody of the commissioner of corrections.
Any person who escapes from the custody of the commissioner of corrections, regardless of where such person is confined or where such escape occurs, is guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be imprisoned in the penitentiary not more than five years. A term of imprisonment imposed pursuant to the provisions of this section shall be imposed as a consecutive sentence and shall not be served concurrently with any imprisonment, confinement or detention imposed under any prior sentence being served or otherwise being discharged at the time such person commits an offense under the provisions of this section. A person charged with an offense under the provisions of this section shall not be released from the custody of the commissioner of corrections while the prosecution of the alleged offense is pending: Provided, That time served by such person after any other prior sentence has been served or otherwise discharged shall be applied to any sentence which may ultimately be imposed for an offense under this section. Venue for the prosecution of a violation of this section shall be in the county in which the escape occurs.


WVC 61 - 5 - 12 B §61-5-12b. Escape from custody of the Director of Juvenile Services.
     (a) Any person, under the age of eighteen years of age, who escapes or attempts to escape from the custody of the Director of Juvenile Services, regardless of where such person is confined or where such escape occurs, is guilty of a delinquent act and subject to the jurisdiction of the circuit court of the county in which the escape occurred, pursuant to section two, article five, chapter forty-nine of this code: Provided, That upon agreement of all parties, the prosecution of the escape may be transferred to the circuit court from which the juvenile was originally committed.

     (b) Any person, over the age of eighteen years of age or any juvenile who has been transferred to the adult jurisdiction of the committing court, who escapes or attempts to escape from the custody of the Director of Juvenile Services, regardless of where such person is confined or where such escape or attempted escape occurs, is guilty of escape and, if the person is detained or confined for an offense which is a felony or would have been a felony if committed by an adult is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be imprisoned in a state correctional facility not more than five years. Any person, over the age of eighteen years of age or any juvenile who has been transferred to the adult jurisdiction of the committing court, who is detained for an offense which is a misdemeanor or would have been a misdemeanor if committed by an adult is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in a regional jail for not more than one year.
WVC 61-5-13 §61-5-13. Refusal of officer to make, or delay in making, arrest; penalty.
If any officer wilfully and corruptly refuse to execute any lawful process, requiring him to apprehend or confine a person convicted of or charged with an offense, or shall wilfully and corruptly omit or delay to execute such process, whereby such person shall escape and go at large, such officer shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction, shall be confined in jail not more than six months, and be fined not exceeding five hundred dollars.


WVC 61-5-14 §61-5-14. Refusal of person to aid officer; penalty.
If any person shall, on being required by any sheriff or other officer, refuse or neglect to assist him in the execution of his office in a criminal case, or in the preservation of the peace, or the apprehending or securing of any person for a breach of the peace, or in any case of escape or rescue, he shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction, shall be confined in jail not more than six months and be fined not exceeding one hundred dollars.


WVC 61-5-15 §61-5-15. Refusal of person to execute order of arrest by justice; penalty.
If any person, being required by a justice, on view of a breach of the peace or other offense, to bring before him the offender, shall refuse or neglect to obey the justice, he shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction, shall be punished as provided in the preceding section; and if the justice declare himself to be such, or if he be known to the offender, ignorance of his office shall not be pleaded as an excuse.


WVC 61-5-16 §61-5-16. Refusal of officer to execute act or process of Legislature or order of governor; penalty.
Any officer of this state whose duty it is to execute or enforce any act of the Legislature, or any legal process or proceeding arising thereunder, or any lawful order or proclamation of the governor of the state, and who shall wilfully neglect or refuse to execute or enforce the same, shall, for every such offense, be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than fifty nor more than five hundred dollars, and may, in the discretion of the court, be imprisoned not exceeding one year.


WVC 61 - 5 - 17 §61-5-17. Obstructing officer; fleeing from officer; making false statements to officer; interfering with emergency communications; penalties; definitions.

     (a) A person who by threats, menaces, acts or otherwise forcibly or illegally hinders or obstructs or attempts to hinder or obstruct a law-enforcement officer, probation officer or parole officer acting in his or her official capacity is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than $50 nor more than $500 or confined in jail not more than one year, or both fined and confined.

     (b) A person who intentionally disarms or attempts to disarm a law-enforcement officer, correctional officer, probation officer or parole officer, acting in his or her official capacity, is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be imprisoned in a state correctional facility not less than one nor more than five years.

     (c) A person who, with intent to impede or obstruct a law-enforcement officer in the conduct of an investigation of a felony offense, knowingly and willfully makes a materially false statement is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than $25 nor more than $200, or confined in jail for five days, or both fined and confined. The provisions of this section do not apply to statements made by a spouse, parent, stepparent, grandparent, sibling, half sibling, child, stepchild or grandchild, whether related by blood or marriage, of the person under investigation. Statements made by the person under investigation may not be used as the basis for prosecution under this subsection. For purposes of this subsection, "law-enforcement officer" does not include a watchman, a member of the West Virginia State Police or college security personnel who is not a certified law-enforcement officer.

     (d) A person who intentionally flees or attempts to flee by any means other than the use of a vehicle from a law-enforcement officer, probation officer or parole officer acting in his or her official capacity who is attempting to make a lawful arrest of the person, and who knows or reasonably believes that the officer is attempting to arrest him or her, is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than $50 nor more than $500 or confined in jail not more than one year, or both.

     (e) A person who intentionally flees or attempts to flee in a vehicle from a law-enforcement officer, probation officer or parole officer acting in his or her official capacity after the officer has given a clear visual or audible signal directing the person to stop is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than $500 nor more than $1,000 and shall be confined in a regional jail not more than one year.

     (f) A person who intentionally flees or attempts to flee in a vehicle from a law-enforcement officer, probation officer or parole officer acting in his or her official capacity after the officer has given a clear visual or audible signal directing the person to stop, and who operates the vehicle in a manner showing a reckless indifference to the safety of others, is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than $1,000 nor more than $2,000 and shall be imprisoned in a state correctional facility not less than one nor more than five years.

     (g) A person who intentionally flees or attempts to flee in a vehicle from a law-enforcement officer, probation officer or parole officer acting in his or her official capacity after the officer has given a clear visual or audible signal directing the person to stop, and who causes damage to the real or personal property of a person during or resulting from his or her flight, is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than $1,000 nor more than $3,000 and shall be confined in jail for not less than six months nor more than one year.

     (h) A person who intentionally flees or attempts to flee in a vehicle from a law-enforcement officer, probation officer or parole officer acting in his or her official capacity after the officer has given a clear visual or audible signal directing the person to stop, and who causes bodily injury to a person during or resulting from his or her flight, is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be imprisoned in a state correctional facility not less than three nor more than ten years.

     (i) A person who intentionally flees or attempts to flee in a vehicle from a law-enforcement officer, probation officer or parole officer acting in his or her official capacity after the officer has given a clear visual or audible signal directing the person to stop, and who causes death to a person during or resulting from his or her flight, is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be imprisoned in a state correctional facility for not less than five nor more than fifteen years. A person imprisoned pursuant to this subsection is not eligible for parole prior to having served a minimum of three years of his or her sentence or the minimum period required by section thirteen, article twelve, chapter sixty-two of this code, whichever is greater.

     (j) A person who intentionally flees or attempts to flee in a vehicle from a law-enforcement officer, probation officer or parole officer acting in his or her official capacity after the officer has given a clear visual or audible signal directing the person to stop, and who is under the influence of alcohol, controlled substances or drugs, is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be imprisoned in a state correctional facility not less than three nor more than ten years.

     (k) For purposes of this section, the term "vehicle" includes any motor vehicle, motorcycle, motorboat, all-terrain vehicle or snowmobile as those terms are defined in section one, article one, chapter seventeen-a of this code, whether or not it is being operated on a public highway at the time and whether or not it is licensed by the state.

     (l) For purposes of this section, the terms "flee", "fleeing" and "flight" do not include a person's reasonable attempt to travel to a safe place, allowing the pursuing law-enforcement officer to maintain appropriate surveillance, for the purpose of complying with the officer's direction to stop.

     (m) The revisions to subsections (e), (f), (g) and (h) of this section enacted during the regular session of the 2010 regular legislative session shall be known as the Jerry Alan Jones Act.

     (n) (1) No person, with the intent to purposefully deprive another person of emergency services, may interfere with or prevent another person from making an emergency communication, which a reasonable person would consider necessary under the circumstances, to law-enforcement, fire, or emergency medical service personnel.

     (2) For the purpose of this subsection, the term "interfere with or prevent" includes, but is not limited to, seizing, concealing, obstructing access to or disabling or disconnecting a telephone, telephone line or equipment or other communication device.

     (3) For the purpose of this subsection, the term "emergency communication" means communication to transmit warnings or other information pertaining to a crime, fire, accident, power outage, disaster or risk of injury or damage to a person or property.

     (4) A person who violates this subsection is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in jail for a period of not less than one day nor more than one year and shall be fined not less than $250 nor more than $2,000, or both.

     (5) A person who is convicted of a second offense under this subsection is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in jail for not less than three months nor more than one year and fined not less than $500 nor more than $3,000, or both.

     (6) A person who is convicted of a third or subsequent offense under this subsection is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in jail not less than six months nor more than one year and fined not less than $500 nor more than $4,000, or both.

     (7) In determining the number of prior convictions for purposes of imposing punishment under this subsection, the court shall disregard all such prior convictions occurring more than ten years prior to the offense in question.
WVC 61-5-18 §61-5-18. Officer not liable for act done under statute or executive order afterward declared unconstitutional.
No officer in the lawful exercise or discharge of his official duty under any act of the Legislature, or any order or proclamation of the governor of this state, shall be held personally responsible therefor in any action, suit, prosecution or proceeding, civil or criminal, by reason of such act, order or proclamation being afterwards adjudged by any court of this state to be unconstitutional. Nor shall his official bond be liable in any civil proceeding therefor.


WVC 61-5-19 §61-5-19. Compounding offenses and misprison; penalties.
If any person, knowing of the commission of an offense, take any money, or reward, or an engagement therefor, upon an agreement or undertaking, expressed or implied, to compound or conceal such offense, or not to prosecute therefor, or not to give evidence thereof, he shall, if such offense be a felony, be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction, be confined in jail not more than one year and fined not exceeding five hundred dollars; and if such offense be not a felony, unless it be punishable merely by a forfeiture to him, he may be confined in jail not more than six months, and shall be fined not exceeding one hundred dollars.


WVC 61-5-20 §61-5-20. Exacting excessive fees; penalty.
If any officer, for performing an official duty for which a fee or compensation is allowed or provided by law, knowingly demand and receive a greater fee or compensation than is so allowed or provided, he shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction, shall be fined not exceeding fifty dollars.


WVC 61-5-21 §61-5-21. Issuing fraudulent fee bills; penalty.
If any person authorized by law to charge fees for services performed by him, and to issue fee bills therefor, fraudulently issue a fee bill for a service not performed by him, or for more than he is entitled to, he shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction, shall be fined not exceeding five hundred dollars; and, in addition thereto, he shall forfeit his office and be forever incapable of holding any office of honor, trust or profit in this state.


WVC 61-5-22 §61-5-22. Alteration, concealment or destruction of public record by officer; penalty.
If any clerk of a court, or other public officer, fraudulently make a false entry, or erase, alter or destroy any record in his keeping and belonging to his office, or shall wilfully secrete any such record from any person having the right to inspect the same, he shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction, shall be confined in jail not more than one year and be fined not exceeding one thousand dollars; and, in addition thereto, he shall forfeit his office and be forever incapable of holding any office of honor, trust or profit in this state.


WVC 61-5-23 §61-5-23. Larceny, concealment or destruction of public record by person not officer; penalty.
If any person, other than an officer in lawful charge thereof, steal, fraudulently secrete or destroy, a public record or any part thereof, he shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction, shall be confined in jail not more than one year and be fined not exceeding one thousand dollars.


WVC 61-5-24 §61-5-24. Corrupt summoning of jurors to find biased verdict; penalty.
A sheriff or other officer who, corruptly, or through favor or ill will, shall summon a juror, with intent that such juror shall find a verdict for or against any party to an action, or shall be biased in his conduct as such juror, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction, shall be confined in jail not exceeding six months and fined not exceeding five hundred dollars, and shall forfeit his office and be forever incapable of holding any office of honor, trust or profit in this state.


WVC 61-5-25 §61-5-25. Procuring the summoning of biased juror by party other than officer; penalty.
If any person shall procure or attempt to procure a juror to be summoned, with intent that such juror shall find a verdict for or against either party to an action, or shall be biased in his conduct as such juror, he shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction, shall be fined not exceeding five hundred dollars.


WVC 61-5-25a §61-5-25a. Discrimination against employee summoned for jury duty; penalty.
It is unlawful for any person to terminate or threaten to terminate from employment, or decrease the regular compensation of employment of an employee for time the employee was not actually away from his employment because an employee received, or was served with a summons for jury duty, or was absent from work to respond to a summons for jury duty or to serve on any jury in any court of this state, the United States or any state of the United States.

Any person violating the provisions of this section shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction, shall be fined not less than one hundred dollars nor more than one thousand dollars, or imprisoned in the county jail not more than sixty days, or both fined and imprisoned.


WVC 61-5-26 §61-5-26. Contempt of court; what constitutes contempt; jury trial; presence of defendant.
The courts and the judges thereof may issue attachment for contempt and punish them summarily only in the following cases: (a) Misbehavior in the presence of the court, or so near thereto as to obstruct or interrupt the administration of justice; (b) violence or threats of violence to a judge or officer of the court, or to a juror, witness, or party going to, attending or returning from the court, for or in respect of any act or proceeding had, or to be had, in such court; (c) misbehavior of an officer of the court, in his official character; (d) disobedience to or resistance of any officer of the court, juror, witness, or other person, to any lawful process, judgment, decree or order of the said court. No court shall, without a jury, for any such contempt as is mentioned in subdivision (a) of this section, impose a fine exceeding fifty dollars, or imprison more than ten days. But in any such case the court may impanel a jury (without an indictment or any formal pleading) to ascertain the fine or imprisonment proper to be inflicted, and may give judgment according to the verdict. No court shall impose a fine for contempt, unless the defendant be present in court, or shall have been served with a rule of the court to show cause, on some certain day, and shall have failed to appear and show cause.


WVC 61 - 5 - 27 §61-5-27. Intimidation of and retaliation against public officers and employees, jurors and witnesses; fraudulent official proceedings and legal processes against public officials and employees; penalties.
(a) Definitions. -- As used in this section:

(1) "Fraudulent" means not legally issued or sanctioned under the laws of this state or of the United States, including forged, false and materially misstated;

(2) "Legal process" means an action, appeal, document instrument or other writing issued, filed or recorded to pursue a claim against person or property, exercise jurisdiction, enforce a judgment, fine a person, put a lien on property, authorize a search and seizure, arrest a person, incarcerate a person or direct a person to appear, perform or refrain from performing a specified act. "Legal process" includes, but is not limited to, a complaint, decree, demand, indictment, injunction, judgment, lien, motion, notice, order, petition, pleading, sentence, subpoena, summons, warrant or writ;

(3) "Official proceeding" means a proceeding involving a legal process or other process of a tribunal of this state or of the United States;

(4) "Person" means an individual, group, association, corporation or any other entity;

(5) "Public official or employee" means an elected or appointed official or employee, of a state or federal court, commission, department, agency, political subdivision or any governmental instrumentality;

(6) "Recorder" means a clerk or other employee in charge of recording instruments in a court, commission or other tribunal of this state or of the United States; and

(7) "Tribunal" means a court or other judicial or quasi-judicial entity, or an administrative, legislative or executive body, or that of a political subdivision, created or authorized under the constitution or laws of this state or of the United States.

(b) Intimidation; harassment. -- It is unlawful for a person to use intimidation, physical force, harassment or a fraudulent legal process or official proceeding, or to threaten or attempt to do so, with the intent to:

(1) Impede or obstruct a public official or employee from performing his or her official duties;

(2) Impede or obstruct a juror or witness from performing his or her official duties in an official proceeding;

(3) Influence, delay or prevent the testimony of any person in an official proceeding; or

(4) Cause or induce a person to: (A) Withhold testimony, or withhold a record, document or other object from an official proceeding; (B) alter, destroy, mutilate or conceal a record, document or other object impairing its integrity or availability for use in an official proceeding; (C) evade an official proceeding summoning a person to appear as a witness or produce a record, document or other object for an official proceeding; or (D) be absent from an official proceeding to which such person has been summoned.

(c) Retaliation. -- It is unlawful for a person to cause injury or loss to person or property, or to threaten or attempt to do so, with the intent to:

(1) Retaliate against a public official or employee for the performance or nonperformance of an official duty;

(2) Retaliate against a juror or witness for performing his or her official duties in an official proceeding;

(3) Retaliate against any other person for attending, testifying or participating in an official proceeding, or for the production of any record, document or other object produced by a person in an official proceeding.

(d) Subsection (b) offense. -- A person who is convicted of an offense under subsection (b) is guilty of a misdemeanor and shall be confined in jail for not more than one year or fined not more than one thousand dollars, or both.

(e) Subsection (c) or subsequent offense. -- A person convicted of an offense under subsection (c) or a second offense under subsection (b) is guilty of a felony and shall be confined in the penitentiary not less than one nor more than ten years or fined not more than two thousand dollars, or both.

(f) Civil cause of action. -- A person who violates this section is liable in a civil action to any person harmed by the violation for injury or loss to person or property incurred as a result of the commission of the offense and for reasonable attorney's fees, court costs and other expenses incurred as a result of prosecuting a civil action commenced under this subsection, which is not the exclusive remedy of a person who suffers injury or loss to person or property as a result of a violation of this section.

(g) Civil sanctions. -- In addition to the criminal and civil penalties set forth in this section, any fraudulent official proceeding or legal process brought in a tribunal of this state in violation of this section shall be dismissed by the tribunal and the person may be ordered to reimburse the aggravated person for reasonable attorney's fees, court costs and other expenses incurred in defending or dismissing such action.

(1) Refusal to record. -- A recorder may refuse to record a clearly fraudulent lien or other legal process against a public official or employee or his or her property. The recorder does not have a duty to inspect or investigate whether a lien or other legal process is fraudulent nor is the recorder liable for refusing to record a lien or other legal process that the recorder believes is in violation of this section.

(2) If a fraudulent lien or other legal process against a public official or employee or his or her property is recorded then:

(A) Request to release lien. -- The public official or employee may send a written request by certified mail to the person who filed the fraudulent lien or legal process, requesting the person to release or dismiss the lien or legal process. If such lien or legal process is not properly released or dismissed within twenty-one days, then it shall be inferred that the person intended to harass the public official or employee in violation of subsection (b) of this section and shall be subject to the criminal penalties in subsection (d) of this section and any other remedies provided for in this section; or

(B) Notice of fraudulent lien. -- A government attorney on behalf of the public official or employee may record a notice of fraudulent lien or legal process with the recorder who accepted the lien or legal process for filing. Such notice shall invalidate the fraudulent lien or legal process and cause it to be removed from the records. No filing fee shall be charged for the filing of the notice.

(h) A person's lack of belief in the jurisdiction or authority of this state or of the United States is no defense to prosecution of a civil or criminal action under this section.

(i)(1) Nothing in this section prohibits or in any way limits the lawful acts of legitimate public officials or employees.

(2) Nothing in this section prohibits or in any way limits a person's lawful and legitimate right to freely assemble, express opinions or designate group affiliation.

(3) Nothing in this section prohibits or in any way limits a person's lawful and legitimate access to a tribunal of this state or prevents a person from instituting or responding to a lawful action.


WVC 61 - 5 - 27 A §61-5-27a. Fraudulent official proceedings; causing a public employee or official to file a fraudulent legal process; impersonation of a public official, employee or tribunal; penalties.
(a) Definitions. -- For the purpose of this section, the following terms have the meaning ascribed to them in section twenty-seven of this article: "Fraudulent", "legal process", "official proceeding", "person", "public official or employee", "recorder", and "tribunal".

(b) Fraudulent official proceedings. -- It is unlawful for a person to knowingly engage in a fraudulent official proceeding or legal process.

(c) Fraudulent filings. -- It is unlawful for a person to knowingly cause a public official or employee to file, record or deliver a fraudulent claim of indebtedness, common law lien or other lien, financial statement, complaint, summons, judgment, warrant or other legal process, including those issued as the result of a fraudulent official proceeding.

(d) Fraudulent service. -- It is unlawful for a person to knowingly serve a public official or employee with a fraudulent claim of indebtedness, common law lien or other lien, financial statement, complaint, summons, judgment, warrant or other legal process, including those issued as the result of a fraudulent official proceeding.

(e) Impersonation. -- It is unlawful for a person to knowingly impersonate or purport to exercise any function of a public official, employee, tribunal or official proceeding without legal authority to do so and with the intent to induce a person to submit to or rely on the fraudulent authority of the person.

(f) First offense. -- Any person who violates a provision of this section is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in a county or regional jail for not more than one year or fined not more than one thousand dollars, or both.

(g) Second offense. -- Any person convicted of a second or subsequent offense under this section is guilty of a felony and shall be confined in the penitentiary not less than one nor more than ten years or fined not more than two thousand dollars, or both.

(h) Civil cause of action. -- A person who violates this section is liable in a civil action to any person harmed by the violation for injury or loss to person or property incurred as a result of the commission of the offense and for reasonable attorney's fees, court costs and other expenses incurred as a result of prosecuting the civil action commenced under this subsection, which is not the exclusive remedy of a person who suffers injury or loss to person or property as a result of a violation of this section.

(i) Civil sanctions. -- In addition to the criminal and civil penalties set forth in this section, a fraudulent official proceeding or legal process brought in a tribunal in violation of this section shall be dismissed by the tribunal and the person may be ordered to reimburse the aggravated person for reasonable attorney's fees, court costs and other expenses incurred in defending or dismissing such action.

(1) Refusal to record. -- A recorder may refuse to record a clearly fraudulent lien or other legal process against a person or his or her property. The recorder does not have a duty to inspect or investigate whether a lien or other legal process is fraudulent nor is the recorder liable for refusing to record a lien or other legal process that the recorder believes is in violation of this section.

(2) If a fraudulent lien or other legal process against a person or his or her property is recorded then:

(A) Request to release lien. -- A person may send a written request by certified mail to the person who filed the fraudulent lien or legal process, requesting the person to release or dismiss the lien or legal process. If such lien or legal process is not properly released or dismissed within twenty-one days, then the person shall be presumed to have intended to have committed a violation of this section and shall be subject to the penalties provided for in this section; or

(B) Petition to circuit court. -- A person may petition the circuit court of the county where the fraudulent lien or legal process was recorded for an order that may be granted ex parte directing the person who filed the lien or legal process to appear before the court and show cause why the lien or legal process should not be released or dismissed, deemed fraudulent and the person penalized as provided for in this section.

(i) The petition shall set forth a concise statement of the facts and the grounds upon which relief is requested.

(ii) No filing fee shall be charged for the filing of such petitions.

(iii) The order to show cause shall be served upon the person who filed the lien or legal process according to rule 4 of the rules of civil procedure and the date of the hearing set within twenty-one days of the order.

(iv) The order to show cause shall clearly state that if the person who filed the lien or legal process fails to appear at the time and place noticed in the order, then the lien or legal process shall be released or dismissed, deemed fraudulent and the person shall be subject to the penalties provided for in this section.

(v) If a hearing takes place or if, on its own motion, the circuit court determines that the lien or legal process is fraudulent, then the circuit court shall release or dismiss it and subject the person to the penalties provided for in this section.

(vi) If the circuit court determines that the lien or legal process is valid, then the circuit court shall issue an order stating such and may award reasonable attorney's fees, court costs and other expenses to the prevailing party.

(j) A person's lack of belief in the jurisdiction or authority of this state or of the United States is no defense to prosecution of a civil or criminal action under this section.

(k)(1) Nothing in this section prohibits or in any way limits the lawful acts of a legitimate public official or employee.

(2) Nothing in this section prohibits or in any way limits a person's lawful and legitimate right to freely assemble, express opinions or designate group affiliation.

(3) Nothing in this section prohibits or in any way limits a person's lawful and legitimate access to a tribunal of this state, or prevents a person from instituting or responding to a lawful action.


WVC 61-5-28 §61-5-28. Failure to perform official duties; penalty.
Any person holding any office or appointment in this state, who shall wilfully fail or refuse to perform any duty required of him by law, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall, if no other punishment be prescribed by law therefor, be fined not exceeding one hundred dollars.


WVC 61 - 5 - 29 §61-5-29. Failure to meet an obligation to pay support to a minor; penalties.
(1) A person who: (a) Repeatedly and willfully fails to pay his or her court-ordered support which he or she can reasonably provide and which he or she knows he or she has a duty to provide to a minor; and (b) is subject to court order to pay any amount for the support of a minor child and is delinquent in meeting the full obligation established by the order and has been delinquent for a period of at least six months' duration is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than $100 nor more than $1,000, or confined in jail for not more than one year, or both fined and confined.

(2) A person who repeatedly and willfully fails to pay his or her court-ordered support which he or she can reasonably provide and which he or she knows he or she has a duty to provide to a minor by virtue of a court or administrative order and the failure results in twelve months without payment of support that remains unpaid is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than $100 nor more than $1,000, or imprisoned for not less than one year nor more than three years, or both fined and imprisoned.


WVC -5A- ARTICLE 5A. BRIBERY AND CORRUPT PRACTICES.


WVC 61-5A-1 §61-5A-1. Short title.
This article shall be known and may be cited as the "Bribery and Corrupt Practices Act."


WVC 61-5A-2 §61-5A-2. Definitions.
The following words and phrases when used in this article shall have the meanings respectively ascribed to them in this section unless the context clearly requires a different meaning:

(1) "Government" includes the state, the state or any county board of education, or any county or municipality of the state;

(2) "Public servant" means any officer (whether executive, judicial, legislative or ministerial, and whether elected or appointed) or employee of the state, or of the state or any county board of education, or of any county or municipality of the state, including without in any way limiting the generality of the foregoing, commissioners of a court, justices of the peace, law-enforcement officers, and any person participating as juror; or any candidate for election to any state, county or local public office; but the term does not include witnesses;

(3) "Party official" means (i) a person who holds an office or position in a political party or political party committee, whether by election, appointment or otherwise, by virtue of which he directs or conducts, or participates in directing or conducting party affairs at any level of responsibility (including, but not limited to, a treasurer of a political party committee), or (ii) a committee or any member thereof advancing the interests of any political party or candidate for election to any state, county or local public office (including, but not limited to, a financial agent as that term is now defined in chapter three of this code) or working for or against the approval of a public question by the voters at any election;

(4) "Administrative proceeding" means any adversary proceeding before any public servant, involving the exercise of administrative authority, and said term shall not be construed as including any legislative proceeding;

(5) "Judicial proceeding" means (i) any proceeding before any court or commissioner thereof or justice of the peace, or (ii) any quasi-judicial proceeding before a board, commission or public servant, the outcome of which is required to be based on a record or documentation prescribed by law;

(6) "Legislative proceeding" means any proceeding before the Legislature or either house or any committee thereof;

(7) "Official action" means a decision, award of contract, judgment, opinion, report, recommendation, vote, or other exercise of discretion;

(8) "Benefit" means a gain or advantage, or anything regarded, or which might reasonably be regarded, by the beneficiary as a gain or advantage, including a gain or advantage to any other person; and "pecuniary benefit" means a benefit in the form of money, tangible or intangible property, commercial interests or anything else the primary significance of which is economic gain; but the terms "benefit" and "pecuniary benefit" shall not be construed so as to include (a) salary, fees and other compensation and expenses paid by the government or political party or political party committee in behalf of which the official action or legal duty is performed, or (b) concurrence in official action in the course of legitimate compromise among public servants, or (c) wages, salary or fees or other compensation paid to a public servant when the reason for such payment is not to affect his official impartiality;

(9) "Harm" means loss to a person, physical injury of a person or injury to the property of a person, including loss to, physical injury of or injury to the property of any other person in whose welfare he is interested;

(10) "Approval" means recommendation, failure to disapprove, or any other manifestation of favor or acquiescence; and

(11) "Disapproval" means failure to approve, or any other manifestation of disfavor or nonacquiescence.


WVC 61-5A-3 §61-5A-3. Bribery in official and political matters.
A person is guilty of bribery under the provisions of this section if he offers, confers or agrees to confer to or upon another, or solicits, accepts or agrees to accept from another, directly or indirectly:

(1) Any pecuniary benefit as consideration for the recipient's official action as a public servant or party official; or

(2) Any benefit as consideration for the recipient's official action as a public servant in an administrative or judicial proceeding; or

(3) Any benefit as consideration for a violation of a legal duty as a public servant or party official.

A person is also guilty of bribery under the provisions of this section if he agrees to render or not to render official action as a public servant or party official as consideration for a pecuniary benefit being offered or conferred to or upon, or as consideration for a promise that a pecuniary benefit shall be offered or conferred to or upon, another person or a party official or a political party.


WVC 61-5A-4 §61-5A-4. Unlawful rewarding for past behavior.
(a) It shall be unlawful for any person to solicit, accept or agree to accept, directly or indirectly, a pecuniary benefit for:

(1) Having engaged in official action as a public servant; or

(2) Having violated a legal duty as a public servant.

(b) It shall also be unlawful for any person to offer, confer or agree to confer, directly or indirectly, a pecuniary benefit, the receipt of which is prohibited by subsection (a) of this section.


WVC 61-5A-5 §61-5A-5. Threats in official and political matters.
It shall be unlawful for any person to threaten harm to another with intent to influence the official action of a public servant in a pending or prospective administrative or judicial proceeding before such public servant, or with intent to influence a public servant or party official to violate his legal duty as a public servant or party official.


WVC 61-5A-6 §61-5A-6. Gifts or gratuities to public servants prohibited; exceptions.
(a) It shall be unlawful:

(1) For any public servant in any department, agency, division, board, bureau or commission of government exercising regulatory functions, or conducting inspections or investigations, or carrying on civil or criminal litigation on behalf of the government, or having custody of prisoners, to solicit, accept or agree to accept, directly or indirectly, any gift or gratuity from a person known by such public servant to be subject to such regulation, inspection, investigation or custody, or against whom such litigation is known by such public servant to be pending or contemplated; or

(2) For any public servant (except an officer or employee of the department of finance and administration who shall be subject to the prohibitions contained in section thirty-five, article three, chapter five-a of this code) having any official action to perform in connection with bids, contracts, purchases, claims or other pecuniary transactions of the government to solicit, accept or agree to accept, directly or indirectly, any gift or gratuity from any person known by such public servant to be interested in any such bid, contract, purchase, claim or transaction; or

(3) For any public servant having administrative or judicial authority and for any public servant employed by or in an agency or court or other body having such authority, or participating in the enforcement of its decisions, to solicit, accept or agree to accept, directly or indirectly, any gift or gratuity from a person known by such public servant to be interested in any matter before such public servant or an agency, court or body with which he is associated; or

(4) For any public servant in the legislative branch of government to solicit, accept or agree to accept, directly or indirectly, any gift or gratuity from any person known by such public servant to be interested in a bill, transaction or proceeding before the Legislature or either house thereof or any agency or committee thereof; or

(5) For any person to offer, give, or agree to give any gift or gratuity prohibited by the provisions of subdivisions (1), (2), (3) or (4) of this subsection (a).

(b) The prohibitions contained in subsection (a) of this section shall not apply to (1) gifts or gratuities conferred on account of kinship or other personal, professional or business relationship independent of the official status of the recipient; or (2) trivial gifts or gratuities involving no substantial risk of affecting official impartiality; or (3) social, professional or business entertainment involving no substantial risk of affecting official impartiality. The prohibitions contained in subdivisions (1), (2), (3) and (4) of subsection (a) of this section shall not apply to campaign contributions made for use in meeting campaign expenses by any public servant by or for whom a certificate of candidacy has been filed for election to the same or another public office for which such campaign is to be conducted, if such campaign contributions are made after the filing of such certificate of candidacy, if no part of such campaign contributions inures to the private financial gain of any public servant, and, when the provisions of article eight, chapter three of this code are applicable to the public office being sought, if such campaign contributions are within the limits specified in said article eight, are reported as campaign contributions pursuant to the provisions of said article eight, and are not otherwise prohibited by said chapter three. The prohibitions contained in subdivision (5) of subsection (a) of this section shall not apply to campaign contributions made for use in meeting campaign expenses by any public servant by or for whom a certificate of candidacy has been filed for election to the same or another public office for which such campaign is to be conducted, if such campaign contributions are made after the filing of such certificate of candidacy, if the person offering, giving or agreeing to give such campaign contributions does not intend that any part of such campaign contributions inure to the private financial gain of any public servant, and, when the provisions of article eight, chapter three of this code are applicable to the public office being sought, if such campaign contributions are within the limits specified in said article eight, are not otherwise prohibited by said chapter three and if the person offering, giving or agreeing to give such campaign contributions does not intend that such contributions not be reported as campaign contributions pursuant to said article eight.


WVC 61-5A-7 §61-5A-7. Trading in public office.
It shall be unlawful for any person to solicit, accept or agree to accept, or agree that any political party or political party committee or other person shall accept, or offer, confer or agree to confer, any pecuniary benefit as consideration for approval or disapproval by a public servant or party official of a person for appointment, employment, advancement or retention as a public servant or for nomination as a candidate for public office.


WVC 61-5A-8 §61-5A-8. Certain matters not to constitute defense.
It shall be no defense to any prosecution under the provisions of section three or section five of this article that a person whom the actor sought to influence or otherwise affect or deal with was not qualified to act in the desired way, whether because he was a candidate for office, or had not yet assumed office or his position of employment, or lacked authority or jurisdiction, or the matter was not yet before him, or for any other reason was not qualified to act in the desired way.


WVC 61-5A-9 §61-5A-9. Penalties; disqualification to hold office; statute of limitations for misdemeanor offenses.
(a) Any person who violates any of the provisions of section three of this article shall be guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be punished, if an individual, by imprisonment in the penitentiary not less than one nor more than ten years, and, if a corporation, by a fine of not exceeding fifty thousand dollars. Any person convicted of violating any of the provisions of section three of this article shall also be forever disqualified from holding any office or position of honor, trust or profit of government in this state.

(b) Any person who violates any of the provisions of section four of this article shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon, conviction thereof, shall be punished by confinement in jail not less than three months nor more than one year or by a fine of not exceeding five thousand dollars or, in the discretion of the court, by both such confinement and fine.

(c) Any person who violates any of the provisions of section five of this article shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be punished by confinement in jail not less than three months nor more than one year or by a fine of not exceeding five thousand dollars or, in the discretion of the court, by both such confinement and fine, unless such person threatened to commit a crime or made a threat with the purpose to influence an administrative or judicial proceeding, in which event, he shall, upon conviction thereof, be guilty of a felony and shall be punished as specified in subsection (a) of this section for a violation of any of the provisions of section three of this article.

(d) Any person who violates any of the provisions of section six or section seven of this article shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be punished by confinement in jail not less than three months nor more than one year or by a fine of not less than fifty nor more than one thousand dollars or, in the discretion of the court, by both such confinement and fine.

(e) Notwithstanding the provisions of section nine, article eleven of this chapter or any other provision of law to the contrary, a prosecution for a misdemeanor under the provisions of this article shall be commenced within six years after the offense was committed.


WVC 61-5A-10 §61-5A-10. Construction; certain other code provisions not affected; article not to affect offenses committed under other statutory provisions.
Under no circumstances whatever shall this article be construed as superseding or in any way affecting the provisions of (1) chapter three of this code dealing with bribery and other corrupt practices and criminal offenses in connection with elections, election officials, voters or voting in elections; (2) sections seventeen and eighteen, article two, chapter fifteen of this code; (3) section nine, article two-a, chapter eighteen of this code; and (4) sections fifteen and twenty-two, article ten of this chapter sixty-one; and the specific types of bribery, corrupt practices and criminal offenses covered by the statutory provisions referred to in this section shall continue to be governed by such statutory provisions and not by this article.

The provisions of this article shall govern and control as to any offenses committed in violation thereof on and after the effective date of this article, and the provisions of sections four, five, six and seven, article five of this chapter, shall govern and control as to any offenses committed in violation of said sections four, five, six and seven prior to the effective date of this article five-a, with like effect as to such prior offenses as if this article five-a had not been enacted.


WVC 61-5A-11 §61-5A-11. Severability.
If any provision of this article or the application thereof to any person or circumstance is held invalid, such invalidity shall not affect other provisions or applications of the article, and to this end the provisions of this article are declared to be severable.


WVC -6- ARTICLE 6. CRIMES AGAINST THE PEACE.


WVC 61-6-1 §61-6-1. Suppression of riots and unlawful assemblages.
All members of the department of public safety, all sheriffs within their respective counties and all mayors within their respective jurisdiction, may suppress riots, routs and unlawful assemblages. It shall be the duty of each of them to go among, or as near as may be with safety, to persons riotously, tumultuously, or unlawfully assembled, and in the name of the law command them to disperse; and if they shall not thereupon immediately and peaceably disperse, such member of the department of public safety, sheriff or mayor giving the command, and any other present, shall command the assistance of all persons present, and of all or any part of other law-enforcement personnel available to him, as need be, in arresting and securing those so assembled. If any person present, on being required to give his assistance, depart, or fail to obey, he shall be deemed a rioter.


WVC 61-6-1a §61-6-1a. Control of riots and unlawful assemblages.
Members of the department of public safety, sheriffs and mayors, and those acting under their order, may, when engaged in suppressing a riot, rout or unlawful assemblage, cordon off any area or areas threatened by such riot, rout or unlawful assemblage, and may take all actions which are necessary and reasonable under the emergency to restore law and order, and such actions may be, but are not limited to, the following:

(a) Prohibit the sale, offering for sale, dispensing, furnishing or transportation of firearms or other dangerous weapons, ammunition, dynamite or other dangerous explosives in, to or from such areas.

(b) Prohibit the sale, offering for sale, dispensing, furnishing or consumption of alcoholic beverages or nonintoxicating beer in a public place in such areas, and prohibit the transportation of alcoholic beverages or nonintoxicating beer in, to or from such areas.

(c) Impose curfews, as required, to control movement of persons in, to and from such areas.

(d) Enter a private dwelling or other building or other private place in such areas when in fresh pursuit of a rioter, when in search of a sniper who has fired upon a person from such a dwelling or other building or place or when in search of firearms, other dangerous weapons, ammunition, dynamite or other dangerous explosives when there is reason to believe that such items are stored in the said dwelling, building or place and that they will be removed therefrom before a search warrant could be obtained.

No person shall wilfully fail to obey a lawful order of any mayor, sheriff, deputy sheriff, municipal police officer, member of the department of public safety, or other officer, given pursuant to this section.

Any person who violates an order given pursuant to the authority of this section shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than five hundred dollars, or imprisoned in the county jail not more than six months, or both fined and imprisoned.


WVC 61 - 6 - 1 B §61-6-1b. Disorderly conduct; penalty.
(a) Any person who, in a public place, any office or office building of the state of West Virginia, or in the state capitol complex, or on any other property owned, leased, occupied or controlled by the state of West Virginia, a mobile home park, a public parking area, a common area of an apartment building or dormitory, or a common area of a privately owned commercial shopping center, mall or other group of commercial retail establishments, disturbs the peace of others by violent, profane, indecent or boisterous conduct or language or by the making of unreasonably loud noise that is intended to cause annoyance or alarm to another person, and who persists in such conduct after being requested to desist by a law-enforcement officer acting in his lawful capacity, is guilty of disorderly conduct, a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, may be committed to the custody of the division of corrections for twenty-four hours or fined not more than one hundred dollars: Provided, That nothing in this subsection should be construed as a deterrence to the lawful and orderly public right to demonstrate in support or protest of public policy issues.

(b) For purposes of this section:

(1) "Mobile home park" means a privately owned residential housing area or subdivision wherein the dwelling units are comprised mainly of mobile homes and wherein the occupants of such dwelling units share common elements for purposes of ingress and egress, parking, recreation and other like residential purposes.

(2) "Mobile home" means a moveable or portable unit, designed and constructed to be towed on its own chassis (comprised of frame and wheels) and designed to be connected to utilities for year-round occupancy. The term includes: (A) Units containing parts that may be folded, collapsed or telescoped when being towed and that may be expanded to provide additional cubic capacity; and (B) units composed of two or more separately towable components designed to be joined into one integral unit capable of being separated again into the components for repeated towing.

(3) "Public parking area" means an area, whether publicly or privately owned or maintained, open to the use of the public for parking motor vehicles.


WVC 61-6-2 §61-6-2. Commitment and recognizance of rioters.
If any person be arrested for a riot, rout or unlawful assemblage, he shall be taken without unreasonable delay before a justice of the county in which the arrest is made who shall commit him to jail, unless he shall enter into a recognizance, with sufficient security, to appear before the court having jurisdiction of the offense, at its next term, to answer therefor, and in the meantime to be of good behavior and to keep the peace.


WVC 61-6-3 §61-6-3. Failure of member of department of public safety, mayor or sheriff to exercise powers at riots and unlawful assemblages; penalty.
If any member of the department of public safety, sheriff or mayor have notice of a riotous, tumultuous, or unlawful assemblage in his respective jurisdiction as provided in section one of this article, and fail to proceed immediately to the place of such assemblage, or as near as he may safely go, or fail to exercise his authority for suppressing it and arresting the offenders, he shall be fined not exceeding one hundred dollars.


WVC 61-6-4 §61-6-4. Summoning of persons to aid in suppressing riots and unlawful assemblages.
If any person engaged in such assemblage, being commanded, as hereinbefore provided, to disperse or to peaceably leave the scene of such assemblage, fail to do so without delay, any such member of the department of public safety, sheriff or mayor may require the aid of a sufficient number of persons, in arms or otherwise, and proceed, in such manner as he may deem expedient, to disperse and suppress such assemblage, and arrest and secure those engaged in it.


WVC 61-6-5 §61-6-5. Death of person in suppression of riots and unlawful assemblages.
If, by any means taken under the authority of this article to disperse any such assemblage or arrest those engaged in it, any person present, as spectator or otherwise, be killed or wounded, and neither malice, nor premeditation be present, any member of the department of public safety, sheriff, or mayor exercising such authority, and everyone acting under his order, shall be held guiltless; and if the member of the department of public safety, sheriff or mayor, or any person acting under the order of either of them, be killed or wounded in taking such means, or by the rioters, all persons engaged in such assemblage shall be deemed guilty of such killing or wounding.


WVC 61-6-6 §61-6-6. Destruction of building by rioters; penalty therefor and for rioting without such injury.
If any person engaged in a riot, rout or unlawful assemblage, pull down or destroy, in whole or in part, any dwelling house, courthouse, jail, prison, asylum, hospital, school or college building, or any public building of any character, or assist therein, he shall be guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction, shall be confined in the penitentiary not less than one nor more than ten years; and though no such building be injured, every rioter, and every person unlawfully or tumultuously assembled, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction, shall be confined in jail not more than one year and fined not exceeding five hundred dollars.


WVC 61-6-7 §61-6-7. Conspiracy to inflict injury to persons or property; infliction of injury or death in pursuance thereof; penalties.
If two or more persons under the name of "Red Men," "Regulators," "Vigilance Committee," or any other name or without a name, combine or conspire together for the purpose of inflicting any punishment or bodily injury upon any other person or persons, or for the purpose of destroying, injuring, defacing, or taking and carrying away any property, real or personal, not their own, every such person, whether he has done any act in pursuance of such combination or conspiracy or not, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction, shall be fined not less than fifty nor more than five hundred dollars, and may, in the discretion of the court, be confined in jail not less than one nor more than twelve months.

If any person, in pursuance of such combination or conspiracy, shall inflict any punishment or bodily injury upon another person, or shall destroy, injure, deface, or take and carry away, any property, real or personal, not his own, he shall be guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction, shall be confined in the penitentiary not less than one nor more than ten years; and if the death of any person shall result from the commission of such offense, every person engaged in the commission thereof shall be guilty of murder of the first degree, and, upon conviction thereof, punished as in other cases of murder of the first degree. If, upon the trial of an indictment hereunder, it be proved that two or more persons, the defendant being one, were present, aiding and abetting in the commission of the offense charged therein, it shall be presumed that such offense was committed in pursuance of such combination or conspiracy, in the absence of satisfactory proof to the contrary. And all persons who were present, aiding and abetting, at the commission of any offense mentioned herein, shall be deemed conspirators within the meaning hereof.

Persons offending against any of the provisions of this section may be indicted therefor, either jointly or separately.


WVC 61-6-8 §61-6-8. Release or rescue of person in custody charged or convicted under §61-6-7; penalty.
If any person, by force, or other unlawful means, shall release or rescue, or attempt to release or rescue, a person in prison or other custody, charged with, or convicted of an offense under the provisions of the preceding section of this article, he shall be guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction, shall be confined in the penitentiary not less than one nor more than ten years.


WVC 61-6-9 §61-6-9. Intimidation of witness for state in conspiracy prosecutions; penalties.
If any person shall, by threats, menaces, or otherwise, intimidate, or attempt to intimidate, a witness for the state in any prosecution under the provisions of sections seven and eight of this article, for the purpose of preventing the attendance of such witness at the trial of such case, or shall in any way or manner prevent, or attempt to prevent, the attendance of any such witness at such trial, he shall be guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction, shall be confined in the penitentiary not less than one nor more than ten years, or he may, in the discretion of the court, be confined in jail not less than three nor more than twelve months, and fined not less than one hundred nor more than five thousand dollars.


WVC 61-6-10 §61-6-10. Reward for arrest in conspiracy cases; employment of special policemen and detectives.
The governor is hereby authorized, whenever in his opinion it is proper to do so, to offer rewards, and employ special policemen and detectives, and to employ any and all means in his power, including the employment of any portion of the military forces of the state, to secure the apprehension of any and all persons belonging to any such unlawful combination or who shall be charged with the commission of any offense mentioned in the seventh, eighth and ninth sections of this article.


WVC 61-6-11 §61-6-11.
Repealed.

Acts, 1996 Reg. Sess., Ch. 91.


WVC 61-6-12 §61-6-12. Mobs and lynchings; penalties; liability of county or city.
Any collection of individuals, five or more in number, assembled for the unlawful purpose of offering violence to the person or property of anyone supposed to have been guilty of a violation of the law, or for the purpose of exercising correctional or regulative powers over any person or persons by violence, and without lawful authority, shall be regarded and designated as a "mob" or "riotous assemblage."

The term "serious injury," for the purposes of this section, shall include any injury to property which shall cause damage to the owner thereof, or any injury to the person which shall temporarily or permanently disable the person injured from earning a livelihood.

The putting to death of any person within this state by a mob or riotous assemblage shall be murder, and every person participating in such mob or riotous assemblage by which a person is put to death shall be guilty of murder, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be punished as the law provides in other cases of murder.

Any person or persons who shall compose a mob or riotous assemblage, with the intent to inflict damage or injury to the person or property of any individual charged with crimes, or, under the pretense of exercising correctional powers over such person or persons by violence, and without lawful authority, shall be subject to a fine of not less than one hundred nor more than one thousand dollars, and may be imprisoned, in the discretion of the court, in the county jail not less than thirty days nor more than twelve months for each and every offense. Any person or persons who shall compose a mob or riotous assemblage, and who shall inflict damage or injury to the person or property of any individual charged with crimes, shall be guilty of a felony, and upon conviction, shall be confined in the penitentiary not less than one nor more than ten years for each and every offense.

Any person or persons composing a mob or riotous assemblage under the provisions of this section, who shall, by violence, inflict serious injury to the property or to the person of any other person upon the pretense of exercising correctional or regulative powers over such person or persons, and without authority of the law, shall be deemed guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in the penitentiary not exceeding five years; and any person suffering serious injury to his person or his property by a mob, shall have an action against the county or city in which such serious injury is inflicted, for such damages as he may sustain, to an amount not to exceed five thousand dollars.

The county in which such person charged with a crime has been taken from a state, county or municipal officer, and lynched and put to death, shall be subject to a forfeiture of five thousand dollars, which may be recovered by appropriate action therefor, in the name of the personal representative of the person put to death, for the use of his dependent family or estate. Such action may be brought in any state court. If such forfeiture is not paid upon recovery of judgment therefor, the court rendering such judgment shall have power to enforce the payment thereof, and may compel the levy and collection of a tax therefor, or otherwise compel the payment thereof by mandamus or other appropriate process, and every officer of such county, and every other person who disobeys or fails to comply with any lawful order of the court, shall be liable to punishment according to law as for contempt and to any other penalties provided by law therefor.

The fact that any person so put to death shall have been taken from any state, county or municipal officer in one county, by a mob or riotous assemblage of five or more persons, and transported out of such county before such killing shall have taken place, and the fact that such killing occurred out of the county from which such person may have been taken from such state, county or municipal officer, shall not relieve such county from which he was taken from the liability provided by this section. And if the person so taken from such officer or officers shall be transported from and put to death and lynched in another county outside of the county wherein he was taken from such officer or officers, no county through which such person may have been transported, or in which such person has been lynched and put to death, shall be liable to damages hereunder, unless it is clearly shown that the officers or citizens in such county or counties participated in, aided, abetted or encouraged such unlawful putting to death.

Every state, county or municipal officer having the duty or power of preservation or conservation of the peace at the time and place of any such putting to death, or the committing of serious injury to the person or to the property as prescribed in this section, who, having reasonable cause to believe that the same is to be done, or is attempted to be done, and neglects or omits to prevent the same, and every such officer from whose custody such person may be taken by such mob or riotous assemblage, and put to death by the same, or whose property or person suffers serious injury at the hands of such mob or riotous assemblage, shall be guilty of negligence in the discharge of his official duty, and the county or city which shall have been sued and compelled to pay damages as herein provided may recover same from such negligent officer by appropriate action upon his official bond.

In any prosecution for any of the offenses defined herein, and any action for the forfeiture imposed as herein provided, every person who has participated in the lynching or in the putting to death of, or in the infliction of great bodily violence or serious injury to the person or the property of any person, without authority of the law, and every person who entertains or has expressed any opinion in favor of lynching or in the justification or excuse thereof, or whose character, conduct, or opinions have been or are such as, in the judgment of the court, may tend to disqualify him for an impartial and unprejudiced trial of the cause, shall be disqualified to serve as a juror, and in any such action or prosecution, any attorney interested in the case shall be entitled to make full inquiry thereof and to produce evidence thereon; and every person who refuses to answer any inquiry touching his qualifications on the ground that he may thereby incriminate himself shall be disqualified as aforesaid.


WVC 61-6-13 §61-6-13. Disturbance of religious worship; penalty.
If any person wilfully interrupt, molest or disturb any assembly of people met for the worship of God, he shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction, shall be confined in jail not more than six months and fined not less than twenty-five nor more than one hundred dollars. Any officer may put such offender under restraint during religious worship, and the court trying the case may require bond or recognizance of him for not more than one year to be of good behavior.


WVC 61-6-14 §61-6-14. Disturbance of schools, societies, and other assemblies; penalty.
If any person wilfully interrupt, molest or disturb any free school, Sunday school, or other school, a school exhibition, or any literary society, or any other society or meeting formed or convened for intellectual, social or moral improvement, or for improvement in music, either vocal or instrumental, or for any moral or social amusement, or any other society organized or carried on under or in pursuance of the laws of this state, or any fourth of July celebration, Christmas tree, or church festival, or any other festival, or any society, lawfully carried on, he shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction, shall be fined not less than ten nor more than fifty dollars, and, at the discretion of the court, be confined in jail not more than thirty days in addition to such fine.


WVC 61 - 6 - 14 A §61-6-14a. Loitering on school property; penalty; exceptions.
No person, not a student in regular attendance, shall loiter in or about any school, school building or school grounds in violation of any posted rules or regulations governing the use of any such school without written permission from the principal.

Any person who shall violate the provisions of this section shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction for the first offense thereof, shall be fined not more than one hundred dollars, or imprisoned in the county jail not more than thirty days, or both such fine and imprisonment. Upon a second or subsequent conviction, any such person shall be fined not more than five hundred dollars, or imprisoned in the county jail not more than one year, or both such fine and imprisonment.


WVC 61-6-15 §61-6-15.
Repealed.

Acts, 1996 Reg. Sess., Ch. 89.


WVC 61 - 6 - 16 §61-6-16.
Repealed.

Acts, 2010 Reg. Sess., Ch. 34.
WVC 61 - 6 - 17 §61-6-17. False reports concerning bombs or other explosive devices; penalties.
(a) Any person who imparts or conveys or causes to be imparted or conveyed any false information, knowing or having reasonable cause to believe the information to be false, concerning the presence of any bomb or other explosive device in, at, on, near, under or against any dwelling house, structure, improvement, building, bridge, motor vehicle, vessel, boat, railroad car, airplane or other place or concerning an attempt or alleged attempt being made or to be made to so place or explode any bomb or other explosive device is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than one hundred dollars nor more than two thousand dollars or confined in a state correctional facility for not less than one year nor more than three years, or both.

(b) If any person violates any provision of this section and the violation directly causes economic harm as defined in subsection (d) of this section, in addition to any other penalty, the circuit court may order the offender to pay the victim or victims restitution, in accordance with the provisions of article eleven-a of this chapter, for economic loss caused by the violation in an amount not to exceed the economic harm suffered. Nothing in this section may be construed to limit the circuit court's authority to order restitution pursuant to other provisions of this code.

(c) Notwithstanding any provision of this section to the contrary, any person violating the provisions of subsection (a) of this section whose violation of the subsection results in another suffering serious bodily injury is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in a state correctional facility for not less than one year nor more than five years or fined not more than ten thousand dollars, or both. Each injury resulting from a violation of subsection (a) of this section constitutes a separate offense.

(d) As used in this section, "economic harm" means all direct, incidental and consequential pecuniary harm suffered by a victim as a result of criminal conduct. Economic harm includes, but is not limited to, the following:

(1) All wages, salaries or other compensation lost as a result of the criminal conduct;

(2) The cost of all wages, salaries or other compensation paid to employees for time those employees are prevented from working as a result of the criminal conduct;

(3) The cost of all wages, salaries or other compensation paid to employees for time those employees spent in reacting to the results of the criminal conduct; or

(4) The overhead costs incurred for the time that a business is shut down as a result of the criminal conduct.


WVC 61-6-18 §61-6-18. Camping upon governmental grounds or lawns; penalties; public nuisance.
If any person shall go upon the ground or lawn surrounding or adjacent to (1) the state capitol building or any state office building which is a part of the state capitol complex, or (2) a county courthouse, or (3) any municipal office building where the principal business of the municipality is conducted, which ground or lawn is owned by or leased to the state of West Virginia, the county, or such municipality, as the case may be, and place, erect or construct or attempt to place, erect or construct for himself or others shelter accommodations thereon or use any such erected shelter accommodations, without the written permission first had and obtained of the governor, the county court, or the governing body of the municipality, as the case may be, he shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be punished by a fine of not less than twenty-five dollars nor more than one hundred dollars, or by imprisonment in jail for not more than thirty days, or in the discretion of the court, by both such fine and imprisonment, and any such shelter accommodations are hereby constituted a public nuisance which may be abated at the expense of any such person. Each day upon which any violation of the provisions of this section continues shall constitute a separate offense.


WVC 61 - 6 - 19 §61-6-19. Willful disruption of governmental processes; offenses occurring at state capitol complex; penalties.
(a) If any person willfully interrupts or molests the orderly and peaceful process of any department, division, agency or branch of state government or of its political subdivisions, he or she is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than one hundred dollars, or imprisoned in the county or regional jail not more than six months, or both fined and imprisoned: Provided, That any assembly in a peaceable, lawful and orderly manner for a redress of grievances shall not be a violation of this section.

(b) It is unlawful for any person to bring upon the state capitol complex any weapon as defined by the provisions of section two, article seven of this chapter. It is unlawful for any person to willfully deface any trees, wall, floor, stairs, ceiling, column, statue, monument, structure, surface, artwork or adornment in the state capitol complex. It is unlawful for any person or persons to willfully block or otherwise willfully obstruct any public access, stair or elevator in the state capitol complex after being asked by a law-enforcement officer acting in his or her official capacity to desist: Provided, That in order to preserve the constitutional right of the people to assemble, it is not willful blocking or willful obstruction for persons gathered in a group or crowd, if the persons move to the side or part to allow other persons to pass by the group or crowd to gain ingress or egress: Provided, however, That this subsection shall not apply to a law-enforcement officer acting in his or her official capacity.

Any person who violates any provision of this subsection is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than one hundred dollars or confined in the county or regional jail not more than six months, or both.


WVC 61-6-20 §61-6-20. Falsely reporting an emergency incident.
A person is guilty of reporting a false emergency incident when knowing the information reported, conveyed or circulated is false or baseless, he:

(1) Initiates or circulates a false report or warning of or impending occurrence of a fire, explosion, crime, catastrophe, accident, illness or other emergency under circumstances in which it is likely that public alarm or inconvenience will result or that firefighting apparatus, ambulance apparatus, one or more rescue vehicles or other emergency apparatus might be summoned; or

(2) Reports, by word or action, to any official or quasi-official agency or organization having the function of dealing with emergencies involving danger to life or property, an alleged occurrence or impending occurrence of a fire, explosion, crime, catastrophe, accident, illness or other emergency in which it is likely that public alarm or inconvenience will result or that firefighting apparatus, ambulance apparatus, one or more rescue vehicles or other emergency apparatus might be summoned, which did not occur, does not in fact exist; or

(3) Reports to a law-enforcement officer or agency the alleged occurrence of any offense or incident which did not in fact occur or an allegedly impending occurrence of an offense or incident which is not in fact about to occur or false information relating to an actual offense or incident or to the alleged implication of some person therein; or

(4) Without just cause, calls or summons by telephone, fire alarm system or otherwise, any firefighting apparatus, ambulance apparatus, rescue vehicles or other emergency vehicles.

Any person who violates this section is guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than five hundred dollars or confined in the county jail not more than six months, or both fined and confined.


WVC 61-6-21 §61-6-21. Prohibiting violations of an individual's civil rights; penalties.
(a) All persons within the boundaries of the state of West Virginia have the right to be free from any violence, or intimidation by threat of violence, committed against their persons or property because of their race, color, religion, ancestry, national origin, political affiliation or sex.

(b) If any person does by force or threat of force, willfully injure, intimidate or interfere with, or attempt to injure, intimidate or interfere with, or oppress or threaten any other person in the free exercise or enjoyment of any right or privilege secured to him or her by the Constitution or laws of the state of West Virginia or by the Constitution or laws of the United States, because of such other person's race, color, religion, ancestry, national origin, political affiliation or sex, he or she shall be guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction, shall be fined not more than five thousand dollars or imprisoned not more than ten years, or both.

(c) If any person conspires with another person or persons to willfully injure, oppress, threaten, or intimidate or interfere with any citizen because of such other person's race, color, religion, ancestry, national origin, political affiliation or sex in the free exercise or enjoyment of any right or privilege secured to him or her by the Constitution or laws of the state of West Virginia or by the Constitution or laws of the United States, and in willfull furtherance thereof to assemble with one or more persons for the purpose of teaching any technique or means capable of causing property damage, bodily injury or death when such person or persons intend to employ such techniques or means to violate this section, each such person shall be guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction, shall be fined not more than five thousand dollars or imprisoned not more than ten years, or both.

(d) The fact that a person committed a felony or misdemeanor, or attempted to commit a felony, because of the victim's race, color, religion, ancestry, national origin, political affiliation or sex, shall be considered a circumstance in aggravation of any crime in imposing sentence.

(e) Nothing contained in this section makes unlawful the teaching of any technique in self-defense.

(f) Nothing in this section shall be construed so as to make it unlawful nor to prohibit nor, in any manner, to impede or to interfere with any person in conducting labor union or labor union organizing activities.


WVC 61-6-22 §61-6-22. Wearing masks, hoods or face coverings.
(a) Except as otherwise provided in this section, no person, whether in a motor vehicle or otherwise, while wearing any mask, hood or device whereby any portion of the face is so covered as to conceal the identity of the wearer, may:

(1) Come into or appear upon any walk, alley, street, road, highway or other thoroughfare dedicated to public use;

(2) Come into or appear in any trading area, concourse, waiting room, lobby or foyer open to, used by or frequented by the general public;

(3) Come into or appear upon or within any of the grounds or buildings owned, leased, maintained or operated by the state or any political subdivision thereof;

(4) Ask, request, or demand entrance or admission to the premises, enclosure, dwelling or place of business of any other person within this state; or

(5) Attend or participate in any meeting upon private property of another unless written permission for such meeting has first been obtained from the owner or occupant thereof.

(b) The provisions of this section do not apply to any person:

(1) Under sixteen years of age;

(2) Wearing a traditional holiday costume;

(3) Engaged in a trade or employment where a mask, hood or device is worn for the purpose of ensuring the physical safety of the wearer;

(4) Using a mask, hood or device in theatrical productions, including use in mardi gras celebrations or similar masquerade balls;

(5) Wearing a mask, hood or device prescribed for civil defense drills, exercises or emergencies; or

(6) Wearing a mask, hood or device for the sole purpose of protection from the elements or while participating in a winter sport.

(c) Any person who violates any provision of this section is guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than five hundred dollars or imprisoned in the county jail not more than one year, or both fined and imprisoned.


WVC 61-6-23 §61-6-23. Shooting range; limitations on nuisance actions.
(a) As used in this section:

(1) "Person" means an individual, proprietorship, partnership, corporation, club or other legal entity;

(2) "Shooting range" or "range" means an area designed and operated for the use of rifles, shotguns, pistols, silhouettes, skeet, trap, black powder or any other similar shooting.

(b) Except as provided in this section, a person may not maintain a nuisance action for noise against a shooting range located in the vicinity of that person's property if the range was established as of the date of the person acquiring the property. If there is a substantial change in use of the range after the person acquires the property, the person may maintain a nuisance action if the action is brought within two years from the beginning of the substantial change in use of the range.

(c) A person who owned property in the vicinity of a shooting range that was established after the person acquired the property may maintain a nuisance action for noise against that range only if the action is brought within four years after establishment of the range or two years after a substantial change in use of the range.

(d) If there has been no shooting activity at a range for a period of two years, resumption of shooting is considered establishment of a new range for the purposes of this section.


WVC 61 - 6 - 24 §61-6-24. Threats of terrorist acts, conveying false information concerning terrorist acts and committing terrorist hoaxes prohibited; penalties.
(a) As used in this section:

(1) "Economic harm" means all direct, incidental and consequential pecuniary harm suffered by a victim as a result of criminal conduct. Economic harm includes, but is not limited to, the following:

(A) All wages, salaries or other compensation lost as a result of the criminal conduct;

(B) The cost of all wages, salaries or other compensation paid to employees for time those employees are prevented from working as a result of the criminal conduct;

(C) The cost of all wages, salaries or other compensation paid to employees for time those employees spent in reacting to the results of the criminal conduct; or

(D) The overhead costs incurred for the time that a business is shut down as a result of the criminal conduct.

(2) "Hoax substance or device" means any substance or device that is shaped, sized, colored, marked, imprinted, numbered, labeled, packaged, distributed, priced or delivered so as to cause a reasonable person to believe that the substance or device is of a nature which is capable of causing serious bodily injury or damage to property or the environment.

(3) "Terrorist act" means an act that is:

(A) Likely to result in serious bodily injury or damage to property or the environment; and

(B) Intended to:

(i) Intimidate or coerce the civilian population;

(ii) Influence the policy of a branch or level of government by intimidation or coercion;

(iii) Affect the conduct of a branch or level of government by intimidation or coercion; or

(iv) Retaliate against a branch or level of government for a policy or conduct of the government.

(b) Any person who knowingly and willfully threatens to commit a terrorist act, with or without the intent to commit the act, is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than $5,000 nor more than $25,000 or confined in a state correctional facility for not less than one year nor more than three years, or both.

(c) Any person who knowingly and willfully conveys false information knowing the information to be false concerning an attempt or alleged attempt being made or to be made of a terrorist act is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than $5,000 nor more than $25,000 or confined in a state correctional facility for not less than one year nor more than three years, or both.

(d) Any person who uses a hoax substance or device with the specific intent to commit a terrorist act is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than $10,000 nor more than $50,000 or confined in a state correctional facility for not less than one year nor more than five years, or both.

(e) The court shall order any person convicted of an offense under this section to pay the victim restitution in an amount not to exceed the total amount of any economic harm suffered.

(f) The court shall order any person convicted of an offense under this section to reimburse the state or any subdivision of the state for any expenses incurred by the state or the subdivision incident to its response to a violation of this section.

(g) The conviction of any person under the provisions of this section does not preclude or otherwise limit any civil proceedings arising from the same act.


WVC 61 - 6 - 25 §61-6-25. Falsely reporting child abuse.
(a)Any person who knowingly and intentionally reports or causes to be reported to a law enforcement officer, child protective service worker or judicial officer that another has committed child sexual abuse, child abuse or neglect as such are defined in section three, article one, chapter forty-nine of this code who when doing so knows or has reason to know such accusation is false and who does it with the intent to influence a child custody decision shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction, shall be fined not more than one thousand dollars, sentenced to not more than sixty hours of court-approved community service, or both.

(b) In addition to any other sanctions imposed by the provisions of this section, any person convicted of a violation of this section shall be required to attend and complete a court-approved parenting class.


WVC 61 - 7 - ARTICLE 7. DANGEROUS WEAPONS.
WVC 61-7-1 §61-7-1. Legislative findings.
The Legislature finds that the overwhelming support of the citizens of West Virginia for article three, section twenty-two of the constitution of this state, commonly known as the "Right to Keep and Bear Arms Amendment", combined with the obligation of the state to reasonably regulate the right of persons to keep and bear arms for self-defense requires the reenactment of this article.


WVC 61 - 7 - 2 §61-7-2. Definitions.

     As used in this article, unless the context otherwise requires:

     (1) "Blackjack" means a short bludgeon consisting, at the striking end, of an encased piece of lead or some other heavy substance and, at the handle end, a strap or springy shaft which increases the force of impact when a person or object is struck. The term "blackjack" shall include, but not be limited to, a billy, billy club, sand club, sandbag or slapjack.

     (2) "Gravity knife" means any knife that has a blade released from the handle by the force of gravity or the application of centrifugal force and when so released is locked in place by means of a button, spring, lever or other locking or catching device.

     (3) "Knife" means an instrument, intended to be used or readily adaptable to be used as a weapon, consisting of a sharp- edged or sharp-pointed blade, usually made of steel, attached to a handle which is capable of inflicting cutting, stabbing or tearing wounds. The term "knife" shall include, but not be limited to, any dagger, dirk, poniard or stiletto, with a blade over three and one- half inches in length, any switchblade knife or gravity knife and any other instrument capable of inflicting cutting, stabbing or tearing wounds. A pocket knife with a blade three and one-half inches or less in length, a hunting or fishing knife carried for hunting, fishing, sports or other recreational uses or a knife designed for use as a tool or household implement shall not be included within the term "knife" as defined herein unless such knife is knowingly used or intended to be used to produce serious bodily injury or death.

     (4) "Switchblade knife" means any knife having a spring- operated blade which opens automatically upon pressure being applied to a button, catch or other releasing device in its handle.

     (5) "Nunchuka" means a flailing instrument consisting of two or more rigid parts, connected by a chain, cable, rope or other nonrigid, flexible or springy material, constructed in such a manner as to allow the rigid parts to swing freely so that one rigid part may be used as a handle and the other rigid part may be used as the striking end.

     (6) "Metallic or false knuckles" means a set of finger rings attached to a transverse piece to be worn over the front of the hand for use as a weapon and constructed in such a manner that, when striking another person with the fist or closed hand, considerable physical damage may be inflicted upon the person struck. The terms "metallic or false knuckles" shall include any such instrument without reference to the metal or other substance or substances from which the metallic or false knuckles are made.

     (7) "Pistol" means a short firearm having a chamber which is integral with the barrel, designed to be aimed and fired by the use of a single hand.

     (8) "Revolver" means a short firearm having a cylinder of several chambers that are brought successively into line with the barrel to be discharged, designed to be aimed and fired by the use of a single hand.

     (9) "Deadly weapon" means an instrument which is designed to be used to produce serious bodily injury or death or is readily adaptable to such use. The term "deadly weapon" shall include, but not be limited to, the instruments defined in subdivisions (1) through (8), inclusive, of this section or other deadly weapons of like kind or character which may be easily concealed on or about the person. For the purposes of section one-a, article five, chapter eighteen-a of this code and section eleven-a, article seven of this chapter, in addition to the definition of "knife" set forth in subdivision (3) of this section, the term "deadly weapon" also includes any instrument included within the definition of "knife" with a blade of three and one-half inches or less in length. Additionally, for the purposes of section one-a, article five, chapter eighteen-a of this code and section eleven-a, article seven of this chapter, the term "deadly weapon" includes explosive, chemical, biological and radiological materials. Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, the term "deadly weapon" does not include any item or material owned by the school or county board, intended for curricular use, and used by the student at the time of the alleged offense solely for curricular purposes.

     (10) "Concealed" means hidden from ordinary observation so as to prevent disclosure or recognition. A deadly weapon is concealed when it is carried on or about the person in such a manner that another person in the ordinary course of events would not be placed on notice that the deadly weapon was being carried. For purposes of concealed handgun licensees, a licensee shall be deemed to be carrying on or about his or her person while in or on a motor vehicle if the firearm is located in a storage area in or on the motor vehicle.

     (11) "Firearm" means any weapon which will expel a projectile by action of an explosion.

     (12) "Controlled substance" has the same meaning as is ascribed to that term in subsection (d), section one hundred one, article one, chapter sixty-a of this code.

     (13) "Drug" has the same meaning as is ascribed to that term in subsection (1), section one hundred one, article one, chapter sixty-a of this code.
WVC 61-7-3 §61-7-3. Carrying deadly weapon without license or other authorization; penalties.
(a) Any person who carries a concealed deadly weapon, without a state license or other lawful authorization established under the provisions of this code, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than one hundred dollars nor more than one thousand dollars and may be imprisoned in the county jail for not more than twelve months for the first offense; but upon conviction of a second or subsequent offense, he or she shall be guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be imprisoned in the penitentiary not less than one nor more than five years and fined not less than one thousand dollars nor more than five thousand dollars.

(b) It shall be the duty of the prosecuting attorney in all cases to ascertain whether or not the charge made by the grand jury is a first offense or is a second or subsequent offense and, if it shall be a second or subsequent offense, it shall be so stated in the indictment returned, and the prosecuting attorney shall introduce the record evidence before the trial court of such second or subsequent offense and shall not be permitted to use discretion in introducing evidence to prove the same on the trial.


WVC 61 - 7 - 4 §61-7-4. License to carry deadly weapons; how obtained.

     (a) Except as provided in subsection (h) of this section, any person desiring to obtain a state license to carry a concealed deadly weapon shall apply to the sheriff of his or her county for the license, and pay to the sheriff, at the time of application, a fee of $75, of which $15 of that amount shall be deposited in the Courthouse Facilities Improvement Fund created by section six, article twenty-six, chapter twenty-nine of this code. Concealed weapons permits may only be issued for pistols or revolvers. Each applicant shall file with the sheriff a complete application, as prepared by the Superintendent of the West Virginia State Police, in writing, duly verified, which sets forth only the following licensing requirements:

     (1) The applicant's full name, date of birth, Social Security number, a description of the applicant's physical features, the applicant's place of birth, the applicant's country of citizenship and, if the applicant is not a United States citizen, any alien or admission number issued by the United States Bureau of Immigration and Customs enforcement, and any basis, if applicable, for an exception to the prohibitions of 18 U. S. C. § 922(g)(5)(B);

     (2) That, on the date the application is made, the applicant is a bona fide resident of this state and of the county in which the application is made and has a valid driver's license or other state-issued photo identification showing the residence;

     (3) That the applicant is twenty-one years of age or older: Provided, That any individual who is less than twenty-one years of age and possesses a properly issued concealed weapons license as of the effective date of this article shall be licensed to maintain his or her concealed weapons license notwithstanding the provisions of this section requiring new applicants to be at least twenty-one years of age: Provided, however, That upon a showing of any applicant who is eighteen years of age or older that he or she is required to carry a concealed weapon as a condition for employment, and presents satisfactory proof to the sheriff thereof, then he or she shall be issued a license upon meeting all other conditions of this section. Upon discontinuance of employment that requires the concealed weapons license, if the individual issued the license is not yet twenty-one years of age, then the individual issued the license is no longer eligible and must return his or her license to the issuing sheriff;

     (4) That the applicant is not addicted to alcohol, a controlled substance or a drug and is not an unlawful user thereof as evidenced by either of the following within the three years immediately prior to the application:

     (A) Residential or court-ordered treatment for alcoholism or alcohol detoxification or drug treatment; or

     (B) Two or more convictions for driving while under the influence or driving while impaired;

     (5) That the applicant has not been convicted of a felony unless the conviction has been expunged or set aside or the applicant's civil rights have been restored or the applicant has been unconditionally pardoned for the offense;

     (6) That the applicant has not been convicted of a misdemeanor crime of violence other than an offense set forth in subsection (7) of this section in the five years immediately preceding the application;

     (7) That the applicant has not been convicted of a misdemeanor crime of domestic violence as defined in 18 U. S. C. § 921(a)(33), or a misdemeanor offense of assault or battery either under the provisions of section twenty-eight, article two of this chapter or the provisions of subsection (b) or (c), section nine, article two of this chapter in which the victim was a current or former spouse, current or former sexual or intimate partner, person with whom the defendant cohabits or has cohabited, a parent or guardian, the defendant's child or ward or a member of the defendant's household at the time of the offense, or a misdemeanor offense with similar essential elements in a jurisdiction other than this state;

     (8) That the applicant is not under indictment for a felony offense or is not currently serving a sentence of confinement, parole, probation or other court-ordered supervision imposed by a court of any jurisdiction or is the subject of an emergency or temporary domestic violence protective order or is the subject of a final domestic violence protective order entered by a court of any jurisdiction;

     (9) That the applicant has not been adjudicated to be mentally incompetent or involuntarily committed to a mental institution. If the applicant has been adjudicated mentally incompetent or involuntarily committed the applicant must provide a court order reflecting that the applicant is no longer under such disability and the applicant's right to possess or receive a firearm has been restored;

     (10) That the applicant is not prohibited under the provisions of section seven of this article or federal law, including 18 U.S.C. § 922(q) or (n), from receiving, possessing or transporting a firearm;

     (11) That the applicant has qualified under the minimum requirements set forth in subsection (d) of this section for handling and firing the weapon: Provided, That this requirement shall be waived in the case of a renewal applicant who has previously qualified; and

     (12) That the applicant authorizes the sheriff of the county, or his or her designee, to conduct an investigation relative to the information contained in the application.

     (b) For both initial and renewal applications, the sheriff shall conduct an investigation including a nationwide criminal background check consisting of inquiries of the National Instant Criminal Background Check System, the West Virginia criminal history record responses and the National Interstate Identification Index and shall review the information received in order to verify that the information required in subsection (a) of this section is true and correct. A license may not be issued unless the issuing sheriff has verified through the National Instant Criminal Background Check System that the information available to him or her does not indicate that receipt or possession of a firearm by the applicant would be in violation of the provisions of section seven of this article or federal law, including 18 U.S.C. § 922(g) or (n).

     (c) Sixty dollars of the application fee and any fees for replacement of lost or stolen licenses received by the sheriff shall be deposited by the sheriff into a concealed weapons license administration fund. The fund shall be administered by the sheriff and shall take the form of an interest-bearing account with any interest earned to be compounded to the fund. Any funds deposited in this concealed weapon license administration fund are to be expended by the sheriff to pay the costs associated with issuing concealed weapons licenses. Any surplus in the fund on hand at the end of each fiscal year may be expended for other law-enforcement purposes or operating needs of the sheriff's office, as the sheriff considers appropriate.

     (d) All persons applying for a license must complete a training course in handling and firing a handgun. The successful completion of any of the following courses fulfills this training requirement:

     (1) Any official National Rifle Association handgun safety or training course;

     (2) Any handgun safety or training course or class available to the general public offered by an official law-enforcement organization, community college, junior college, college or private or public institution or organization or handgun training school utilizing instructors certified by the institution;

     (3) Any handgun training or safety course or class conducted by a handgun instructor certified as such by the state or by the National Rifle Association;

     (4) Any handgun training or safety course or class conducted by any branch of the United States Military, Reserve or National Guard or proof of other handgun qualification received while serving in any branch of the United States Military, Reserve or National Guard.

     A photocopy of a certificate of completion of any of the courses or classes or an affidavit from the instructor, school, club, organization or group that conducted or taught the course or class attesting to the successful completion of the course or class by the applicant or a copy of any document which shows successful completion of the course or class is evidence of qualification under this section.

     (e) All concealed weapons license applications must be notarized by a notary public duly licensed under article four, chapter twenty-nine of this code. Falsification of any portion of the application constitutes false swearing and is punishable under the provisions of section two, article five, chapter sixty-one of this code.

     (f) The sheriff shall issue a license unless he or she determines that the application is incomplete, that it contains statements that are materially false or incorrect or that applicant otherwise does not meet the requirements set forth in this section. The sheriff shall issue, reissue or deny the license within forty- five days after the application is filed if all required background checks authorized by this section are completed.

     (g) Before any approved license is issued or is effective, the applicant shall pay to the sheriff a fee in the amount of $25 which the sheriff shall forward to the Superintendent of the West Virginia State Police within thirty days of receipt. The license is valid for five years throughout the state, unless sooner revoked.

     (h) Each license shall contain the full name and address of the licensee and a space upon which the signature of the licensee shall be signed with pen and ink. The issuing sheriff shall sign and attach his or her seal to all license cards. The sheriff shall provide to each new licensee a duplicate license card, in size similar to other state identification cards and licenses, suitable for carrying in a wallet, and the license card is considered a license for the purposes of this section.

     (i) The Superintendent of the West Virginia State Police shall prepare uniform applications for licenses and license cards showing that the license has been granted and shall do any other act required to be done to protect the state and see to the enforcement of this section.

     (j) If an application is denied, the specific reasons for the denial shall be stated by the sheriff denying the application. Any person denied a license may file, in the circuit court of the county in which the application was made, a petition seeking review of the denial. The petition shall be filed within thirty days of the denial. The court shall then determine whether the applicant is entitled to the issuance of a license under the criteria set forth in this section. The applicant may be represented by counsel, but in no case is the court required to appoint counsel for an applicant. The final order of the court shall include the court's findings of fact and conclusions of law. If the final order upholds the denial, the applicant may file an appeal in accordance with the Rules of Appellate Procedure of the Supreme Court of Appeals.

     (k) If a license is lost or destroyed, the person to whom the license was issued may obtain a duplicate or substitute license for a fee of $5 by filing a notarized statement with the sheriff indicating that the license has been lost or destroyed.

     (l) Whenever any person after applying for and receiving a concealed handgun license moves from the address named in the application to another county within the state, the license remains valid for the remainder of the five years: Provided, That the licensee within twenty days thereafter notifies the sheriff in the new county of residence in writing of the old and new addresses.

     (m) The sheriff shall, immediately after the license is granted as aforesaid, furnish the Superintendent of the West Virginia State Police a certified copy of the approved application. The sheriff shall furnish to the Superintendent of the West Virginia State Police at any time so requested a certified list of all licenses issued in the county. The Superintendent of the West Virginia State Police shall maintain a registry of all persons who have been issued concealed weapons licenses.

     (n) Except when subject to an exception under section six, article seven of this chapter, all licensees shall carry with them a state-issued photo identification card with the concealed weapons license whenever the licensee is carrying a concealed weapon. Any licensee who, in violation of this subsection, fails to have in his or her possession a state-issued photo identification card and a current concealed weapons license while carrying a concealed weapon is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than $50 or more than $200 for each offense.

     (o) The sheriff shall deny any application or revoke any existing license upon determination that any of the licensing application requirements established in this section have been violated by the licensee.

     (p) A person who is engaged in the receipt, review or in the issuance or revocation of a concealed weapon license does not incur any civil liability as the result of the lawful performance of his or her duties under this article.

     (q) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (a) of this section, with respect to application by a former law-enforcement officer honorably retired from agencies governed by article fourteen, chapter seven of this code; article fourteen, chapter eight of this code; article two, chapter fifteen of this code; and article seven, chapter twenty of this code, an honorably retired officer is exempt from payment of fees and costs as otherwise required by this section. All other application and background check requirements set forth in this shall be applicable to these applicants.

     (r) Except as restricted or prohibited by the provisions of this article or as otherwise prohibited by law, the issuance of a concealed weapon permit issued in accordance with the provisions of this section authorizes the holder of the permit to carry a concealed pistol or revolver on the lands or waters of this state.
WVC 61-7-5 §61-7-5. Revocation of license.
A license to carry a deadly weapon shall be deemed revoked at such time as the person licensed becomes unable to meet the criteria for initial licensure set forth in section four of this article. Any person licensed under the provisions of this article shall immediately surrender his or her license to the issuing sheriff upon becoming ineligible for continued licensure.


WVC 61 - 7 - 6 §61-7-6. Exceptions as to prohibitions against carrying concealed handguns; exemptions from licensing fees.

     (a) The licensure provisions set forth in this article do not apply to:

     (1) Any person:

     (A) Carrying a deadly weapon upon his or her own premises;

     (B) Carrying a firearm, unloaded, from the place of purchase to his or her home, residence or place of business or to a place of repair and back to his or her home, residence or place of business; or

     (C) Possessing a firearm while hunting in a lawful manner or while traveling from his or her home, residence or place of business to a hunting site and returning to his or her home, residence or place of business;

     (2) Any person who is a member of a properly organized target-shooting club authorized by law to obtain firearms by purchase or requisition from this state or from the United States for the purpose of target practice from carrying any pistol, as defined in this article, unloaded, from his or her home, residence or place of business to a place of target practice and from any place of target practice back to his or her home, residence or place of business, for using any such weapon at a place of target practice in training and improving his or her skill in the use of the weapons;

     (3) Any law-enforcement officer or law-enforcement official as defined in section one, article twenty-nine, chapter thirty of this code;

     (4) Any employee of the West Virginia Division of Corrections duly appointed pursuant to the provisions of section eleven-c, article one, chapter twenty-five of this code while the employee is on duty;

     (5) Any member of the armed forces of the United States or the militia of this state while the member is on duty;

     (6) Any resident of another state who holds a valid permit or license to possess or carry a handgun issued by a state or a political subdivision subject to the provisions and limitations set forth in section six-a of this article;

     (7) Any federal law-enforcement officer or federal police officer authorized to carry a weapon in the performance of the officer's duty;

     (8) Any Hatfield-McCoy Regional Recreation Authority Ranger while the ranger is on duty; and

     (9) Any parole officer appointed pursuant to section fourteen, article twelve, chapter sixty-two of this code in the performance of their duties.

     (b) On and after July 1, 2013, the following judicial officers and prosecutors and staff shall be exempted from paying any application fees or licensure fees required under this article. However, on and after that same date, they shall be required to make application and satisfy all licensure and handgun safety and training requirements set forth in section four of this article before carrying a concealed handgun in this state:

     (1) Any justice of the Supreme Court of Appeals of West Virginia;

     (2) Any circuit judge;

     (3) Any retired justice or retired circuit judge designated senior status by the Supreme Court of Appeals of West Virginia;

     (4) Any family court judge;

     (5) Any magistrate;

     (6) Any prosecuting attorney;

     (7) Any assistant prosecuting attorney; or

     (8) Any duly appointed investigator employed by a prosecuting attorney.
WVC 61 - 7 - 6 A §61-7-6a. Reciprocity and recognition; out-of-state concealed handgun permits.

     (a) A valid out-of-state permit or license to possess or carry a handgun is valid in this state for the carrying of a concealed handgun, if the following conditions are met:

     (1) The permit or license holder is twenty-one years of age or older;

     (2) The permit or license is in his or her immediate possession;

     (3) The permit or license holder is not a resident of the State of West Virginia; and

     (4) The Attorney General has been notified by the Governor of the other state that the other state allows residents of West Virginia who are licensed in West Virginia to carry a concealed handgun to carry a concealed handgun in that state or the Attorney General has entered into a written reciprocity agreement with the appropriate official of the other state whereby the state agrees to honor West Virginia concealed handgun licenses in return for same treatment in this state.

     (b) A holder of a valid permit or license from another state who is authorized to carry a concealed handgun in this state pursuant to provisions of this section is subject to the same laws and restrictions with respect to carrying a concealed handgun as a resident of West Virginia who is so permitted and must carry the concealed handgun in compliance with the laws of this state.

     (c) A license or permit from another state is not valid in this state if the holder is or becomes prohibited by law from possessing a firearm.

     (d) The West Virginia Attorney General shall seek to obtain recognition of West Virginia concealed handgun licenses and enter into and execute reciprocity agreements on behalf of the State of West Virginia with states for the recognition of concealed handgun permits issued pursuant to this article.

     (e) The West Virginia State Police shall maintain a registry of states with which the State of West Virginia has entered into reciprocity agreements or which recognize West Virginia concealed handgun licenses on the criminal information network and make the registry available to law-enforcement officers for investigative purposes.

     (f) Every twelve months after the effective date of this section, the West Virginia Attorney General shall make written inquiry of the concealed handgun licensing or permitting authorities in each other state as to: (i) Whether a West Virginia resident may carry a concealed handgun in their state based upon having a valid West Virginia concealed handgun permit; and (ii) whether a West Virginia resident may carry a concealed handgun in that state based upon having a valid West Virginia concealed handgun permit, pursuant to the laws of that state or by the execution of a valid reciprocity agreement between the states.

     (g) The West Virginia State Police shall make available to the public a list of states which have entered into reciprocity agreements with the State of West Virginia or that allow residents of West Virginia who are licensed in West Virginia to carry a concealed handgun to carry a concealed handgun in that state.
WVC 61 - 7 - 7 §61-7-7. Persons prohibited from possessing firearms; classifications; reinstatement of rights to possess; offenses; penalties.

     (a) Except as provided in this section, no person shall possess a firearm, as such is defined in section two of this article, who:

     (1) Has been convicted in any court of a crime punishable by imprisonment for a term exceeding one year;

     (2) Is habitually addicted to alcohol;

     (3) Is an unlawful user of or habitually addicted to any controlled substance;

     (4) Has been adjudicated to be mentally incompetent or who has been involuntarily committed to a mental institution pursuant to the provisions of chapter twenty-seven of this code or in similar law of another jurisdiction: Provided, That once an individual has been adjudicated as a mental defective or involuntarily committed to a mental institution, he or she shall be duly notified that they are to immediately surrender any firearms in their ownership or possession: Provided, however, That the mental hygiene commissioner or circuit judge shall first make a determination of the appropriate public or private individual or entity to act as conservator for the surrendered property;

     (5) Is an alien illegally or unlawfully in the United States;

     (6) Has been discharged from the armed forces under dishonorable conditions;

     (7) Is subject to a domestic violence protective order that:

     (A) Was issued after a hearing of which such person received actual notice and at which such person had an opportunity to participate;

     (B) Restrains such person from harassing, stalking or threatening an intimate partner of such person or child of such intimate partner or person, or engaging in other conduct that would place an intimate partner in reasonable fear of bodily injury to the partner or child; and

     (C)(i) Includes a finding that such person represents a credible threat to the physical safety of such intimate partner or child; or

     (ii) By its terms explicitly prohibits the use, attempted use or threatened use of physical force against such intimate partner or child that would reasonably be expected to cause bodily injury; or

     (8) Has been convicted of a misdemeanor offense of assault or battery either under the provisions of section twenty-eight, article two of this chapter or the provisions of subsection (b) or (c), section nine of said article or a federal or state statute with the same essential elements in which the victim was a current or former spouse, current or former sexual or intimate partner, person with whom the defendant has a child in common, person with whom the defendant cohabits or has cohabited, a parent or guardian, the defendant's child or ward or a member of the defendant's household at the time of the offense or has been convicted in any court of any jurisdiction of a comparable misdemeanor crime of domestic violence.

     Any person who violates the provisions of this subsection shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than $100 nor more than $1,000 or confined in the county jail for not less than ninety days nor more than one year, or both.

     (b) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (a) of this section, any person:

     (1) Who has been convicted in this state or any other jurisdiction of a felony crime of violence against the person of another or of a felony sexual offense; or

     (2) Who has been convicted in this state or any other jurisdiction of a felony controlled substance offense involving a Schedule I controlled substance other than marijuana, a Schedule II or a Schedule III controlled substance as such are defined in sections two hundred four, two hundred five and two hundred six, article two, chapter sixty-a of this code and who possesses a firearm as such is defined in section two of this article shall be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in a state correctional facility for not more than five years or fined not more than $5,000, or both. The provisions of subsection (c) of this section shall not apply to persons convicted of offenses referred to in this subsection or to persons convicted of a violation of this subsection.

     (c) Any person prohibited from possessing a firearm by the provisions of subsection (a) of this section may petition the circuit court of the county in which he or she resides to regain the ability to possess a firearm and if the court finds by clear and convincing evidence that the person is competent and capable of exercising the responsibility concomitant with the possession of a firearm, the court may enter an order allowing the person to possess a firearm if such possession would not violate any federal law: Provided, That a person prohibited from possessing a firearm by the provisions of subdivision (4), subsection (a) of this section may petition to regain the ability to possess a firearm in accordance with the provisions of section five, article seven-a of this chapter.

     (d) Any person who has been convicted of an offense which disqualifies him or her from possessing a firearm by virtue of a criminal conviction whose conviction was expunged or set aside or who subsequent thereto receives an unconditional pardon for said offense shall not be prohibited from possessing a firearm by the provisions of the section.
WVC 61-7-8 §61-7-8. Possession of deadly weapons by minors; prohibitions.
Notwithstanding any other provision of this article to the contrary, a person under the age of eighteen years who is not married or otherwise emancipated shall not possess or carry concealed or openly any deadly weapon: Provided, That a minor may possess a firearm upon premises owned by said minor or his family or on the premises of another with the permission of his or her parent or guardian and in the case of property other than his or her own or that of his family, with the permission of the owner or lessee of such property: Provided, however, That nothing in this section shall prohibit a minor from possessing a firearm while hunting in a lawful manner or while traveling from a place where he or she may lawfully possess a deadly weapon, to a hunting site, and returning to a place where he or she may lawfully possess such weapon.

A violation of this section by a person under the age of eighteen years shall subject the child to the jurisdiction of the circuit court under the provisions of article five, chapter forty-nine of this code, and such minor may be proceeded against in the same manner as if he or she had committed an act which if committed by an adult would be a crime, and may be adjudicated delinquent.


WVC 61-7-9 §61-7-9. Possession of machine guns, penalties.
It shall be unlawful for any person to carry, transport, or have in his possession, any machine gun, submachine gun, or any other fully automatic weapon unless he or she has fully complied with applicable federal statutes and all applicable rules and regulations of the secretary of the treasury of the United States relating to such firearms.

Any person who violates the provision of this section shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than one thousand dollars nor more than five thousand dollars, or shall be confined in the county jail for not less than ninety days, or more than one year, or both.


WVC 61 - 7 - 10 §61-7-10. Display of deadly weapons for sale or hire; sale to prohibited persons; penalties.
(a) A person may not publicly display and offer for rent or sale, or, where the person is other than a natural person, knowingly permit an employee thereof to publicly display and offer for rent or sale, to any passersby on any street, road or alley, any deadly weapon, machine gun, submachine gun or other fully automatic weapon, any rifle, shotgun or ammunition for same.

(b) Any person who violates the provisions of subsections (a) or (c) of this section shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than $5,000 or shall be confined in the county jail for not more than one year, or both fined and confined, except that where the person violating the provisions of said subsections is other than a natural person, such person shall be fined not more than $10,000.

(c) A person may not knowingly sell, rent, give or lend, or, where the person is other than a natural person, knowingly permit an employee thereof to knowingly sell, rent, give or lend, any deadly weapon other than a firearm to a person prohibited from possessing a deadly weapon other than a firearm by any provision of this article.

(d) a person may not knowingly sell, rent, give or lend, or where the person is other than a natural person, knowingly permit an employee thereof to knowingly sell, rent give or lend a firearm or ammunition to a person prohibited by any provision of this article or the provisions of 18 U.S.C. §922.

(e) Any person who violates any of the provisions of subsection (d) of this section is guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than $100,000 imprisoned in a state correctional facility for a definite term of years of not less than three years nor more than ten years, or both fined and imprisoned, except that where the person committing an offense punishable under this subsection is other than a natural person, such person shall be fined not more than $250,000.

(f) Any person who knowingly solicits, persuades, encourages or entices a licensed dealer or private seller of firearms or ammunition to transfer a firearm or ammunition under circumstances which the person knows would violate the laws of this state or the United States is guilty of a felony. Any person who willfully procures another to engage in conduct prohibited by this subsection shall be punished as a principal. This subsection does not apply to a law-enforcement officer acting in his or her official capacity. Any person who violates the provisions of this subsection is guilty of a felony, and upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than $5,000, imprisoned in a state correctional facility for a definite term or not less than one year nor more than five years, or both fined and imprisoned.


WVC 61-7-11 §61-7-11. Brandishing deadly weapons; threatening or causing breach of the peace; criminal penalties.
It shall be unlawful for any person armed with a firearm or other deadly weapon, whether licensed to carry the same or not, to carry, brandish or use such weapon in a way or manner to cause, or threaten, a breach of the peace. Any person violating this section shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than fifty nor more than one thousand dollars, or shall be confined in the county jail not less than ninety days nor more than one year, or both.


WVC 61 - 7 - 11 A §61-7-11a. Possessing deadly weapons on premises of educational                         facilities; reports by school principals; suspension                         of driver's license; possessing deadly weapons on                         premises housing courts of law and in offices of                         family law master.

     (a) The Legislature hereby finds that the safety and welfare of the citizens of this state are inextricably dependent upon assurances of safety for children attending and persons employed by schools in this state and for persons employed by the judicial department of this state. It is for the purpose of providing assurances of safety that subsections (b), (g) and (h) of this section are enacted as a reasonable regulation of the manner in which citizens may exercise the rights accorded to them pursuant to section twenty-two, article three of the Constitution of the State of West Virginia.

     (b) (1) It is unlawful for a person to possess a firearm or other deadly weapon on a school bus as defined in section one, article one, chapter seventeen-a of this code, or in or on a public or private primary or secondary education building, structure, facility or grounds including a vocational education building, structure, facility or grounds where secondary vocational education programs are conducted or at a school-sponsored function.

     (2) This subsection does not apply to:

     (A) A law-enforcement officer acting in his or her official capacity;

     (B) A person specifically authorized by the board of education of the county or principal of the school where the property is located to conduct programs with valid educational purposes;

     (C) A person who, as otherwise permitted by the provisions of this article, possesses an unloaded firearm or deadly weapon in a motor vehicle or leaves an unloaded firearm or deadly weapon in a locked motor vehicle;

     (D) Programs or raffles conducted with the approval of the county board of education or school which include the display of unloaded firearms;

     (E) The official mascot of West Virginia University, commonly known as the Mountaineer, acting in his or her official capacity; or

     (F) The official mascot of Parkersburg South High School, commonly known as the Patriot, acting in his or her official capacity.

     (3) A person violating this subsection is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be imprisoned in a state correctional facility for a definite term of years of not less than two years nor more than ten years, or fined not more than $5,000, or both.

     (c) It is the duty of the principal of each school subject to the authority of the State Board of Education to report a violation of subsection (b) of this section discovered by the principal to the State Superintendent of Schools within seventy-two hours after the violation occurs. The State Board of Education shall keep and maintain these reports and may prescribe rules establishing policy and procedures for the making and delivery of the reports as required by this subsection. In addition, it is the duty of the principal of each school subject to the authority of the State Board of Education to report a violation of subsection (b) of this section discovered by the principal to the appropriate local office of the Division of Public Safety within seventy-two hours after the violation occurs.

     (d) In addition to the methods of disposition provided by article five, chapter forty-nine of this code, a court which adjudicates a person who is fourteen years of age or older as delinquent for a violation of subsection (b) of this section may, in its discretion, order the Division of Motor Vehicles to suspend a driver's license or instruction permit issued to the person for a period of time as the court considers appropriate, not to extend beyond the person's nineteenth birthday. Where the person has not been issued a driver's license or instruction permit by this state, a court may order the Division of Motor Vehicles to deny the person's application for a license or permit for a period of time as the court considers appropriate, not to extend beyond the person's nineteenth birthday. A suspension ordered by the court pursuant to this subsection is effective upon the date of entry of the order. Where the court orders the suspension of a driver's license or instruction permit pursuant to this subsection, the court shall confiscate any driver's license or instruction permit in the adjudicated person's possession and forward to the Division of Motor Vehicles.

     (e) (1) If a person eighteen years of age or older is convicted of violating subsection (b) of this section, and if the person does not act to appeal the conviction within the time periods described in subdivision (2) of this subsection, the person's license or privilege to operate a motor vehicle in this state shall be revoked in accordance with the provisions of this section.

     (2) The clerk of the court in which the person is convicted as described in subdivision (1) of this subsection shall forward to the commissioner a transcript of the judgment of conviction. If the conviction is the judgment of a magistrate court, the magistrate court clerk shall forward the transcript when the person convicted has not requested an appeal within twenty days of the sentencing for the conviction. If the conviction is the judgment of a circuit court, the circuit clerk shall forward a transcript of the judgment of conviction when the person convicted has not filed a notice of intent to file a petition for appeal or writ of error within thirty days after the judgment was entered.

     (3) If, upon examination of the transcript of the judgment of conviction, the commissioner determines that the person was convicted as described in subdivision (1) of this subsection, the commissioner shall make and enter an order revoking the person's license or privilege to operate a motor vehicle in this state for a period of one year or, in the event the person is a student enrolled in a secondary school, for a period of one year or until the person's twentieth birthday, whichever is the greater period. The order shall contain the reasons for the revocation and the revocation period. The order of suspension shall advise the person that because of the receipt of the court's transcript, a presumption exists that the person named in the order of suspension is the same person named in the transcript. The commissioner may grant an administrative hearing which substantially complies with the requirements of the provisions of section two, article five-a, chapter seventeen-c of this code upon a preliminary showing that a possibility exists that the person named in the notice of conviction is not the same person whose license is being suspended. The request for hearing shall be made within ten days after receipt of a copy of the order of suspension. The sole purpose of this hearing is for the person requesting the hearing to present evidence that he or she is not the person named in the notice. If the commissioner grants an administrative hearing, the commissioner shall stay the license suspension pending the commissioner's order resulting from the hearing.

     (4) For the purposes of this subsection, a person is convicted when such person enters a plea of guilty or is found guilty by a court or jury.

     (f) (1) It is unlawful for a parent, guardian or custodian of a person less than eighteen years of age who knows that the person is in violation of subsection (b) of this section or has reasonable cause to believe that the person's violation of subsection (b) is imminent, to fail to immediately report his or her knowledge or belief to the appropriate school or law-enforcement officials.

     (2) A person violating this subsection is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than $1,000, or shall be confined in jail not more than one year, or both.

     (g) (1) It is unlawful for a person to possess a firearm or other deadly weapon on the premises of a court of law, including family courts.

     (2) This subsection does not apply to:

     (A) A law-enforcement officer acting in his or her official capacity; and

     (B) A person exempted from the provisions of this subsection by order of record entered by a court with jurisdiction over the premises or offices.

     (3) A person violating this subsection is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than $1,000, or shall be confined in jail not more than one year, or both.

     (h) (1) It is unlawful for a person to possess a firearm or other deadly weapon on the premises of a court of law, including family courts, with the intent to commit a crime.

     (2) A person violating this subsection is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be imprisoned in a state correctional facility for a definite term of years of not less than two years nor more than ten years, or fined not more than $5,000, or both.

     (i) Nothing in this section may be construed to be in conflict with the provisions of federal law.
WVC 61-7-12 §61-7-12. Wanton endangerment involving a firearm.
Any person who wantonly performs any act with a firearm which creates a substantial risk of death or serious bodily injury to another shall be guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in the penitentiary for a definite term of years of not less than one year nor more than five years, or, in the discretion of the court, confined in the county jail for not more than one year, or fined not less than two hundred fifty dollars nor more than two thousand five hundred dollars, or both.

For purposes of this section, the term "firearm" shall have the same meaning ascribed to such term as set forth in section two of this article.


WVC 61-7-13 §61-7-13.
Repealed.

Acts, 1990 Reg. Sess., Ch. 148.


WVC 61-7-14 §61-7-14. Right of certain persons to limit possession of firearms on premises.
Notwithstanding the provisions of this article, any owner, lessee or other person charged with the care, custody and control of real property may prohibit the carrying openly or concealed of any firearm or deadly weapon on property under his or her domain: Provided, That for purposes of this section "person" means an individual or any entity which may acquire title to real property.

Any person carrying or possessing a firearm or other deadly weapon on the property of another who refuses to temporarily relinquish possession of such firearm or other deadly weapon, upon being requested to do so, or to leave such premises, while in possession of such firearm or other deadly weapon, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than one thousand dollars or confined in the county jail not more than six months, or both: Provided, That the provisions of this section shall not apply to those persons set forth in subsections (3) through (6) of section six of this code while such persons are acting in an official capacity: Provided, however, That under no circumstances may any person possess or carry or cause the possession or carrying of any firearm or other deadly weapon on the premises of any primary or secondary educational facility in this state unless such person is a law-enforcement officer or he or she has the express written permission of the county school superintendent.


WVC 61-7-15 §61-7-15. Persons prohibited from committing violent crime while wearing body armor; penalties.
(a) A person who wears or is otherwise equipped with body armor while committing a felony offense, an element of which is force, the threat of force, physical harm to another or the use or presentment of a firearm or other deadly weapon, is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in a correctional facility for not less than two nor more than ten years or fined not more than ten thousand dollars, or both.

(b) As used in this section, "body armor" means a jacket, vest, or other similar apparel or device constructed to provide ballistic resistance to penetration and deformation and intended to protect the human torso against gunfire. The term may include, but is not limited to, apparel that incorporates inserts, or variations in construction of the ballistic panel over small areas of the torso, for the purpose of increasing the basic level of protection of the armor (whether ballistic or blunt trauma) on localized areas. Body armor may be constructed of Kevlar or other similar fabric and may be reinforced with other materials. Body armor may incorporate "threat" or "trauma" plates (which are inserts that fit into the vest that will stop more powerful rounds) or may, as "threat armor", incorporate hard panels.


WVC 61 - 7 A- ARTICLE 7A. STATE MENTAL HEALTH REGISTRY; REPORTING OF PERSONS PROSCRIBED FROM FIREARM POSSESSION DUE TO MENTAL CONDITION TO THE NATIONAL INSTANT CRIMINAL BACKGROUND CHECK SYSTEM; LEGISLATIVE FINDINGS; DEFINITIONS; REPORTING REQUIREMENTS; REINSTATEMENT OF RIGHTS PROCEDURES.

WVC 61 - 7 A- 1 §61-7A-1. Legislative intent.
It is the intention of the Legislature in the enactment of this article to clarify the persons whom it intends to proscribe from the possession of firearms due to substance abuse or mental illness; establish a process in reporting the names of persons proscribed from possession of firearms due to mental illness to the central state mental health registry; authorize reporting by registry to the National Instant Criminal Background Check System; and to prescribe a means for reinstating one's ability to lawfully possess a firearm.


WVC 61 - 7 A- 2 §61-7A-2. Definitions.
As used in this article and as the terms are deemed to mean in 18 U.S.C. §922(g) and section seven, article seven of this chapter as each exists as of the thirty-first day of January, two thousand eight:

(1) "A person adjudicated as a mental defective" means a person who has been determined by a duly authorized court, tribunal, board or other entity to be mentally ill to the point where he or she has been found to be incompetent to stand trial due to mental illness or insanity, has been found not guilty in a criminal proceeding by reason of mental illness or insanity or has been determined to be unable to handle his or her own affairs due to mental illness or insanity.

(2) "Committed to a mental institution" means to have been involuntarily committed for treatment pursuant to the provisions of chapter twenty-seven of this code.

(3) "Mental institution" means any facility or part of a facility used for the treatment of persons committed for treatment of mental illness or addiction.


WVC 61 - 7 A- 3 §61-7A-3. Persons whose names are to be supplied to the central state mental health registry.
(a) The Superintendent of the West Virginia State Police and the Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Resources, or their designees, shall cooperate with the circuit clerk of each county and Administrator of the West Virginia Supreme Court of Appeals in compiling and maintaining a database containing the names and identifying information of persons who have been adjudicated to be mentally defective or who have been committed for treatment of a mental illness pursuant to the provisions of chapter twenty-seven of this code. The registry shall be maintained by the Administrator of the Supreme Court of Appeals or the Superintendent of the West Virginia State Police.

(b) The name of any person who has been adjudicated to be mentally defective or who has been committed for treatment of a mental illness pursuant to the provisions of chapter twenty-seven of this code which shall be provided to the Superintendent of the West Virginia State Police for inclusion in the central state mental health registry. Upon receipt of the information being received by the central state mental health registry it may be transmitted to the National Instant Criminal Background Check System and to county sheriffs;

(c) The Secretary of Department of Human Resources and the circuit clerk of each county shall, as soon as practicable after the effective date of this article, supply to the Superintendent of the West Virginia State Police for inclusion in the central state mental health registry the name and identifying information required by the provisions of subsection (d) of this section of all persons covered by the provisions of this article and shall on an ongoing basis continue to provide such information as it is developed;

(d) The central state mental health registry shall contain the name, address at the time of commitment or adjudication, date of birth, date of commitment or adjudication and of all persons who have been adjudicated to be mentally defective or who have been committed for treatment of a mental illness pursuant to the provisions of chapter twenty-seven of this code.

(e) The central state mental health registry shall provide only such information about a person on the registry to county sheriffs and the National Instant Criminal Background Check System as is necessary to identify registrants; and

(f) On or before the first day of January, two thousand ten, the central state mental health registry shall contain the name, address at the time of commitment or adjudication, date of birth, date of commitment or adjudication and any other identifying characteristics of all persons who have been adjudicated to be mentally defective or who have been committed for treatment of a mental illness pursuant to the provisions of chapter twenty-seven of this code. Under no circumstances shall the registry contain information relating to any diagnosis or treatment provided.


WVC 61 - 7 A- 4 §61-7A-4. Confidentiality; limits on use of registry information.
(a) Notwithstanding any provision of this code to the contrary, the Superintendent of the State Police, the Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Resources and the circuit clerks and the Administrator of the Supreme Court of Appeals may provide notice to the central state mental health registry and the National Instant Criminal Background Check System established pursuant to Section 103(d) of the Brady Handgun Violence Protection Act, 18 U.S.C. §922, that a person: (i) Has been involuntarily committed as provided in chapter twenty-seven of this code; (ii) has been adjudicated mentally incompetent in a proceeding under article six-a of this chapter; or (iii) has regained the ability to possess a firearm by order of a circuit court in a proceeding under section five of this article.

(b) The information contained in the central state mental health registry is to be used solely for the purpose of records checks related to firearms purchases and for eligibility for a state license or permit to possess or carry a concealed firearm.

(c) Whenever a person's name and other identifying information has been added to the central state mental health registry, a review of the state concealed handgun registry shall be undertaken and if such review reveals that the person possesses a current concealed handgun license, the sheriff of the county issuing the concealed handgun license shall be informed of the person's change in status.


WVC 61 - 7 A- 5 §61-7A-5. Petition to regain right to possess firearms.

     (a) Any person who is prohibited from possessing a firearm pursuant to the provisions of section seven, article seven of this chapter or by provisions of federal law by virtue solely of having previously been adjudicated to be mentally defective or to having a prior involuntary commitment to a mental institution pursuant to chapter twenty-seven of this code may petition the circuit court of the county of his or her residence to regain the ability to lawfully possess a firearm.

     (b) Petitioners prohibited from possession of firearms due to a mental health disability, must include in the petition for relief from disability:

     (1) A listing of facilities and location addresses of all prior mental health treatment received by petitioner;

     (2) An authorization, signed by the petitioner, for release of mental health records to the prosecuting attorney of the county; and

     (3) A verified certificate of mental health examination by a licensed psychologist or psychiatrist occurring within thirty days prior to filing of the petition which supports that the petitioner is competent and not likely to act in a manner dangerous to public safety.

     (c) The court may only consider petitions for relief due to mental health adjudications or commitments that occurred in this state, and only give the relief specifically requested in the petition.

     (d) In determining whether to grant the petition, the court shall receive and consider at a minimum evidence:

     (1) Concerning the circumstances regarding the firearms disabilities imposed by 18 U.S.C. §922(g)(4);

     (2) The petitioner's record which must include the petitioner's mental health and criminal history records; and

     (3) The petitioner's reputation developed through character witness statements, testimony, or other character evidence.

     (e) If the court finds by clear and convincing evidence that the person is competent and capable of exercising the responsibilities concomitant with the possession of a firearm, will not be likely to act in a manner dangerous to public safety, and that granting the relief will not be contrary to public interest, the court may enter an order allowing the petitioner to possess a firearm. If the order denies petitioner's ability to possess a firearm, the petitioner may appeal the denial, which appeal is to include the record of the circuit court rendering the decision.

     (f) All proceedings for relief to regain firearm or ammunition rights shall be reported or recorded and maintained for review.

     (g) The prosecuting attorney or one of his or her assistants shall represent the state in all proceedings for relief to regain firearm rights and provide the court the petitioner's criminal history records.

     (h) The written petition, certificate, mental health or substance abuse treatment records and any papers or documents containing substance abuse or mental health information of the petitioner, filed with the circuit court, are confidential. These documents may not be open to inspection by any person other than the prosecuting attorney or one of his or her assistants only for purposes of representing the state in and during these proceedings and by the petitioner and his or her counsel. No other person may inspect these documents, except upon authorization of the petitioner or his or her legal representative or by order of the court, and these records may not be published except upon the authorization of the petitioner or his or her legal representative.

     (i) The circuit clerk of each county shall provide the Superintendent of the West Virginia State Police, or his or her designee, and the Administrator of the West Virginia Supreme Court of Appeals, or his or her designee, with a certified copy of any order entered pursuant to the provisions of this section which removes a petitioner's prohibition to possess firearms. If the order restores the petitioner's ability to possess a firearm, petitioner's name shall be promptly removed from the central state mental health registry and the superintendent or administrator shall forthwith inform the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the United States Attorney General, or other federal entity operating the National Instant Criminal Background Check System of the court action.
WVC -8- ARTICLE 8. CRIMES AGAINST CHASTITY, MORALITY AND DECENCY.


WVC 61-8-1 §61-8-1. Bigamy -- Penalty.
Any person, being married, who, during the life of the former husband or wife, shall marry another person in this state, or, if the marriage with such other person take place out of this state, shall thereafter cohabit with such other person in this state, shall be guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction, shall be confined in the penitentiary not less than one nor more than five years.


WVC 61-8-2 §61-8-2. Same -- Effect of absence, divorce or void marriage.
The preceding section shall not extend to a person whose former husband or wife has been continuously absent from such person for seven years next before the marriage of such person to another, and shall not have been known by such person to be living within that time; nor to a person who shall, at the time of the subsequent marriage, have been divorced from the bond of the former marriage, and the term fixed by the decree of the court granting the divorce, in which the parties may not remarry save to each other, shall have elapsed, or whose former marriage shall, at that time, have been declared void by the sentence of a court of competent jurisdiction.


WVC 61 - 8 - 3 §61-8-3.
Repealed.

Acts, 2010 Reg. Sess., Ch. 34.
WVC 61 - 8 - 4 §61-8-4.
Repealed.

Acts, 2010 Reg. Sess., Ch. 34.
WVC 61-8-5 §61-8-5. Houses of ill fame and assignation; penalties; jurisdiction of courts.
(a) Any person who shall keep, set up, maintain, or operate any house, place, building, hotel, tourist camp, other structure, or part thereof, or vehicle, trailer, or other conveyance for the purpose of prostitution, lewdness, or assignation; or who shall own any place, house, hotel, tourist camp, other structure, or part thereof, or trailer or other conveyance knowing the same to be used for the purpose of prostitution, lewdness, or assignation, or who shall let, sublet, or rent any such place, premises, or conveyance to another with knowledge or good reason to know of the intention of the lessee or rentee to use such place, premises, or conveyance for prostitution, lewdness, or assignation; or who shall offer, or offer to secure, another for the purpose of prostitution, or for any other lewd or indecent act; or who shall receive or offer or agree to receive any person into any house, place, building, hotel, tourist camp, or other structure, or vehicle, trailer, or other conveyance for the purpose of prostitution, lewdness, or assignation, or to permit any person to remain there for such purpose; or who for another or others shall direct, take, or transport, or offer or agree to take or transport, or aid or assist in transporting, any person to any house, place, building, hotel, tourist camp, other structure, vehicle, trailer, or other conveyance, or to any other person with knowledge or having reasonable cause to believe that the purpose of such directing, taking, or transporting is prostitution, lewdness, or assignation; or who shall aid, abet, or participate in the doing of any acts herein prohibited, shall, upon conviction for the first offense under this section, be punished by imprisonment in the county jail for a period not less than six months nor more than one year, and by a fine of not less than one hundred dollars and not to exceed two hundred fifty dollars, and upon conviction for any subsequent offense under this section shall be punished by imprisonment in the penitentiary for a period of not less than one year nor more than five years.

(b) Any person who shall engage in prostitution, lewdness, or assignation, or who shall solicit, induce, entice, or procure another to commit an act of prostitution, lewdness, or assignation; or who shall reside in, enter, or remain in any house, place, building, hotel, tourist camp, or other structure, or enter or remain in any vehicle, trailer, or other conveyance for the purpose of prostitution, lewdness, or assignation; or who shall aid, abet, or participate in the doing of any of the acts herein prohibited, shall, upon conviction for the first offense under this section, be punished by imprisonment in the county jail for a period of not less than sixty days nor more than six months, and by a fine of not less than fifty dollars and not to exceed one hundred dollars; and upon conviction for the second offense under this section, be punished by imprisonment in the county jail for a period of not less than six months nor more than one year, and by a fine of not less than one hundred dollars and not to exceed two hundred fifty dollars, and upon conviction for any subsequent offense under this section shall be punished by imprisonment in the penitentiary for not less than one year nor more than three years.

The subsequent offense provision shall apply only to the pimp, panderer, solicitor, operator or any person benefiting financially or otherwise from the earnings of a prostitute.

(c) All leases and agreements, oral or written, for letting, subletting, or renting any house, place, building, hotel, tourist camp, or other structure which is used for the purpose of prostitution, lewdness, or assignation, shall be void from and after the date of any person who is a party to such an agreement shall be convicted of an offense hereunder. The term "tourist camp" shall include any temporary or permanent buildings, tents, cabins, or structures, or trailers, or other vehicles which are maintained, offered, or used for dwelling or sleeping quarters for pay.

(d) In the trial of any person, charged with a violation of any of the provisions of this section, testimony concerning the reputation or character of any house, place, building, hotel, tourist camp, or other structure, and of the person or persons who reside in or frequent same, and of the defendant or defendants, shall be admissible in evidence in support of the charge. Justices of the peace shall have concurrent jurisdiction with circuit, intermediate, and criminal courts to try and determine the misdemeanors set forth and described in this section.


WVC 61-8-6 §61-8-6. Detention of person in place of prostitution; penalty.
Whoever shall by any means keep, hold, detain or restrain any person in a house of prostitution or other place where prostitution is practiced or allowed; or whoever shall, directly or indirectly, keep, hold, detain or restrain, or attempt to keep, hold, detain or restrain, in any house of prostitution or other place where prostitution is practiced or allowed, any person by any means, for the purpose of compelling such person, directly or indirectly, to pay, liquidate or cancel any debt, dues or obligations incurred or said to have been incurred by such person shall, upon conviction for the first offense under this section, be punished by imprisonment in the county jail for a period of not less than six months nor more than one year, and by a fine of not less than one hundred nor more than five hundred dollars, and upon conviction for any subsequent offense under this section shall be punished by imprisonment in the penitentiary for not less than one nor more than three years: Provided, That in any offense under this section where the person so kept, held, detained or restrained is a minor, any person violating the provisions of this section shall be guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction, shall be confined in the penitentiary not less than two years nor more than five years or fined not more than five thousand dollars, or both.


WVC 61-8-7 §61-8-7. Procuring for house of prostitution; penalty; venue; competency as witness; marriage no defense.
Any person who shall procure an inmate for a house of prostitution, or who, by promises, threats, violence, or by any device or scheme, shall cause, induce, persuade or encourage a person to become an inmate of a house of prostitution, or shall procure a place as inmate in a house of prostitution for a person; or any person who shall, by promises, threats, violence, or by any device or scheme cause, induce, persuade or encourage an inmate of a house of prostitution to remain therein as such inmate; or any person who shall, by fraud or artifice, or by duress of person or goods, or by abuse of any position of confidence or authority, procure any person to become an inmate of a house of ill fame, or to enter any place in which prostitution is encouraged or allowed within this state, or to come into or leave this state for the purpose of prostitution, or who shall procure any person to become an inmate of a house of ill fame within this state or to come into or leave this state for the purpose of prostitution; or shall receive or give or agree to receive or give any money or thing of value for procuring or attempting to procure any person to become an inmate of a house of ill fame within this state, or to come into or leave this state for the purpose of prostitution, shall be guilty of pandering, and, upon a first conviction for an offense under this section, shall be punished by imprisonment in the county jail for a period of not less than six months nor more than one year, and by a fine of not less than one hundred nor more than five hundred dollars, and upon conviction for any subsequent offense under this section shall be punished by imprisonment in the penitentiary for a period of not less than one nor more than five years: Provided, That where the inmate referred to in this section is a minor, any person violating the provisions of this section shall be guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction shall be confined in the penitentiary not less than two years nor more than five years or fined not more than five thousand dollars, or both.

It shall not be a defense to prosecution for any of the acts prohibited in this section that any part of such act or acts shall have been committed outside of this state, and the offense shall in such case be deemed and alleged to have been committed and the offender tried and punished in any county in which the prostitution was intended to be practiced, or in which the offense was consummated, or any overt act in furtherance of the offense was committed.

Any such person shall be a competent witness in any prosecution under this section to testify for or against the accused as to any transaction, or as to conversation with the accused, or by the accused with another person or persons in his or her presence, notwithstanding his or her having married the accused before or after the violation of any of the provisions of this section, whether called as a witness during the existence of the marriage or after its dissolution. The act or state of marriage shall not be a defense to any violation of this section.


WVC 61-8-8 §61-8-8. Receiving support from prostitution; pimping; penalty; prostitute may testify.
Any person who, knowing another person to be a prostitute, shall live or derive support or maintenance, in whole or in part, from the earnings or proceeds of the prostitution of such prostitute, or from money loaned or advanced to or charged against such prostitution by any keeper or manager or inmate of a house or other place where prostitution is practiced or allowed, or shall tout or receive compensation for touting for such prostitution, shall be guilty of pimping, and, upon the first conviction for such offense, shall be punished by imprisonment in the county jail for a period of not less than six months nor more than one year, and by a fine of not less than one hundred nor more than five hundred dollars; and, upon a conviction for any subsequent offense hereunder, shall be punished by imprisonment in the penitentiary for a period of not less than one nor more than three years: Provided, That where the prostitute referred to in this section is a minor, any person violating the provisions of this section shall be guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction shall be confined in the penitentiary not less than two years or fined not more than five thousand dollars, or both. A prostitute shall be a competent witness in any prosecution hereunder to testify for or against the accused as to any transaction or conversation with the accused, or by the accused with another person or persons in the presence of the prostitute, even if the prostitute may have married the accused before or after the violation of any of the provisions of this section, whether called as a witness during the existence of the marriage or after its dissolution.


WVC 61 - 8 - 9 §61-8-9. Indecent exposure.
(a) A person is guilty of indecent exposure when such person intentionally exposes his or her sex organs or anus or the sex organs or anus of another person, or intentionally causes such exposure by another or engages in any overt act of sexual gratification, and does so under circumstances in which the person knows that the conduct is likely to cause affront or alarm: Provided, That it is not considered indecent exposure for a mother to breast feed a child in any location, public or private.

(b) Except as provided in subsection (c), any person who violates the provisions of this section shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in jail not more than ninety days, or fined not more than two hundred fifty dollars, or both fined and confined .

(c) Any person who violates the provisions of subsection (a) of this section by intentionally exposing himself or herself to another person and the exposure was done for the purpose of sexual gratification, is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than five hundred dollars or confined in jail not more than twelve months, or both. For a second offense, the person is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than one thousand dollars and confined in jail for not less than thirty days nor more than twelve months. For a third or subsequent offense, the person is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than three thousand dollars and imprisoned in a state correctional facility for not less than one year nor more than five years.


WVC 61-8-9a §61-8-9a. Child abuse; education; curriculum.
The Legislature finds the best way to avoid child abuse in West Virginia is to educate our young people on the skills of parenting; therefore, the Legislature directs the commissioner of the department of health, the state superintendent of schools and the commissioner of the department of human services to develop a curriculum to be taught in each of the secondary grades; such curriculum shall include, but not be limited to, discipline, handling stresses of raising children, and the health care needs of children. Such curriculum shall start no later than the 1990-1991 school year.


WVC 61-8-10 §61-8-10. Administering anesthetics to female save in presence of third person; penalty.
It shall be unlawful for any physician, dentist or other person to administer chloroform, ether, or any anaesthetic whatsoever, whereby sleep or total loss of sensation or consciousness may be produced, to any female person, unless in the presence of some third person. Any person offending against this section shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction, shall be fined not exceeding one hundred dollars or be confined in jail not exceeding sixty days, or both fined and imprisoned, in the discretion of the court.


WVC 61 - 8 - 11 §61-8-11. Breathing, inhaling, or drinking certain intoxicating compounds; penalty.
(a) No person shall intentionally breathe, inhale, or drink any compound, liquid, or chemical containing acetone, amylacetate, benzol or benzene, butyl acetate, butyl alcohol, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, cyclohexanone, ethanol or ethyl alcohol, ethyl acetate, hexane, isopropanol or isopropyl alcohol, isopropyl acetate, methyl "cellosolve" acetate, methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone, toluol or toluene, trichloroethylene, tricresyl phosphate, xylol or xylene, or any other solvent, material substance, chemical, or combination thereof, having the property of releasing toxic vapors for the purpose of inducing a condition of intoxication, stupefaction, depression, giddiness, paralysis, or irrational behavior or in any manner changing, distorting, or disturbing the auditory, visual, or mental processes. For the purposes of this section, any condition so induced shall be deemed to be an intoxicated condition.

(b) This section does not apply to:

(1) Any person who commits any act described herein pursuant to the direction or prescription of a licensed physician or dentist authorized to so direct or prescribe, including the inhalation of anesthesia for medical or dental purposes; or

(2) To any alcoholic liquor or nonintoxicating beer as defined in section five, article one, chapter sixty of this code.

(c) Any person who violates the provisions of this section is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than one hundred dollars or be confined in a county or regional jail for not more than sixty days, or both fined and imprisoned.


WVC 61-8-12 §61-8-12. Incest; penalty.
(a) For the purposes of this section:

(1) "Aunt" means the sister of a person's mother or father;

(2) "Brother" means the son of a person's mother or father;

(3) "Daughter" means a person's natural daughter, adoptive daughter or the daughter of a person's husband or wife;

(4) "Father" means a person's natural father, adoptive father or the husband of a person's mother;

(5) "Granddaughter" means the daughter of a person's son or daughter;

(6) "Grandfather" means the father of a person's father or mother;

(7) "Grandmother" means the mother of a person's father or mother;

(8) "Grandson" means the son of a person's son or daughter;

(9) "Mother" means a person's natural mother, adoptive mother or the wife of a person's father;

(10) "Niece" means the daughter of a person's brother or sister;

(11) "Nephew" means the son of a person's brother or sister;

(12) "Sexual intercourse" means any act between persons involving penetration, however slight, of the female sex organ by the male sex organ or involving contact between the sex organs of one person and the mouth or anus of another person;

(13) "Sexual intrusion" means any act between persons involving penetration, however slight, of the female sex organ or of the anus of any person by an object for the purpose of degrading or humiliating the person so penetrated or for gratifying the sexual desire of either party;

(14) "Sister" means the daughter of a person's father or mother;

(15) "Son" means a person's natural son, adoptive son or the son of a person's husband or wife; and

(16) "Uncle" means the brother of a person's father or mother.

(b) A person is guilty of incest when such person engages in sexual intercourse or sexual intrusion with his or her father, mother, brother, sister, daughter, son, grandfather, grandmother, grandson, granddaughter, nephew, niece, uncle or aunt.

(c) Any person who violates the provisions of this section shall be guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be imprisoned in the penitentiary not less than five years nor more than fifteen years, or fined not less than five hundred dollars nor more than five thousand dollars and imprisoned in the penitentiary not less than five years nor more than fifteen years.

(d) In addition to any penalty provided under this section and any restitution which may be ordered by the court under article eleven-a of this chapter, the court may order any person convicted under the provisions of this section where the victim is a minor to pay all or any portion of the cost of medical, psychological or psychiatric treatment of the victim, the need for which results from the act or acts for which the person is convicted, whether or not the victim is considered to have sustained bodily injury.

(e) In any case where a person is convicted of an offense described herein against a child and further has or may have custodial, visitation or other parental rights to the child, the court shall find that the person is an abusing parent within the meaning of article six, chapter forty-nine of this code, and shall take such further action in accord with the provisions of said article.


WVC 61-8-13 §61-8-13. Incest; limits on interviews of children eleven years old or less; evidence.
(a) In any prosecution under the provisions of section twelve of this article, the court may provide by rule for reasonable limits on the number of interviews to which a victim who is eleven years old or less must submit for law-enforcement or discovery purposes. To the extent possible the rule shall protect the mental and emotional health of the child from the psychological damage of repeated interrogation and at the same time preserve the rights of the public and the defendant.

(b) At any stage of the proceedings, in any prosecution under this article, the court may permit a child who is eleven years old or less to use anatomically correct dolls, mannequins or drawings to assist such child in testifying.

(c) In any prosecution under this article in which the victim's lack of consent is based solely on the incapacity to consent because such victim was below a critical age, evidence of specific instances of the victim's sexual conduct, opinion evidence of the victim's sexual conduct and reputation evidence of the victim's sexual conduct shall not be admissible. In any other prosecution under this article, evidence of specific instances of the victim's prior sexual conduct with the defendant shall be admissible on the issue of consent: Provided, That such evidence heard first out of the presence of the jury is found by the judge to be relevant.

(d) In any prosecution under this article evidence of specific instances of the victim's sexual conduct with persons other than the defendant, opinion evidence of the victim's sexual conduct and reputation evidence of the victim's sexual conduct shall not be admissible: Provided, That such evidence shall be admissible solely for the purpose of impeaching credibility, if the victim first makes his or her previous sexual conduct an issue in the trial by introducing evidence with respect thereto.

(e) In any prosecution under this article, neither age nor mental capacity of the victim shall preclude the victim from testifying.


WVC 61 - 8 - 14 §61-8-14. Disinterment or displacement of dead body or part thereof; damage to cemetery or graveyard; penalties; damages in civil action.
(a) Any person who unlawfully and intentionally disinters or displaces a dead human body, or any part of a dead human body, placed or deposited in any vault, mausoleum or any temporary or permanent burial place, removes personal effects of the decedent removes or damages caskets, surrounds, outer burial containers, or any other device used in making the original burial; transports unlawfully removed human remains from the cemetery; or knowingly receives unlawfully removed human remains from the cemetery is guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in a state correctional facility for a determinate sentence of not more than five years.

(b)(1) Any person who intentionally desecrates any tomb, plot, monument, memorial, or marker in a cemetery, or any gate, door, fence, wall, post, or railing, or any enclosure for the protection of a cemetery or any property in a cemetery, graveyard, mausoleum or other designated human burial site is guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than $2,000, or confined in jail not more than one year, or both fined and confined.

(2) Any person who intentionally and without legal right destroys, cuts, breaks, removes, or injures any building, statuary, ornamentation, landscape contents, including a tree, shrub, flower, or plant, within the limits of a cemetery, is guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than $2,000, or confined in jail not more than one year, or both fined and confined.

(3) For the purposes of this subsection, "desecrate" means destroying, cutting, mutilating, effacing, injuring, tearing down, removing, defacing, damaging or otherwise physically mistreating in a way that a reasonable person knows will outrage the sensibilities of persons likely to observe or discover his or her actions.


WVC 61 - 8 - 15 §61-8-15. Prohibition on certain demonstrations at funerals.
     (a) No person may carry out, with respect to any cemetery or building at which a funeral or memorial service or ceremony is to be held, a demonstration within 500 feet of the cemetery or building that:

     (1) Is conducted during the period beginning 60 minutes before and ending 60 minutes after the funeral or memorial service or ceremony is held; and

     (2) Includes, as a part of such demonstration, any individual willfully making or assisting in the making of any noise or diversion that disturbs or tends to disturb the peace or good order of the funeral or memorial service or ceremony.

     (b) For purposes of this section, the term "demonstration" includes the following:

     (1) Any picketing or similar conduct.

     (2) Any oration, speech, use of sound amplification equipment or device, or similar conduct before an assembled group of people that is not part of a funeral or memorial service or ceremony.

     (3) The display of any placard, banner, flag, or similar device, unless such a display is part of a funeral or memorial service or ceremony.

     (4) The distribution of any handbill, pamphlet, leaflet, or other written or printed matter other than a program distributed as part of a funeral or memorial service or ceremony.

     (c) Any person who violates the provisions of subsection (a) is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in jail for an indeterminate sentence of not more than one year and fined not less than $200 nor more than $500.
WVC 61 - 8 - 16 §61-8-16. Obscene, anonymous, harassing, repeated and threatening telephone calls; penalty.
     (a) It is unlawful for any person with intent to harass or abuse another by means of telephone to:

     (1) Make any comment, request, suggestion or proposal which is obscene; or

     (2) Make a telephone call, whether or not conversation ensues, without disclosing his or her identity and with intent to harass any person at the called number; or

     (3) Make or cause the telephone of another repeatedly or continuously to ring, with intent to harass any person at the called number; or

     (4) Make repeated telephone calls, during which conversation ensues, with intent to harass any person at the called number; or

     (5) Threaten to commit a crime against any person or property.

     (b) It shall be unlawful for any person to knowingly permit any telephone under his or her control to be used for any purpose prohibited by this section.

     (c) Any offense committed under this section may be deemed to have occurred at the place at which the telephone call was made, or the place at which the telephone call was received.

     (d) Any person who violates any provision of this section is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than $500, or confined in jail not more than six months, or both fined and confined.
WVC 61-8-17 §61-8-17.
Repealed.

Acts, 1964 Reg. Sess., Ch. 12.


WVC 61-8-18 §61-8-18.
Repealed.

Acts, 1964 Reg. Sess., Ch. 12.


WVC 61 - 8 - 19 §61-8-19. Cruelty to animals; penalties; exclusions.
(a) (1) It is unlawful for any person to intentionally, knowingly or recklessly,

(A) Mistreat an animal in cruel manner;

(B) Abandon an animal;

(C) Withhold;

(i) Proper sustenance, including food or water;

(ii) Shelter that protects from the elements of weather; or

(iii) Medical treatment, necessary to sustain normal health and fitness or to end the suffering of any animal;

(D) Abandon an animal to die;

(E) Leave an animal unattended and confined in a motor vehicle when physical injury to or death of the animal is likely to result;

(F) Ride an animal when it is physically unfit;

(G) Bait or harass an animal for the purpose of making it perform for a person's amusement;

(H) Cruelly chain or tether an animal; or

(I) Use, train or possess a domesticated animal for the purpose of seizing, detaining or maltreating any other domesticated animal.

(2) Any person in violation of subdivision (1) of this subsection is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than three hundred nor more than two thousand dollars or confined in jail not more than six months, or both.

(b) A person who intentionally tortures, or mutilates or maliciously kills an animal, or causes, procures or authorizes any other person to torture, mutilate or maliciously kill an animal, is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in a correctional facility not less than one nor more than five years and be fined not less than one thousand dollars nor more than five thousand dollars. For the purposes of this subsection, "torture" means an action taken for the primary purpose of inflicting pain.

(c) A person, other than a licensed veterinarian or a person acting under the direction or with the approval of a licensed veterinarian, who knowingly and willfully administers or causes to be administered to any animal participating in any contest any controlled substance or any other drug for the purpose of altering or otherwise affecting said animal's performance is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than five hundred nor more than two thousand dollars.

(d) Any person convicted of a violation of this section forfeits his or her interest in any animal and all interest in the animal vests in the humane society or county pound of the county in which the conviction was rendered and the person is, in addition to any fine imposed, liable for any costs incurred or to be incurred by the humane society or county pound as a result.

(e) For the purpose of this section, the term "controlled substance" has the same meaning ascribed to it by subsection (d), section one hundred one, article one, chapter sixty-a of this code.

(f) The provisions of this section do not apply to lawful acts of hunting, fishing, trapping or animal training or farm livestock, poultry, gaming fowl or wildlife kept in private or licensed game farms if kept and maintained according to usual and accepted standards of livestock, poultry, gaming fowl or wildlife or game farm production and management, nor to humane use of animals or activities regulated under and in conformity with the provisions of 7 U.S.C. §2131, et seq., and the regulations promulgated thereunder, as both statutes and regulations are in effect on the effective date of this section.

(g) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (a) of this section, any person convicted of a second or subsequent violation of subsection (a) is guilty of a misdemeanor and shall be confined in jail for a period of not less than ninety days nor more than one year, fined not less than five hundred dollars nor more than three thousand dollars, or both. The incarceration set forth in this subsection is mandatory unless the provisions of subsection (h) of this section are complied with.

(h) (1) Notwithstanding any provision of this code to the contrary, no person who has been convicted of a violation of the provisions of subsection (a) or (b) of this section may be granted probation until the defendant has undergone a complete psychiatric or psychological evaluation and the court has reviewed the evaluation. Unless the defendant is determined by the court to be indigent, he or she is responsible for the cost of the evaluation.

(2) For any person convicted of a violation of subsection (a) or (b) of this section, the court may, in addition to the penalties provided in this section, impose a requirement that he or she complete a program of anger management intervention for perpetrators of animal cruelty. Unless the defendant is determined by the court to be indigent, he or she is responsible for the cost of the program.

(i) In addition to any other penalty which can be imposed for a violation of this section, a court shall prohibit any person so convicted from possessing, owning or residing with any animal or type of animal for a period of five years following entry of a misdemeanor conviction and fifteen years following entry of a felony conviction. A violation under this subsection is a misdemeanor punishable by a fine not exceeding two thousand dollars and forfeiture of the animal.


WVC 61 - 8 - 19 A §61-8-19a. Animal fighting ventures prohibited.
(a) It is unlawful for any person to engage in, be employed at, or sell an admission to any animal fighting venture.

(b) Any person who violates the provisions of this section is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than one hundred dollars and not more than one thousand dollars, or confined in the county jail not exceeding one year, or both so fined and confined, and may be divested of ownership and control of such animals, and be liable for all costs for their care and maintenance: Provided, That if the animal is a wild animal, game animal or fur-bearing animal, as defined in section two, article one, chapter twenty of this code, or wildlife not indigenous to West Virginia, or of a canine, feline, porcine, bovine, or equine species whether wild or domesticated, the person who violates the provisions of this section is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than one thousand dollars and not more than five thousand dollars, and imprisoned in a state correctional facility for not less than one nor more than five years, or both fined and imprisoned.


WVC 61 - 8 - 19 B §61-8-19b. Attendance at animal fighting ventures prohibited; penalty.
(a) It is unlawful for any person to knowingly attend an animal fighting venture involving animals as provided in subsections (a) and (b), section nineteen-a, article eight of this chapter.

(b) Any person who violates the provisions of this section is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than one hundred dollars and not more than one thousand dollars, or confined in the county or regional jail not more than one year, or both fined and imprisoned.


WVC 61-8-20 §61-8-20. Keeping or using live birds to be shot at; penalty.
Whoever keeps or uses a live bird to be shot at either for amusement or as a test of skill in marksmanship, or shoots at a bird kept or used as aforesaid, or is a party to such shooting, or lets any building, room, field, or premises, or knowingly permits the use thereof, for the purpose of such shooting, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be punished by fine of not more than fifty dollars or by imprisonment for not more than one month, or by both. Nothing herein contained shall apply to the shooting of wild game.


WVC 61-8-21 §61-8-21. Search warrants relating to cruelty to animals.
If complaint is made to a court or magistrate which is authorized to issue warrants in criminal cases that the complainant believes, and has reasonable cause to believe, that the laws relative to cruelty to animals have been or are violated in any particular building or place, such court or magistrate, if satisfied that there is reasonable cause for such belief, shall issue a search warrant authorizing any sheriff, deputy sheriff, constable or police officer to search such building or place; but no such search shall be made after sunset, unless specially authorized by the magistrate upon satisfactory cause shown.


WVC 61-8-22 §61-8-22. Search warrants relating to birds and animals kept for fighting.
If complaint is made to a court or magistrate authorized to issue warrants in criminal cases that the complainant believes, and has reasonable cause to believe, that preparations are being made for an exhibition of the fighting of birds, dogs, or other animals, or that such exhibition is in progress, or that birds, dogs, or other animals are kept or trained for fighting at any place or in any building or tenement, such court or magistrate, if satisfied that there is reasonable cause for such belief, shall issue a search warrant authorizing any sheriff, deputy sheriff, constable, or police officer, to search such place, building, or tenement at any hour of the day or night, and take possession of all such birds, dogs or other animals there found, and to arrest all persons there present at any such exhibition or where preparations for such an exhibition are being made, or where birds, dogs, or other animals are kept or trained for fighting.


WVC 61-8-23 §61-8-23. Search without warrant where there is an exhibition of the fighting of birds or animals.
Any officer authorized to serve criminal process may, without warrant, enter any place, building, or tenement in which there is an exhibition of the fighting of birds, dogs, or other animals, or in which preparations are being made for such an exhibition and arrest all persons there present and take possession of and remove from the place of seizure the birds, dogs, or other animals engaged in fighting or there found and intended to be used or engaged in fighting, or kept or trained for fighting and hold the same in custody subject to the order of the court as hereinafter provided.


WVC 61-8-24 §61-8-24.
Repealed

Acts, 1988 Reg. Sess., Ch. 42.


WVC 61-8-25 §61-8-25. Requiring children to beg, sing or play musical instruments in streets; penalty.
Any person, having the care, custody, or control, lawful or unlawful, of any minor child under the age of eighteen years, who shall use such minor, or apprentice, give away, let out, hire or otherwise dispose of, such minor child to any person, for the purposes of singing, playing on musical instruments, begging, or for any mendicant business whatsoever in the streets, roads, or other highways of this state, and any person who shall take, receive, hire, employ, use or have in custody, any minor for the vocation, occupation, calling, service or purpose of singing, playing upon musical instruments, or begging upon the streets, roads or other highways of this state, or for any mendicant business whatever, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than five nor more than one hundred dollars.


WVC 61-8-26 §61-8-26. Permitting children to sing, dance or act in dance house, etc.; penalty.
Any person, having the care, custody, or control of any minor child under the age of fifteen years, who shall in any manner sell, apprentice, give away or permit such child to sing, dance, act, or in any manner exhibit it in any dance house, concert saloon, theater or place of entertainment where wines or spirituous or malt liquors are sold or given away, or with which any place for the sale of wines or spirituous or malt liquors is directly or indirectly connected by any passageway or entrance, and any proprietor of any dance house whatever, or any such concert saloon, theater, or place of entertainment, so employing any such child, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than five nor more than one hundred dollars for each offense.


WVC 61-8-27 §61-8-27. Unlawful admission of children to dance house, etc.; penalty.
Any proprietor or any person in charge of a dance house, concert saloon, theater, museum, or similar place of amusement, or other place, where wines or spirituous or malt liquors are sold or given away, or any place of entertainment injurious to health or morals, who admits or permits to remain therein any minor under the age of eighteen years, unless accompanied by his or her parent or guardian, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, on conviction thereof, shall be punished by a fine not exceeding two hundred dollars.


WVC 61-8-27a §61-8-27a. Use of false identification, etc., by person under age; penalty.
Any person who exhibits or displays a false or erroneous birth certificate, draft card, registration card or certificate, license, or identification card or certificate of any kind or character, or who exhibits or displays any certificate, card or license of any kind or character not his own, for the purpose of purchasing or drinking beer or liquor or gaining admittance to any establishment, from which he or she would otherwise be barred by reason of age, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, on conviction thereof, shall be punished by a fine of not less than twenty-five nor more than one hundred dollars, and, in the discretion of the court, may be imprisoned in the county jail not exceeding thirty days.


WVC 61 - 8 - 28 §61-8-28. Criminal invasion of privacy; penalties.
(a) For the purposes of this section, the words or terms defined in this subsection have the meanings ascribed to them. These definitions are applicable unless a different meaning clearly appears from the context:

(1) "A person fully or partially nude" means a male or female who is either clothed or unclothed so that: (A) All or any part of his or her genitals, pubic area or buttocks is visible; or (B) in the case of a female only, a part of a nipple of her breast is visible and is without a fully opaque covering;

(2) "To visually portray" a person means to create a reproducible image of that person by means of:

(A) A photograph;

(B) A motion picture;

(C) A video tape;

(D) A digital recording; or

(E) Any other mechanical or electronic recording process or device that can preserve, for later viewing, a visual image of a person; and

(3) "Place where a reasonable person would have an expectation of privacy" means a place where a reasonable person would believe that he or she could, in privacy, be fully or partially nude without expecting that the act of exposing his or her body was being visually portrayed by another person.

(b) It is unlawful for a person to knowingly visually portray another person without that other person's knowledge, while that other person is fully or partially nude and is in a place where a reasonable person would have an expectation of privacy. A person who violates the provisions of this subsection is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction, shall be confined in a county or regional jail for not more than one year or fined not more than five thousand dollars, or both.

(c) Any person who displays or distributes visual images of another person with knowledge that said visual images were obtained in violation of subsection (b) of this section is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction, shall be confined in a county or regional jail for not more than one year or fined not more than five thousand dollars, or both.

(d) A person who is convicted of a second or subsequent violation of subsection (b) or (c) of this section is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction, shall be confined in a state correctional facility for not less than one year nor more than five years or fined not more than ten thousand dollars, or both.


WVC 61-8-29 §61-8-29.
Repealed.

Acts, 1976 Reg. Sess., Ch. 43.


WVC -8A- ARTICLE 8A. PREPARATION, DISTRIBUTION OR EXHIBITION OF OBSCENE MATTER TO MINORS.


WVC 61 - 8 A- 1 §61-8A-1. Definitions.

     When used in this article, the following words, and any variations thereof required by the context, shall have the meaning ascribed to them in this section:

     (a) "Adult" means a person eighteen years of age or older.

     (b) "Computer" means an electronic, magnetic, optical, electrochemical or other high-speed data processing device performing logical, arithmetic or storage functions and includes any data storage facility or communication facility directly related to or operating in conjunction with such device. As used in this article, computer includes file servers, mainframe systems, desktop personal computers, laptop personal computers, tablet personal computers, cellular telephones, game consoles and any electronic data storage device or equipment. The term "computer" includes any connected or directly related device, equipment or facility which enables the computer to store, retrieve or communicate computer programs, computer data or the results of computer operations to or from a person, another computer or another device, but such term does not include an automated typewriter or typesetter, a portable hand-held calculator or other similar device.

     (c) "Computer network" means the interconnection of hardware or wireless communication lines with a computer through remote terminals, or a complex consisting of two or more interconnected computers.

     (d) "Display" means to show, exhibit or expose matter, in a manner visible to general or invited public, including minors. As used in this article, display shall include the placing or exhibiting of matter on or in a billboard, viewing screen, theater, marquee, newsstand, display rack, window, showcase, display case or similar public place.

     (e) "Distribute" means to transfer possession, transport, transmit, sell or rent, whether with or without consideration.

     (f) "Employee" means any individual who renders personal services in the course of a business, who receives compensation and who has no financial interest in the ownership or operation of the business other than his or her salary or wages.

     (g) "Internet" means the international computer network of both federal and nonfederal interoperable packet switched data networks.

     (h) "Knowledge of the character of the matter" means having awareness of or notice of the overall sexual content and character of matter as depicting, representing or describing obscene matter.

     (I) "Matter" means any visual, audio, or physical item, article, production transmission, publication, exhibition, or live performance, or reproduction thereof, including any two- or three- dimensional visual or written material, film, picture, drawing, video, graphic, or computer generated or reproduced image; or any book, magazine, newspaper or other visual or written material; or any motion picture or other pictorial representation; or any statue or other figure; or any recording, transcription, or mechanical, chemical, or electrical reproduction; or any other articles, video laser disc, computer hardware and software, or computer generated images or message recording, transcription, or object, or any public or commercial live exhibition performed for consideration or before an audience of one or more.

     (j) "Minor" means an unemancipated person under eighteen years of age.

     (k) "Obscene matter" means matter that:

     (1) An average person, applying contemporary adult community standards, would find, taken as a whole, appeals to the prurient interest, is intended to appeal to the prurient interest, or is pandered to a prurient interest;

     (2) An average person, applying community standards, would find depicts or describes, in a patently offensive way, sexually explicit conduct; and

     (3) A reasonable person would find, taken as a whole, lacks serious literary, artistic, political or scientific value.

     (l) "Parent" includes a biological or adoptive parent, legal guardian or legal custodian.

     (m) "Person" means any adult, partnership, firm, association, corporation or other legal entity.

     (n) "Sexually explicit conduct" means an ultimate sexual act, normal or perverted, actual or simulated, including sexual intercourse, sodomy, oral copulation, sexual bestiality, sexual sadism and masochism, masturbation, excretory functions and lewd exhibition of the genitals.
WVC 61 - 8 A- 2 §61-8A-2. Distribution and display to minor of obscene matter; penalties; defenses.

(a) Any adult, with knowledge of the character of the matter, who knowingly and intentionally distributes, offers to distribute, or displays to a minor any obscene matter, is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than twenty-five thousand dollars, or confined in a state correctional facility for not more than five years, or both.

(b) It is a defense to a prosecution under the provisions of this section that the obscene matter:

(1) Was displayed in an area from which minors are physically excluded and the matter so located cannot be viewed by a minor from nonrestricted areas; or

(2) Was covered by a device, commonly known as a "blinder rack," such that the lower two thirds of the cover of the material is not exposed to view; or

(3) Was enclosed in an opaque wrapper such that the lower two thirds of the cover of the material was not exposed to view; or

(4) Was displayed or distributed after taking reasonable steps to receive, obtain or check an adult identification card, such as a driver's license or other technically or reasonably feasible means of verification of age.

(c) It is a defense to an alleged violation under this section that a parent had taken reasonable steps to limit the minor's access to the obscene matter.


WVC 61 - 8 A- 3 §61-8A-3. Exemptions from criminal liability.
The criminal provisions of section two of this article do not apply to:

(a) A bona fide school, in the presentation of local or state approved curriculum;

(b) A public library, or museum, which is displaying or distributing any obscene matter to a minor only when the minor was accompanied by his or her parent;

(c) A licensed medical or mental health care provider, or judicial or law-enforcement officer, during the course of medical, psychiatric, or psychological treatment or judicial or law-enforcement activities;

(d) A person who did not know or have reason to know, and could not reasonably have learned, that the person to whom the obscene matter was distributed or displayed was a minor and who took reasonable measures to ascertain the identity and age of the minor;

(e) A person who routinely distributes obscene matter by the use of telephone, computer network or the internet and who distributes such matter to any minor under the age of eighteen years after the person has taken reasonable measures to prevent access by minors to the obscene matter; or

(f) A radio or television station, cable television service or other telecommunications service regulated by the federal communications commission.


WVC 61 - 8 A- 4 §61-8A-4. Use of obscene matter with intent to seduce minor.
Any adult, having knowledge of the character of the matter, who knows that a person is a minor and distributes, offers to distribute or displays by any means any obscene matter to the minor, and such distribution, offer to distribute, or display is undertaken with the intent or for the purpose of facilitating the sexual seduction or abuse of the minor, is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than twenty-five thousand dollars, or confined in a state correctional facility for not more than five years, or both. For a second and each subsequent commission of such offense, such person is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction, shall be fined not more than fifty thousand dollars or confined in a state correctional facility for not more than ten years, or both.


WVC 61 - 8 A- 5 §61-8A-5. Employment or use of minor to produce obscene matter or assist in doing sexually explicit conduct; penalties.
Any adult who, with knowledge that a person is a minor or who fails to exercise reasonable care in ascertaining the age of a minor, hires, employs or uses such minor to produce obscene matter or to do or assist in doing any sexually explicit conduct, is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than fifty thousand dollars or confined in a state correctional facility for not more than ten years, or both.


WVC 61 - 8 A- 6 §61-8A-6.
Repealed.

Acts, 2000 Reg. Sess., Ch. 193.


WVC 61 - 8 A- 7 §61-8A-7.
Repealed.

Acts, 2000 Reg. Sess., Ch. 193.


WVC -8B- ARTICLE 8B. SEXUAL OFFENSES.


WVC 61 - 8 B- 1 §61-8B-1. Definition of terms.
In this article, unless a different meaning plainly is required:

(1) "Forcible compulsion" means:

(a) Physical force that overcomes such earnest resistance as might reasonably be expected under the circumstances; or

(b) Threat or intimidation, expressed or implied, placing a person in fear of immediate death or bodily injury to himself or herself or another person or in fear that he or she or another person will be kidnapped; or

(c) Fear by a person under sixteen years of age caused by intimidation, expressed or implied, by another person who is at least four years older than the victim.

For the purposes of this definition "resistance" includes physical resistance or any clear communication of the victim's lack of consent.

(2) "Married", for the purposes of this article in addition to its legal meaning, includes persons living together as husband and wife regardless of the legal status of their relationship.

(3) "Mentally defective" means that a person suffers from a mental disease or defect which renders that person incapable of appraising the nature of his or her conduct.

(4) "Mentally incapacitated" means that a person is rendered temporarily incapable of appraising or controlling his or her conduct as a result of the influence of a controlled or intoxicating substance administered to that person without his or her consent or as a result of any other act committed upon that person without his or her consent.

(5) "Physically helpless" means that a person is unconscious or for any reason is physically unable to communicate unwillingness to an act.

(6) "Sexual contact" means any intentional touching, either directly or through clothing, of the breasts, buttocks, anus or any part of the sex organs of another person, or intentional touching of any part of another person's body by the actor's sex organs, where the victim is not married to the actor and the touching is done for the purpose of gratifying the sexual desire of either party.

(7) "Sexual intercourse" means any act between persons involving penetration, however slight, of the female sex organ by the male sex organ or involving contact between the sex organs of one person and the mouth or anus of another person.

(8) "Sexual intrusion" means any act between persons involving penetration, however slight, of the female sex organ or of the anus of any person by an object for the purpose of degrading or humiliating the person so penetrated or for gratifying the sexual desire of either party.

(9) "Bodily injury" means substantial physical pain, illness or any impairment of physical condition.

(10) "Serious bodily injury" means bodily injury which creates a substantial risk of death, which causes serious or prolonged disfigurement, prolonged impairment of health or prolonged loss or impairment of the function of any bodily organ.

(11) "Deadly weapon" means any instrument, device or thing capable of inflicting death or serious bodily injury, and designed or specially adapted for use as a weapon, or possessed, carried or used as a weapon.

(12) "Forensic medical examination" means an examination provided to a possible victim of a violation of the provisions of this article by medical personnel qualified to gather evidence of the violation in a manner suitable for use in a court of law, to include: An examination for physical trauma; a determination of penetration or force; a patient interview; and the collection and evaluation of other evidence that is potentially relevant to the determination that a violation of the provisions of this article occurred and to the determination of the identity of the assailant.


WVC 61 - 8 B- 2 §61-8B-2. Lack of consent.

     (a) Whether or not specifically stated, it is an element of every offense defined in this article that the sexual act was committed without the consent of the victim.

     (b) Lack of consent results from:

     (1) Forcible compulsion;

     (2) Incapacity to consent; or

     (3) If the offense charged is sexual abuse, any circumstances in addition to the forcible compulsion or incapacity to consent in which the victim does not expressly or impliedly acquiesce in the actor's conduct.

     (c) A person is deemed incapable of consent when such person is:

     (1) Less than sixteen years old;

     (2) Mentally defective;

     (3) Mentally incapacitated;

     (4) Physically helpless; or

     (5) Subject to confinement or supervision by a state or local government entity, when the actor is a person prohibited from having sexual intercourse, or causing sexual intrusion or sexual contact pursuant to subsections (a) and (b) of section ten of this article.
WVC 61 - 8 B- 3 §61-8B-3. Sexual assault in the first degree.
(a) A person is guilty of sexual assault in the first degree when:

(1) The person engages in sexual intercourse or sexual intrusion with another person and, in so doing:

(i) Inflicts serious bodily injury upon anyone; or

(ii) Employs a deadly weapon in the commission of the act; or

(2) The person, being fourteen years old or more, engages in sexual intercourse or sexual intrusion with another person who is younger than twelve years old and is not married to that person.

(b) Any person violating the provisions of this section is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be imprisoned in a state correctional facility not less than fifteen nor more than thirty-five years, or fined not less than one thousand dollars nor more than ten thousand dollars and imprisoned in a state correctional facility not less than fifteen nor more than thirty-five years.

(c) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (b) of this section, the penalty for any person violating the provisions of subsection (a) of this section who is eighteen years of age or older and whose victim is younger than twelve years of age, shall be imprisonment in a state correctional facility for not less than twenty-five nor more than one hundred years and a fine of not less than five thousand dollars nor more than twenty-five thousand dollars.


WVC 61-8B-4 §61-8B-4. Sexual assault in the second degree.
(a) A person is guilty of sexual assault in the second degree when:

(1) Such person engages in sexual intercourse or sexual intrusion with another person without the person's consent, and the lack of consent results from forcible compulsion; or

(2) Such person engages in sexual intercourse or sexual intrusion with another person who is physically helpless.

(b) Any person who violates the provisions of this section shall be guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be imprisoned in the penitentiary not less than ten nor more than twenty-five years, or fined not less than one thousand dollars nor more than ten thousand dollars and imprisoned in the penitentiary not less than ten nor more than twenty-five years.


WVC 61 - 8 B- 5 §61-8B-5. Sexual assault in the third degree.
(a) A person is guilty of sexual assault in the third degree when:

(1) The person engages in sexual intercourse or sexual intrusion with another person who is mentally defective or mentally incapacitated; or

(2) The person, being sixteen years old or more, engages in sexual intercourse or sexual intrusion with another person who is less than sixteen years old and who is at least four years younger than the defendant and is not married to the defendant.

(b) Any person violating the provisions of this section is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be imprisoned in a state correctional facility not less than one year nor more than five years, or fined not more than ten thousand dollars and imprisoned in a state correctional facility not less than one year nor more than five years.


WVC 61 - 8 B- 6 §61-8B-6.
Repealed.

Acts, 2000 Reg. Sess., Ch. 85.


WVC 61 - 8 B- 7 §61-8B-7. Sexual abuse in the first degree.
(a) A person is guilty of sexual abuse in the first degree when:

(1) Such person subjects another person to sexual contact without their consent, and the lack of consent results from forcible compulsion; or

(2) Such person subjects another person to sexual contact who is physically helpless; or

(3) Such person, being fourteen years old or more, subjects another person to sexual contact who is younger than twelve years old.

(b) Any person who violates the provisions of this section shall be guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be imprisoned in a state correctional facility not less than one year nor more than five years, or fined not more than ten thousand dollars and imprisoned in a state correctional facility not less than one year nor more than five years.

(c) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (b) of this section, the penalty for any person violating the provisions of subsection (a) of this section who is eighteen years of age or older and whose victim is younger than twelve years of age, shall be imprisonment for not less than five nor more than twenty-five years and fined not less than one thousand dollars nor more than five thousand dollars.


WVC 61-8B-8 §61-8B-8. Sexual abuse in the second degree.
(a) A person is guilty of sexual abuse in the second degree when such person subjects another person to sexual contact who is mentally defective or mentally incapacitated.

(b) Any person who violates the provisions of this section shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in the county jail not more than twelve months, or fined not more than five hundred dollars and confined in the county jail not more than twelve months.


WVC 61-8B-9 §61-8B-9. Sexual abuse in the third degree.
(a) A person is guilty of sexual abuse in the third degree when he subjects another person to sexual contact without the latter's consent, when such lack of consent is due to the victim's incapacity to consent by reason of being less than sixteen years old.

(b) In any prosecution under this section it is a defense that:

(1) The defendant was less than sixteen years old; or

(2) The defendant was less than four years older than the victim.

(c) Any person who violates the provisions of this section shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in the county jail not more than ninety days, or fined not more than five hundred dollars and confined in the county jail not more than ninety days.


WVC 61 - 8 B- 9 A §61-8B-9a. Mandatory sentence for person committing certain sex offenses against children.
(a) Notwithstanding the provisions of section one-a, article eleven-a, section four, article eleven-b and section two, article twelve of chapter sixty-two of this code, a person shall not be eligible for probation, home incarceration or an alternative sentence provided under this code if they are convicted of an offense under section three, four, five, seven, eight or nine, article eight-b, chapter sixty-one of this code, are eighteen years of age or older, the victim is younger than twelve years of age and the finder of fact determines that one of the following aggravating circumstances exists:

(1) The person employed forcible compulsion in commission of the offense;

(2) The offense constituted, resulted from or involved a predatory act as defined in subsection (m), section two, article twelve, chapter fifteen of this code;

(3) The person was armed with a weapon or any article used or fashioned in a manner to lead the victim to reasonably believe it to be a dangerous weapon and used or threatened to use the weapon or article to cause the victim to submit; or

(4) The person removed the victim from one place to another and did not release the victim in a safe place. For the purposes of this section, "release the victim in a safe place" means release of a victim in a place and manner which realistically conveys to the victim that he or she is free from captivity in circumstances and surroundings wherein aid is readily available.

(b)(1) The existence of any fact which would make any person ineligible for probation under subsection (a) of this section because of the existence of an aggravating circumstance shall not be applicable unless such fact is clearly stated and included in the indictment or presentment by which such person is charged and is either: (i) Found by the court upon a plea of guilty or nolo contendere; or (ii) found by the jury, if the matter be tried before a jury, upon submitting to such jury a special interrogatory for such purpose; or (iii) found by the court, if the matter be tried by the court, without a jury.

(2) Insofar as the provisions of this section relate to mandatory sentences without probation, home incarceration or alternative sentences, all such matters requiring such sentence shall be proved beyond a reasonable doubt in all cases tried by the jury or the court.


WVC 61 - 8 B- 9 B §61-8B-9b. Enhanced penalties for subsequent offenses committed by those previously convicted of sexually violent offenses against children.
(a) Notwithstanding any provision of this article to the contrary, any person who has been convicted of a sexually violent offense, as defined in section two, article twelve, chapter fifteen of this code, against a victim under the age of twelve years old and thereafter commits and thereafter is convicted of one of the following offenses shall be subject to the following penalties unless another provision of this code authorizes a longer sentence:

(1) For a violation of section three of this article, the penalty shall be imprisonment in a state correctional facility for not less than fifty nor more than one hundred fifty years;

(2) For a violation of section four of this article, the penalty shall be imprisonment in a state correctional facility for not less than thirty nor more than one hundred years;

(3) For a violation of section five of this article, the penalty shall be imprisonment in a state correctional facility for not less than five nor more than twenty-five years;

(4) For a violation of section seven of this article, the penalty shall be imprisonment in a state correctional facility for not less than ten nor more than thirty-five years; and

(5) Notwithstanding the penalty provisions of section eight of this article, a violation of its provisions by a person previously convicted of a sexually violent offense, as defined in section two, article twelve, chapter fifteen of this code, shall be a felony and the penalty therefor shall be imprisonment in a state correctional facility for not less than three nor more than fifteen years.

(b) Notwithstanding the provisions of section two, article twelve, chapter sixty-two of this code, any person sentenced pursuant to this section shall not be eligible for probation.

(c) Notwithstanding the provisions of section one-a, article eleven-a and section four, article eleven-b of chapter sixty-two of this code, a person sentenced under this section shall not be eligible for home incarceration or an alternative sentence.


WVC 61 - 8 B- 10 §61-8B-10. Imposition of sexual acts on persons incarcerated or under supervision; penalties.

     (a) Any person employed by the Division of Corrections, any person working at a correctional facility managed by the Commissioner of Corrections pursuant to contract or as an employee of a state agency, any person working at a correctional facility managed by the Division of Juvenile Services pursuant to contract or as an employee of a state agency, any person employed by a jail or by the Regional Jail and Correctional Facility Authority, any person working at a facility managed by the Regional Jail and Correctional Facility Authority or a jail or any person employed by, or acting pursuant to, the authority of any sheriff, county commission or court to ensure compliance with the provisions of article eleven-b, chapter sixty-two of this code who engages in sexual intercourse, sexual intrusion or sexual contact with a person who is incarcerated in this state is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in a state correctional facility under the control of the Commissioner of Corrections for not less than one nor more than five years or fined not more than $5,000.

     (b) Any person employed by the Division of Corrections as a parole officer or by the West Virginia Supreme Court of Appeals as an adult or juvenile probation officer who engages in sexual intercourse, sexual intrusion or sexual contact with a person said parole officer or probation officer is charged as part of his or her employment with supervising, is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in a state correctional facility under the control of the Commissioner of Corrections for not less than one nor more than five years or fined not more than $5,000, or both.

     (c) The term "incarcerated in this state" for purposes of this section includes in addition to its usual meaning, offenders serving a sentence under the provisions of article eleven-b, chapter sixty-two of this code.

     (d) Authorized pat-down, strip search or other security related tasks does not constitute sexual contact pursuant to this section.
WVC 61-8B-11 §61-8B-11. Sexual offenses; evidence.
(a) In any prosecution under this article in which the victim's lack of consent is based solely on the incapacity to consent because such victim was below a critical age, evidence of specific instances of the victim's sexual conduct, opinion evidence of the victim's sexual conduct and reputation evidence of the victim's sexual conduct shall not be admissible. In any other prosecution under this article, evidence of specific instances of the victim's prior sexual conduct with the defendant shall be admissible on the issue of consent: Provided, That such evidence heard first out of the presence of the jury is found by the judge to be relevant.

(b) In any prosecution under this article evidence of specific instances of the victim's sexual conduct with persons other than the defendant, opinion evidence of the victim's sexual conduct and reputation evidence of the victim's sexual conduct shall not be admissible: Provided, That such evidence shall be admissible solely for the purpose of impeaching credibility, if the victim first makes his or her previous sexual conduct an issue in the trial by introducing evidence with respect thereto.

(c) In any prosecution under this article, neither age nor mental capacity of the victim shall preclude the victim from testifying.

(d) At any stage of the proceedings, in any prosecution under this article, the court may permit a child who is eleven years old or less to use anatomically correct dolls, mannequins or drawings to assist such child in testifying.


WVC 61-8B-11A §61-8B-11a. Convictions for offenses against children.
In any case where a person is convicted of an offense described in this article against a child and the person has custodial, visitation or other parental rights to the child who is the victim of the offense or any child who resides in the same household as the victim, the court shall, at the time of sentencing, find that the person is an abusing parent within the meaning of article six, chapter forty-nine of this code as to the child victim, and may find that the person is an abusing parent as to any child who resides in the same household as the victim, and shall take such further action in accord with the provisions of said article.
WVC 61-8B-12 §61-8B-12. Same -- Defense.
(a) In any prosecution under this article in which the victim's lack of consent is based solely on the incapacity to consent because such victim was below a critical age, mentally defective, mentally incapacitated or physically helpless, it is an affirmative defense that the defendant at the time he or she engaged in the conduct constituting the offense did not know of the facts or conditions responsible for such incapacity to consent, unless the defendant is reckless in failing to know such facts or conditions.

(b) The affirmative defense provided in subsection (a) of this section shall not be available in any prosecution under subdivision (2), subsection (a), section three, and under subdivision (3), subsection (a), section seven of this article.


WVC 61-8B-13 §61-8B-13. Payment of treatment cost for victim.
In addition to any penalty provided under this article and any restitution, which may be ordered by the court under article eleven-a of this chapter, the court may order any person convicted under the provisions of this article to pay all or any portion of the cost of medical, psychological or psychiatric treatment of the victim, the need for which results from the act or acts for which the defendant is convicted, whether or not the victim is considered to have sustained bodily injury.


WVC 61-8B-14 §61-8B-14. Limits on interviews of children eleven years old or less.
In any prosecution under this article, the court may provide by rule for reasonable limits on the number of interviews to which a victim who is a child who is eleven years old or less must submit for law enforcement or discovery purposes. The rule shall to the extent possible protect the mental and emotional health of the child from the psychological damage of repeated interrogations while at the same time preserve the rights of the public and the defendant.


WVC 61 - 8 B- 15 §61-8B-15. Forensic Medical Examination Fund; training of sexual assault nurse examiners.
There is continued the "Forensic Medical Examination Fund", created as a special fund in the State Treasury, into which shall be deposited legislative appropriations to the fund. The West Virginia Prosecuting Attorneys Institute, created by the provisions of section six, article four, chapter seven of this code, shall make expenditures from the fund, where it is determined to be practical by the executive council and the executive director to pay the costs of forensic medical examinations as defined in section sixteen of this article, to train nurses to examine sexual assault victims and to reimburse the institute for its expenses in administering payments from the fund.


WVC 61 - 8 B- 16 §61-8B-16. Payment for costs of forensic medical examination.
(a) When any person alleges that he or she has been the victim of an offense proscribed by this article, the West Virginia prosecuting attorneys institute shall pay to a licensed medical facility from the forensic medical examination fund the cost of the forensic medical examination for the alleged victim on the following conditions and in the following manner:

(1) The payment shall cover all reasonable, customary and usual costs of the forensic medical examination;

(2) The costs of additional nonforensic procedures performed by the licensed medical facility, including, but not limited to, prophylactic treatment, treatment of injuries, testing for pregnancy and testing for sexually transmitted diseases, may not be paid from the fund: Provided, That nothing in this section shall be construed to prohibit a licensed medical facility from seeking payment for services referred to in this subdivision from the alleged victim or his or her insurer, if any;

(3) The forensic medical examination must have been conducted within a reasonable time of the alleged violation;

(4) The licensed medical facility must apply for payment of the costs of a forensic medical examination from the fund within a reasonable time of the examination;

(5) The licensed medical facility shall certify that the forensic medical examination was performed and may submit a statement of charges to the West Virginia Prosecuting Attorneys Institute for payment from the fund.

(b) No licensed medical facility may collect the costs of a forensic medical examination from the alleged victim of a violation of this article or from the alleged victim's insurance coverage, if any.

(c) Nothing in this section shall be construed to require an alleged victim of sexual assault to participate in the criminal justice system or to cooperate with law enforcement in order to be provided a forensic medical examination pursuant to the provisions of this section.


WVC 61-8B-17 §61-8B-17. Study of reimbursement; recordkeeping; disclosure; confidentiality.
(a) The West Virginia prosecuting attorneys institute is hereby directed to undertake a study of the viability of the state seeking reimbursement from private insurance companies for the cost of forensic medical examinations. The study shall be completed prior to the first day of the regular legislative session, one thousand nine hundred ninety-seven, and provided to the president of the Senate and the speaker of the House of Delegates.

(b) The West Virginia prosecuting attorneys institute shall develop and maintain a database for use by law-enforcement personnel, prosecuting attorneys and persons engaged in lawful research of the information collected pursuant to its administration of the forensic medical examination fund. The database shall include the number of examinations performed, the facilities performing the examination and where feasible, other information considered to be of assistance to law-enforcement and the prosecution of sexual offenses. The database shall be maintained in a manner which assures the confidentiality of the information.


WVC 61-8B-18 §61-8B-18. Rule-making authority.
The executive council of the West Virginia prosecuting attorneys institute, created by the provisions of section six, article four, chapter seven of this code, shall promulgate rules in accordance with article three, chapter twenty-nine-a of this code, for the administration of the forensic medical examination fund, establishing qualifications for medical personnel performing a forensic medical examination and any other rules necessary to the implementation of this program. The institute shall also create and distribute to all licensed medical facilities, law-enforcement agencies and prosecuting attorneys' offices the instructional manuals and forms necessary to perform forensic medical examinations and to receive payment from the fund. From the effective date of this section until the date of the promulgation of these rules, the executive council of the West Virginia prosecuting attorneys institute may file rules as emergency rules in accordance with the applicable provisions of this code in order to govern during this period of time the administration of the fund.


WVC -8C- ARTICLE 8C. FILMING OF SEXUALLY EXPLICIT CONDUCT OF MINORS.


WVC 61-8C-1 §61-8C-1. Definitions.
For the purposes of this article:

(a) "Minor" means any child under eighteen years of age.

(b) "Knowledge" means knowing or having reasonable cause to know which warrants further inspection or inquiry.

(c) "Sexually explicit conduct" includes any of the following, whether actually performed or simulated:

(1) Genital to genital intercourse;

(2) Fellatio;

(3) Cunnilingus;

(4) Anal intercourse;

(5) Oral to anal intercourse;

(6) Bestiality;

(7) Masturbation;

(8) Sadomasochistic abuse, including, but not limited to, flagellation, torture or bondage;

(9) Excretory functions in a sexual context; or

(10) Exhibition of the genitals, pubic or rectal areas of any person in a sexual context.

(d) "Person" means an individual, partnership, firm, association, corporation or other legal entity.


WVC 61-8C-2 §61-8C-2. Use of minors in filming sexually explicit conduct prohibited; penalty.
(a) Any person who causes or knowingly permits, uses, persuades, induces, entices or coerces such minor to engage in or uses such minor to do or assist in any sexually explicit conduct shall be guilty of a felony when such person has knowledge that any such act is being photographed or filmed. Upon conviction thereof, such person shall be fined not more than ten thousand dollars, or imprisoned in the penitentiary not more than ten years, or both fined and imprisoned.

(b) Any person who photographs or films such minor engaging in any sexually explicit conduct shall be guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than ten thousand dollars, or imprisoned in the penitentiary not more than ten years, or both fined and imprisoned.

(c) Any parent, legal guardian or person having custody and control of a minor, who photographs or films such minor in any sexually explicit conduct or causes or knowingly permits, uses, persuades, induces, entices or coerces such minor child to engage in or assist in any sexually explicit act shall be guilty of a felony when such person has knowledge that any such act may be photographed or filmed. Upon conviction thereof, such person shall be fined not more than ten thousand dollars, or imprisoned in the penitentiary not more than ten years, or both fined and imprisoned.


WVC 61 - 8 C- 3 §61-8C-3. Distribution and exhibiting of material depicting minors engaged in sexually explicit conduct prohibited; penalty.

 (a) Any person who, knowingly and willfully, sends or causes to be sent or distributes, exhibits, possesses, electronically accesses with intent to view or displays or transports any material visually portraying a minor engaged in any sexually explicit conduct is guilty of a felony.

 (b) Any person who violates the provisions of subsection (a) of this section when the conduct involves fifty or fewer images shall, upon conviction, be imprisoned in a state correctional facility for not more than two years or fined not more than $2,000 or both.

 (c) Any person who violates the provisions of subsection (a) of this section when the conduct involves more than fifty but fewer than six hundred images shall, upon conviction, be imprisoned in a state correctional facility for not less than two nor more than ten years or fined not more than $5,000, or both.

 (d) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsections (b) and (c) of this section any person who violates the provisions of subsection (a) of this section when the conduct involves six hundred or more images or depicts violence against a child or a child engaging in bestiality shall, upon conviction, be imprisoned in a state correctional facility for not less than five nor more than fifteen years or fined not more than $25,000, or both.

 (e) For purposes of this section each video clip, movie or similar recording of five minutes or less shall constitute seventy- five images. A video clip, movie or similar recording of a duration longer than five minutes shall be deemed to constitute seventy-five images for every two minutes in length it exceeds five minutes.
WVC 61 - 8 C- 3 A §61-8C-3a. Prohibiting child erotica; penalties.

     (a) Any person age eighteen or over who knowingly and intentionally produces, possesses, displays or distributes, in any form, any visual portrayals of minors who are partially clothed, where the visual portrayals are: (1) Unrelated to the sale of a commercially available legal product; and (2) used for purely prurient purposes, is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in jail for not more than one year or fined not more than $1,000, or both confined and fined.

     (b) As used in this section only:

     (1) "Purely prurient purposes" means for the specific purpose of sexual gratification or sexual arousal from viewing the visual portrayals prohibited by this section; and

     (2) "Commercially available" means for sale to the general public.

     (3) A "minor" is a child under the age of sixteen years, or a person who is sixteen years of age or older but less than eighteen years old and who is mentally defective or mentally incapacitated.
WVC 61 - 8 C- 3 B §61-8C-3b. Prohibiting juveniles from manufacturing, possessing and distributing nude or partially nude images of minors; creating exemptions; declaring a violation to be an act of juvenile delinquency; and providing for the punishment thereof.

 (a) Any minor who intentionally possesses, creates, produces, distributes, presents, transmits, posts, exchanges, or otherwise disseminates a visual portrayal of another minor posing in an inappropriate sexual manner or who distributes, presents, transmits, posts, exchanges or otherwise disseminates a visual portrayal of himself or herself posing in an inappropriate sexual manner shall be guilty of an act of delinquency and upon adjudication disposition may be made by the circuit court pursuant to the provisions of article five, chapter forty-nine of this code.

 (b) As used in this section:

 (1) "Posing in an inappropriate sexual manner" means exhibition of a bare female breast, female or male genitalia, pubic or rectal areas of a minor for purposes of sexual titillation.

 (2) "Visual portrayal" means:

 (A) A photograph;

 (B) A motion picture;

 (C) A digital image;

 (D) A digital video recording; or

 (E) Any other mechanical or electronic recording process or device that can preserve, for later viewing, a visual image of a person that includes, but is not limited to, computers, cellphones, personal digital assistance and other digital storage or transmitting devices;

 (c) It shall be an affirmative defense to an alleged violation of this section that a minor charged with possession of the prohibited visual depiction did neither solicit its receipt nor distribute, transmit or present it to another person by any means.

 (d) Notwithstanding the provisions of article twelve, chapter fifteen of this code, an adjudication of delinquency under the provisions of this section shall not subject the minor to the requirements of said article and chapter.
WVC 61-8C-4 §61-8C-4. Payments of treatment costs for minor.
In addition to any penalty provided under this article and any restitution which may be ordered by the court under article eleven-a of this chapter, the court may order any person convicted under the provisions of this article to pay all or any portion of the cost of medical, psychological or psychiatric treatment of the minor resulting from the act or acts for which the person is convicted, whether or not the minor is considered to have sustained bodily injury.


WVC 61-8C-5 §61-8C-5. Limits on interviews of children eleven years old or less; evidence.
(a) In any prosecution under this article, the court may provide by rule for reasonable limits on the number of interviews to which a victim who is eleven years old or less must submit for law enforcement or discovery purposes. The rule shall to the extent possible protect the mental and emotional health of the child from the psychological damage of repeated interrogation and at the same time preserve the rights of the public and the defendant.

(b) At any stage of the proceedings, in any prosecution under this article, the court may permit a child who is eleven years old or less to use anatomically correct dolls, mannequins or drawings to assist such child in testifying.


WVC 61 - 8 C- 6 §61-8C-6. Legislative findings.

     The Legislature hereby finds and declares that the seizure and sale of items under the provisions of this article is not contemplated to be a forfeiture as the same is used in article twelve, section five of the West Virginia Constitution and to the extent that such seizure and sale may be found to be such a forfeiture, the Legislature hereby finds and declares that the proceeds from a seizure and sale under this article is not part of net proceeds as the same is contemplated by such article twelve, section five of the West Virginia Constitution.
WVC 61 - 8 C- 7 §61-8C-7. Items subject to forfeiture; persons authorized to seize property subject to forfeiture.

     (a) The following are subject to forfeiture:

     (1) All visual depictions which have been manufactured, distributed, dispensed or possessed in violation of article eight-a or eight-c of this chapter or section fourteen-b, article three-c of this chapter;

     (2) All raw materials, products and equipment of any kind which are used, or intended for use, in manufacturing, processing, delivering, importing or exporting any visual depictions or any crimes against children in violation of article eight-a or eight-c of this chapter or section fourteen-b, article three-c of this chapter;

     (3) All books, records, research products and materials, including hard drives, microfilm, tapes and data which are used, or have been used, or are intended for use, in violation of article eight-a or eight-c of this chapter or section fourteen-b, article three-c of this chapter;

     (4) All moneys, negotiable instruments, securities or other things of value furnished or intended to be furnished in violation of articles eight-a or eight-c of this chapter or section fourteen- b, article three-c of this chapter by any person in exchange for a visual depiction, all proceeds traceable to the exchange and all moneys, negotiable instruments and securities used, or which are intended to be used, to facilitate any violation of article eight-a or eight-c of this chapter or section fourteen-b, article three-c of this chapter: Provided, That no property may be forfeited under this subdivision, to the extent of the interest of an owner, by reason of any act or omission established by that owner to have been committed or omitted without his or her knowledge or consent; and

     (5) All conveyances, including aircraft, vehicles or vessels, which are used, have been used, or are intended for use, to transport, or in any manner to facilitate the transportation, sale, receipt, possession or concealment of property described in subdivision (1), (2) or (3) of this subsection, except that:

     (A) A conveyance used by any person as a common carrier in the transaction of business as a common carrier shall not be forfeited under this section unless it appears that the person owning the conveyance is a consenting party or privy to a violation of article eight-a or eight-c of this chapter or section fourteen-b, article three-c of this chapter;

     (B) A conveyance shall not be forfeited under the provisions of this article if the person owning the conveyance establishes that he or she neither knew, nor had reason to know, that the conveyance was being employed or was likely to be employed in a violation of article eight-a or eight-c of this chapter or section fourteen-b, article three-c of this chapter; and

     (C) A bona fide security interest or other valid lien in any conveyance shall not be forfeited under the provisions of this article, unless the state proves by a preponderance of the evidence that the holder of the security interest or lien either knew, or had reason to know, that the conveyance was being used or was likely to be used in a violation of article eight-a or eight-c of this chapter or section fourteen-b, article three-c of this chapter.

     (b) Property subject to forfeiture under this article may be seized by the State Police (hereinafter referred to as the "appropriate person" in this article).

     (c) Visual depictions which are manufactured, possessed, transferred, sold or offered for sale in violation of this article are contraband and shall be seized and summarily forfeited to the state. Visual depictions which are seized or come into the possession of the state, the owners of which are unknown, are contraband and shall be summarily forfeited to the state upon the seizure of the visual depictions.

     (d) Notwithstanding any other provisions of this article to the contrary, any items of tangible personal property sold to a bona fide purchaser are not subject to forfeiture unless the state establishes by clear and convincing proof that the bona fide purchaser knew or should have known that the property had in the previous three years next preceding the sale been used in violation of this chapter.

     (e) Notwithstanding any other provisions of this code to the contrary, any person who has an ownership interest in items of tangible personal property subject to forfeiture by this article shall be presumed to be an innocent owner. Unless the state establishes by clear and convincing proof that the innocent owner knew or should have known that the property subject to forfeiture had been used in violation of article eight-a or eight-c of this chapter or section fourteen-b, article three-c of this chapter and, if applicable, that the innocent owner did not do all that reasonably could be expected under the circumstances to terminate the illegal use of the property once he or she had knowledge of it, the court shall enter an order either: (1) Severing the property appropriately; (2) transferring the property to the state with a provision that the state shall compensate the innocent owner to the extent of his or her ownership interest once a final order of forfeiture has been entered and the property has been reduced to liquid assets; or (3) permitting the innocent owner to retain the property subject to a lien in favor of the state to the extent of the forfeitable interest in the property. If the state meets the burden set forth in this section, then the court shall enter an order declaring the person with an ownership interest is not an innocent owner and allowing forfeiture proceedings to continue, pursuant to the requirements set forth in this article.
WVC 61 - 8 C- 8 §61-8C-8. Procedures for seizure of forfeitable property.

     (a) Seizure of property made subject to forfeiture by the provisions of this article may be made upon process issued by any court of record having jurisdiction over the property.

     (b) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (a) of this section, seizure of property subject to forfeiture by the provisions of this article may be made without process if:

     (1) The seizure is incident to a lawful arrest or pursuant to a search under a search warrant or an inspection warrant;

     (2) The property subject to seizure has been the subject of a prior judgment in favor of the state in a forfeiture proceeding based upon this article;

     (3) The appropriate person has probable cause to believe that the property is directly or indirectly dangerous to health or safety; or

     (4) The appropriate person has probable cause to believe that the property was used or intended for use in violation of this chapter.

     (c) In the event of seizure pursuant to subsection (b) of this section, forfeiture proceedings shall be instituted within ninety days of the seizure thereof.

     (d) Property taken or detained under this section shall not be subject to replevin, but is deemed to be in the custody of the appropriate person, subject only to the orders and decrees of the court having jurisdiction over the forfeiture proceedings. When property is seized under this article, the appropriate person may:

     (1) Place the property under seal;

     (2) Remove the property to a place designated by him or her;

     (3) Require the appropriate law-enforcement agency to take custody of the property and remove it to an appropriate location for disposition in accordance with law; or

     (4) In the case of seized moneys, securities or other negotiable instruments, place the assets in any interest-bearing depository insured by an agency of the federal government.
WVC 61 - 8 C- 9 §61-8C-9. Procedures for forfeiture.

     (a) (1) Any proceeding wherein the state seeks forfeiture of property subject to forfeiture under this article shall be a civil proceeding. A petition for forfeiture may be filed on behalf of the state and any law-enforcement agency making a seizure under this article by the prosecuting attorney of a county, or duly appointed special prosecutor.

     (2) A petition for forfeiture may be filed and proceedings held thereon in the circuit court of the county wherein the seizure was made, the real property subject to forfeiture is situate or the circuit court of the county wherein any owner of the property subject to forfeiture may reside.

     (3) Any civil trial stemming from a petition for forfeiture brought under this article at the demand of either party shall be by jury.

     (4) A petition for forfeiture of the seized property shall be filed within ninety days after the seizure of the property in question. The petition shall be verified by oath or affirmation of a law-enforcement officer representing the law-enforcement agency responsible for the seizure or the prosecuting attorney and shall contain the following:

     (A) A description of the property seized;

     (B) A statement as to who is responsible for the seizure;

     (C) A statement of the time and place of seizure;

     (D) The identity of the owner or owners of the property, if known;

     (E) The identity of the person or persons in possession of the property at the time seized, if known;

     (F) A statement of facts upon which probable cause for belief that the seized property is subject to forfeiture pursuant to the provisions of this article is based;

     (G) The identity of all persons or corporations having a perfected security interest or lien in the subject property, as well as the identity of all persons or corporations known to the affiant who may be holding a possessory or statutory lien against such property; and

     (H) A prayer for an order directing forfeiture of the seized property to the state, and vesting ownership of such property in the state.

     (b) At the time of filing or as soon as practicable thereafter, a copy of the petition for forfeiture shall be served upon the owner or owners of the seized property, as well as all holders of a perfected security interest or lien or of a possessory or statutory lien in the same class, if known. Should diligent efforts fail to disclose the lawful owner or owners of the seized property, a copy of the petition for forfeiture shall be served upon any person who was in possession or alleged to be in possession of the property at the time of seizure, where such person's identity is known. The above service shall be made pursuant to the provisions of the West Virginia Rules of Civil Procedure. Any copy of the petition for forfeiture so served shall include a notice substantially as follows: "To any claimant to the within described property: You have the right to file an answer to this petition setting forth your title in, and right to possession of, the property within thirty days from the service hereof. If you fail to file an answer, a final order forfeiting the property to the state will be entered, and such order is not subject to appeal."

     If no owner or possessors, lien holders or holders of a security interest be found, then such service may be by Class II legal publication in accordance with the provisions of article three, chapter fifty-nine of this code, and the publication area shall be the county wherein such property was located at the time of seizure and the county wherein the petition for forfeiture is filed.

     (c) In addition to the requirements of subsection (b) above, the prosecuting attorney or law-enforcement officer upon whose oath or affirmation the petition for forfeiture is based, shall be responsible for the publication of a further notice. Such further notice that a petition for forfeiture has been filed shall be published by Class II legal advertisement in accordance with article three, chapter fifty-nine of this code. The publication area shall be the county wherein the property was seized and the county wherein the petition for forfeiture is filed. The notice shall advise any claimant to the property of their right to file a claim on or before the date set forth in the notice, which date shall not be less than thirty days from the date of the first publication. The notice shall specify that any claim must clearly state the identity of the claimant and an address where legal process can be served upon that person. In addition such notice shall contain the following information:

     (1) A description of the property seized;

     (2) A statement as to who is responsible for the seizure;

     (3) A statement of the time and place of seizure;

     (4) The identity of the owner or owners of the property, if known;

     (5) The identity of the person or persons in possession of the property at the time of seizure, if known; and

     (6) A statement that prayer for an order directing forfeiture of the seized property to the state, and vesting ownership of such property in the state shall be requested of the court.

     (d) If no answer or claim is filed within thirty days of the date of service of the petition pursuant to subsection (b) of this section, or within thirty days of the first publication pursuant to subsection (b) of this section, the court shall enter an order forfeiting the seized property to the state. If any claim to the seized property is timely filed, a time and place shall be set for a hearing upon such claim. The claimant or claimants shall be given notice of such hearing not less than ten days prior to the date set for the hearing.

     (e) At the hearing upon the claim or claims, the state shall have the burden of proving by a preponderance of the evidence that the seized property is subject to forfeiture pursuant to the provisions of this chapter.

     (f) Any order forfeiting property to the state and entered pursuant to this section perfects the state's right, title and interest in the forfeited property and relates back to the date of seizure: Provided, That in any proceeding under this article the circuit court shall in its final order make specific findings with respect to whether or not probable cause to seize such property existed at the time of such seizure.

     (g) During the pendency of a forfeiture proceeding, it is unlawful for any property owner or holder of a bona fide security interest or other valid lien holder to transfer or attempt to transfer any ownership interest or security interest in seized property with the intent to defeat the purpose of this article, and the court wherein the petition for forfeiture is filed may enjoin a property owner or holder of a security interest or other lien holder from making such a transfer should one come to its attention. Any such transfer which is made in violation of the provisions of this subsection shall have no effect upon an order of the court forfeiting seized property to the state if a notice of lis pendens is filed prior to the recording of the instrument of transfer.

     (h) The court may void any transfer of property made before or after a forfeiture proceeding has been commenced, which is subject to forfeiture, if the transfer was not to a bona fide purchaser without notice for value.

     (i) An appeal of a decision of the circuit court concerning a forfeiture proceeding brought pursuant to this chapter must be filed within one hundred twenty days of the date of entry of the final appealable order. The appellant shall be required to give notice of intent to appeal within thirty days of the entry of such appealable order.
WVC 61 - 8 C- 10 §61-8C-10. Disposition of forfeited moneys, securities or other negotiable instruments; distribution of proceeds.

     (a) Whenever moneys, securities or other negotiable instruments are forfeited under the provisions of this article, such proceeds shall be distributed as follows:

     (1) Ten percent of the proceeds shall be tendered to the office of the prosecuting attorney which initiated the forfeiture proceeding;

     (2) The balance shall be deposited in a special law- enforcement investigation fund. The fund may be placed in any interest-bearing depository insured by an agency of the federal government. The fund shall be administered by the Superintendent of the State Police or his or her designee.

     (b) No funds shall be expended from the special law- enforcement investigation fund except as follows:

     (1) In the case of funds belonging to the State Police, the funds shall only be expended at the direction of the Superintendent of the State Police and in accordance with the provisions of article two, chapter eleven-b of this code and the provisions of subdivision (10), subsection (b), section two, article two, chapter twelve of this code;

     (2) In the case of funds belonging to the office of the prosecuting attorney of any county in which the special fund has been created, the funds therein may only be expended in the manner provided in sections four and five, article five, chapter seven of this code; and

     (3) In the case of funds belonging to the police department of any municipality in which the special fund has been created, the funds therein may only be expended in the manner provided in section twenty-two, article thirteen, chapter eight of this code.
WVC 61 - 8 C- 11 §61-8C-11. Disposition of other forfeited property; distribution of proceeds.

     (a) When property other than that referred to in section ten of this article is forfeited under this article, the circuit court ordering the forfeiture, upon application by the prosecuting attorney or the Superintendent of the State Police or his or her designee, may direct that:

     (1) Title to the forfeited property be vested in the law- enforcement agency so petitioning;

     (2) The law-enforcement agency responsible for the seizure retain the property for official use; or

     (3) The forfeited property shall be offered at public auction to the highest bidder for cash. Notice of such public auction shall be published as a Class III legal advertisement in accordance with article three, chapter fifty-nine of this code. The publication area shall be the county where the public auction will be held.

     (b) When a law-enforcement agency receives property pursuant to this section, the court may, upon request of the prosecuting attorney initiating the forfeiture proceeding, require the law- enforcement agency to pay unto the office of said prosecuting attorney a sum not to exceed ten percent of the value of the property received to compensate said office for actual costs and expenses incurred.

     (c) The proceeds of every public sale conducted pursuant to this section shall be paid and applied as follows: First, to the balance due on any security interest preserved by the court; second, to the costs incurred in the storage, maintenance and security of the property; and third, to the costs incurred in selling the property.

     (d) Any proceeds of a public sale remaining after distribution pursuant to subsection (c) of this section shall be distributed as follows:

     (1) Ten percent of such proceeds shall be tendered to the office of the prosecuting attorney who initiated the forfeiture proceeding.

     (2) The balance shall be deposited in a special law- enforcement investigation fund. Such fund shall be administered by the Superintendent of the State Police or his or her designee and shall take the form of an interest-bearing account with any interest earned to be compounded to the fund. Any funds deposited in the special law-enforcement investigative fund pursuant to this article shall be expended only to defray the costs of protracted or complex investigations, to provide additional technical equipment or expertise, to provide matching funds to obtain federal grants or for such other law-enforcement purposes as the Superintendent of the State Police or his or her designee may deem appropriate; however, these funds may not be utilized for regular operating needs.

     (e) If more than one law-enforcement agency was substantially involved in effecting the seizure and forfeiture of property, the court wherein the petition for forfeiture was filed shall equitably distribute the forfeited property among the law-enforcement agencies. In the event of a public sale of such property pursuant to subsection (a) of this section, the court shall equitably distribute any proceeds remaining after distribution pursuant to subsection (c) and subdivision (1), subsection (d) of this section among such law-enforcement agencies for deposit into their individual special law-enforcement investigative fund. Equitable distribution shall be based upon the overall contribution of the individual law-enforcement agency to the investigation which led to the seizure.

     (f) Upon the sale of any forfeited property for which title or registration is required by law, the state shall issue a title or registration certificate to any bona fide purchaser at a public sale of the property conducted pursuant to subsection (a) of this section. Upon the request of the law-enforcement agency receiving, pursuant to the order of the court, or electing to retain, pursuant to subsection (a) of this section, any forfeited property for which title or registration is required by law, the state shall issue a title or registration certificate to the appropriate governmental body.

     (g) Any funds expended pursuant to the provisions of this section shall only be expended in the manner provided in subsection (b), section ten of this article.

     (h) Every prosecuting attorney or law-enforcement agency receiving forfeited property or proceeds from the sale of forfeited property pursuant to this article shall submit an annual report to the body which has budgetary authority over such agency. Such report shall specify the type and approximate value of all forfeited property and the amount of proceeds from the sale of forfeited property received in the preceding year. No county or municipality may use anticipated receipts of forfeited property in their budgetary process.

     (i) In lieu of the sale of any forfeited property subject to a bona fide security interest preserved by an order of the court, the law-enforcement agency receiving the forfeited property may pay the balance due on any security interest preserved by the court from funds budgeted to the office or department or from the special fund and retain possession of the forfeited property for official use pursuant to subsection (a) of this section.

     (j) In every case where property is forfeited, disposition of the forfeited property, in accordance with this article, shall be made within six months of the date upon which the court of jurisdiction orders forfeiture. Should the office or agency receiving the property fail either to place the property in official use or dispose of the property in accordance with law, the court of jurisdiction shall cause disposition of the property to be made with any proceeds therefrom to be awarded to the state.

     (k) No disposition shall occur until all applicable periods for filing a notice of intent to appeal has expired and no party in interest shall have filed such notice. The filing of the notice of intent to appeal shall stay any such disposition until the appeal has been finally adjudicated or until the appeal period of one hundred eighty days has expired without an appeal having actually been taken or filed, unless a valid extension of the appeal has been granted by the circuit court under the provisions of section seven, article four, chapter fifty-eight of this code.

     (l) The special law-enforcement investigative funds of each law-enforcement agency may be placed in an interest-bearing depository insured by the federal government.
WVC -8D- ARTICLE 8D. CHILD ABUSE.


WVC 61 - 8 D- 1 §61-8D-1. Definitions.

     In this article, unless a different meaning is plainly required:

     (1) "Abuse" means the infliction upon a minor of physical injury by other than accidental means.

     (2) "Child" means any person under eighteen years of age not otherwise emancipated by law.

     (3) "Controlled substance" means controlled substance as that term is defined in subsection (d), section one hundred one, article one, chapter sixty-a of this code.

     (4) "Custodian" means a person over the age of fourteen years who has or shares actual physical possession or care and custody of a child on a full-time or temporary basis, regardless of whether such person has been granted custody of the child by any contract, agreement or legal proceeding. "Custodian" shall also include, but not be limited to, the spouse of a parent, guardian or custodian, or a person cohabiting with a parent, guardian or custodian in the relationship of husband and wife, where such spouse or other person shares actual physical possession or care and custody of a child with the parent, guardian or custodian.

     (5) "Guardian" means a person who has care and custody of a child as the result of any contract, agreement or legal proceeding.

     (6) "Gross neglect" means reckless or intentional conduct, behavior or inaction by a parent, guardian or custodian that evidences a clear disregard for a minor child's health, safety or welfare.

     (7) "Neglect" means the unreasonable failure by a parent, guardian or custodian of a minor child to exercise a minimum degree of care to assure the minor child's physical safety or health. For purposes of this article, the following do not constitute "neglect" by a parent, guardian or custodian:

     (A) Permitting a minor child to participate in athletic activities or other similar activities that if done properly are not inherently dangerous, regardless of whether that participation creates a risk of bodily injury;

     (B) Exercising discretion in choosing a lawful method of educating a minor child; or

     (C) Exercising discretion in making decisions regarding the nutrition and medical care provided to a minor child based upon religious conviction or reasonable personal belief.

     (8) "Parent" means the biological father or mother of a child, or the adoptive mother or father of a child.

     (9) "Sexual contact" means sexual contact as that term is defined in section one, article eight-b, chapter sixty-one of this code.

     (10) "Sexual exploitation" means an act whereby:

     (A) A parent, custodian, guardian or other person in a position of trust to a child, whether for financial gain or not, persuades, induces, entices or coerces the child to engage in sexually explicit conduct as that term is defined in section one, article eight-c, chapter sixty-one of this code; or

     (B) A parent, guardian, custodian or other person in a position of trust in relation to a child persuades, induces, entices or coerces the child to display his or her sex organs for the sexual gratification of the parent, guardian, custodian, person in a position of trust or a third person, or to display his or her sex organs under circumstances in which the parent, guardian, custodian or other person in a position of trust knows such display is likely to be observed by others who would be affronted or alarmed.

     (11) "Sexual intercourse" means sexual intercourse as that term is defined in section one, article eight-b, chapter sixty-one of this code.

     (12) "Sexual intrusion" means sexual intrusion as that term is defined in section one, article eight-b, chapter sixty-one of this code.

     (13) A "person in a position of trust in relation to a child" refers to any person who is acting in the place of a parent and charged with any of a parent's rights, duties or responsibilities concerning a child or someone responsible for the general supervision of a child's welfare, or any person who by virtue of their occupation or position is charged with any duty or responsibility for the health, education, welfare, or supervision of the child.
WVC 61-8D-2 §61-8D-2. Murder of a child by a parent, guardian or custodian or other person by refusal or failure to supply necessities, or by delivery, administration or ingestion of a controlled substance; penalties.
(a) If any parent, guardian or custodian shall maliciously and intentionally cause the death of a child under his or her care, custody or control by his or her failure or refusal to supply such child with necessary food, clothing, shelter or medical care, then such parent, guardian or custodian shall be guilty of murder in the first degree.

(b) If any parent, guardian or custodian shall cause the death of a child under his or her care, custody or control by knowingly allowing any other person to maliciously and intentionally fail or refuse to supply such child with necessary food, clothing, shelter or medical care, then such other person and such parent, guardian or custodian shall each be guilty of murder in the first degree.

(c) The penalty for offenses defined by this section shall be that which is prescribed for murder in the first degree under the provisions of section two article, two of this chapter.

(d) The provisions of this section shall not apply to any parent, guardian or custodian who fails or refuses, or allows another person to fail or refuse, to supply a child under the care, custody or control of such parent, guardian or custodian with necessary medical care, when such medical care conflicts with the tenets and practices of a recognized religious denomination or order of which such parent, guardian or custodian is an adherent or member.


WVC 61-8D-2a §61-8D-2a. Death of a child by a parent, guardian or custodian or other person by child abuse; criminal penalties.
(a) If any parent, guardian or custodian shall maliciously and intentionally inflict upon a child under his or her care, custody or control substantial physical pain, illness or any impairment of physical condition by other than accidental means, thereby causing the death of such child, then such parent, guardian or custodian shall be guilty of a felony.

(b) If any parent, guardian or custodian shall knowingly allow any other person to maliciously and intentionally inflict upon a child under the care, custody or control of such parent, guardian or custodian substantial physical pain, illness or any impairment of physical condition by other than accidental means, which thereby causes the death of such child, then such other person and such parent, guardian or custodian shall each be guilty of a felony.

(c) Any person convicted of a felony described in subsection (a) or (b) of this section shall be punished by a definite term of imprisonment in the penitentiary which is not less than ten nor more than forty years. A person imprisoned pursuant to the provisions of this section is not eligible for parole prior to having served a minimum of ten years of his or her sentence or the minimum period required by the provisions of section thirteen, article twelve, chapter sixty-two of this code, whichever is greater.

(d) The provisions of this section shall not apply to any parent, guardian or custodian or other person who, without malice, fails or refuses, or allows another person to, without malice, fail or refuse, to supply a child under the care, custody or control of such parent, guardian or custodian with necessary medical care, when such medical care conflicts with the tenets and practices of a recognized religious denomination or order of which such parent, guardian or custodian is an adherent or member. The provisions of this section shall not apply to any health care provider who fails or refuses, or allows another person to fail or refuse, to supply a child with necessary medical care when such medical care conflicts with the tenets and practices of a recognized religious denomination or order of which the parent, guardian or custodian of the child is an adherent or member, or where such failure or refusal is pursuant to a properly executed do not resuscitate form.


WVC 61 - 8 D- 3 §61-8D-3. Child abuse resulting in injury; child abuse creating risk of injury; criminal penalties.

  (a) If any parent, guardian or custodian shall abuse a child and by such abuse cause such child bodily injury as such term is defined in section one, article eight-b of this chapter, then such parent, guardian or custodian shall be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than $100 nor more than $1,000 and imprisoned in a state correctional facility for not less than one nor more than five years, or in the discretion of the court, be confined in jail for not more than one year.

  (b) If any parent, guardian or custodian shall abuse a child and by such abuse cause said child serious bodily injury as such term is defined in section one, article eight-b of this chapter, then such parent, guardian or custodian shall be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than $1,000 nor more than $5,000 and committed to the custody of the Division of Corrections not less than two nor more than ten years.

  (c) Any parent, guardian or custodian who abuses a child and by the abuse creates a substantial risk of death or serious bodily injury, as serious bodily injury is defined in section one, article eight-b of this chapter, to the child is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than $3,000 or imprisoned in a state correctional facility for not less than one nor more than five years, or both.

  (d)(1) If a parent, guardian or custodian who has not previously been convicted under this section, section four of this article or a law of another state or the federal government with the same essential elements abuses a child and by the abuse creates a substantial risk of bodily injury, as bodily injury is defined in section one, article eight-b of this chapter, to the child is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than $100 nor more than $1,000 or confined in jail not more than six months, or both.

  (2) For a second offense under this subsection or for a person with one prior conviction under this section, section four of this article or a law of another state or the federal government with the same essential elements, the parent, guardian or custodian is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than $1,500 and confined in jail not less than thirty days nor more than one year, or both.

  (3) For a third or subsequent offense under this subsection or for a person with two or more prior convictions under this section, section four of this article or a law of another state or the federal government with the same essential elements, the parent, guardian or custodian is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than $3,000 and imprisoned in a state correctional facility not less than one year nor more than three years, or both.

  (e) Any person convicted of a misdemeanor offense under this section:

  (1) May be required to complete parenting classes, substance abuse counseling, anger management counseling, or other appropriate services, or any combination thereof, as determined by Department of Health and Human Resources, Bureau for Children and Families through its services assessment evaluation, which shall be submitted to the court of conviction upon written request;

  (2) Shall not be required to register pursuant to article thirteen, chapter fifteen of this code; and

  (3) Shall not, solely by virtue of the conviction, have their custody, visitation or parental rights automatically restricted.

  (f) Nothing in this section shall preclude a parent, guardian or custodian from providing reasonable discipline to a child.
WVC 61-8D-3A §61-8D-3a. Female genital mutilation; penalties; definitions.
(a) Except as otherwise provided in subsection (b) of this section, any person who circumcises, excises or infibulates, in whole or in part, the labia majora, labia minora or clitoris of a female under the age of eighteen, or any parent, guardian or custodian of a female under the age of eighteen who allows the circumcision, excision or infibulation, in whole or in part, of such female's labia majora, labia minora or clitoris, shall be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be imprisoned in a state correctional facility for not less than two nor more than ten years and fined not less than one thousand dollars nor more than five thousand dollars.

(b) A surgical procedure is not a violation of this section if the procedure:

(1) Is necessary to preserve the health of the child on whom it is performed and is performed by a licensed medical professional authorized to practice medicine in this state; or

(2) The procedure is performed on a child who is in labor or has just given birth and is performed for legitimate medical purposes connected with that labor or birth by a licensed medical professional authorized to practice medicine in this state.

(c) A person's belief that the conduct described in subsection (a) of this section: (i) Is required as a matter of custom, ritual or standard practice; or (ii) was consented to by the female on which the circumcision, excision or infibulation was performed shall not constitute a defense to criminal prosecution under subsection (a) of this section.


WVC 61 - 8 D- 4 §61-8D-4. Child neglect resulting in injury; child neglect creating risk of injury; criminal penalties.

  (a) If a parent, guardian or custodian neglects a child and by such neglect causes the child bodily injury, as bodily injury is defined in section one, article eight-b of this chapter, then the parent, guardian or custodian is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than $100 nor more than $1,000 dollars or imprisoned in a state correctional facility for not less than one nor more than three years, or in the discretion of the court, be confined in jail for not more than one year, or both.

  (b) If a parent, guardian or custodian neglects a child and by such neglect cause the child serious bodily injury, as serious bodily injury is defined in section one, article eight-b of this chapter, then the parent, guardian or custodian is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than $300 nor more than $3,000 dollars or imprisoned in a state correctional facility for not less than one nor more than ten years, or both.

  (c) If a parent, guardian or custodian grossly neglects a child and by that gross neglect creates a substantial risk of death or serious bodily injury, as serious bodily injury is defined in section one, article eight-b of this chapter, of the child then the parent, guardian or custodian is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than $1,000 nor more than $3,000 dollars or imprisoned in a state correctional facility for not less than one nor more than five years, or both.

  (d)(1) If a parent, guardian or custodian who has not been previously convicted under this section, section three of this article or a law of another state or the federal government with the same essential elements neglects a child and by that neglect creates a substantial risk of bodily injury, as defined in section one, article eight-b of this chapter, to the child, then the parent, guardian or custodian, is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, for a first offense, shall be fined not less than $100 nor more than $1,000 or confined in jail not more than six months, or both fined and confined.

  (2) For a second offense under this subsection or for a person with one prior conviction under this section, section three of this article or a law of another state or the federal government with the same essential elements, the parent, guardian or custodian is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than $1,000 and confined in jail not less than thirty days nor more than one year, or both.

  (3) For a third or subsequent offense under this subsection or for a person with two or more prior convictions under this section, section three of this article or a law of another state or the federal government with the same essential elements, the parent, guardian or custodian is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than $2,000 and imprisoned in a state correctional facility not less than one year nor more than three years, or both fined and imprisoned.

  (e) The provisions of this section shall not apply if the neglect by the parent, guardian or custodian is due primarily to a lack of financial means on the part of such parent, guardian or custodian.

  (f) Any person convicted of a misdemeanor offense under this section:

  (1) May be required to complete parenting classes, substance abuse counseling, anger management counseling, or other appropriate services, or any combination thereof, as determined by Department of Health and Human Resources, Bureau for Children and Families through its services assessment evaluation, which shall be submitted to the court of conviction upon written request;

  (2) Shall not be required to register pursuant to the requirements of article thirteen, chapter fifteen of this code; and

  (3) Shall not, solely by virtue of the conviction, have their custody, visitation or parental rights automatically restricted.
WVC 61-8D-4A §61-8D-4a. Child neglect resulting in death; criminal penalties.
(a) If any parent, guardian or custodian shall neglect a child under his or her care, custody or control and by such neglect cause the death of said child, then such parent, guardian or custodian shall be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than one thousand dollars nor more than five thousand dollars or committed to the custody of the division of corrections for not less than three nor more than fifteen years, or both such fine and imprisonment.

(b) No child who in lieu of medical treatment was under treatment solely by spiritual means through prayer in accordance with a recognized method of religious healing with a reasonable proven record of success shall, for that reason alone, be considered to have been neglected within the provisions of this section. A method of religious healing shall be presumed to be a recognized method of religious healing if fees and expenses incurred in connection with such treatment are permitted to be deducted from taxable income as "medical expenses" pursuant to regulations or rules promulgated by the United States Internal Revenue Service.

(c) A child whose parent, guardian or legal custodian has inhibited or interfered with the provision of medical treatment in accordance with a court order may be considered to have been neglected for the purposes of this section.


WVC 61 - 8 D- 5 §61-8D-5. Sexual abuse by a parent, guardian, custodian or person in a position of trust to a child; parent, guardian, custodian or person in a position of trust allowing sexual abuse to be inflicted upon a child; displaying of sex organs by a parent, guardian, or custodian; penalties.
(a) In addition to any other offenses set forth in this code, the Legislature hereby declares a separate and distinct offense under this subsection, as follows: If any parent, guardian or custodian of or other person in a position of trust in relation to a child under his or her care, custody or control, shall engage in or attempt to engage in sexual exploitation of, or in sexual intercourse, sexual intrusion or sexual contact with, a child under his or her care, custody or control, notwithstanding the fact that the child may have willingly participated in such conduct, or the fact that the child may have consented to such conduct or the fact that the child may have suffered no apparent physical injury or mental or emotional injury as a result of such conduct, then such parent, guardian, custodian or person in a position of trust shall be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be imprisoned in a correctional facility not less than ten nor more than twenty years, or fined not less than $500 nor more than $5,000 and imprisoned in a correctional facility not less than ten years nor more than twenty years.

(b) Any parent, guardian, custodian or other person in a position of trust in relation to the child who knowingly procures, authorizes, or induces another person to engage in or attempt to engage in sexual exploitation of, or sexual intercourse, sexual intrusion or sexual contact with, a child under the care, custody or control of such parent, guardian, custodian or person in a position of trust when such child is less than sixteen years of age, notwithstanding the fact that the child may have willingly participated in such conduct or the fact that the child may have suffered no apparent physical injury or mental or emotional injury as a result of such conduct, such parent, guardian, custodian or person in a position of trust shall be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be imprisoned in a correctional facility not less than five years nor more than fifteen years, or fined not less than $1,000 nor more than $10,000 and imprisoned in a correctional facility not less than five years nor more than fifteen years.

(c) Any parent, guardian, custodian or other person in a position of trust in relation to the child who knowingly procures, authorizes, or induces another person to engage in or attempt to engage in sexual exploitation of, or sexual intercourse, sexual intrusion or sexual contact with, a child under the care, custody or control of such parent, guardian, custodian or person in a position of trust when such child is sixteen years of age or older, notwithstanding the fact that the child may have consented to such conduct or the fact that the child may have suffered no apparent physical injury or mental or emotional injury as a result of such conduct, then such parent, guardian, custodian or person in a position of trust shall be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be imprisoned in a correctional facility not less than one year nor more than five years.

(d) The provisions of this section shall not apply to a custodian or person in a position of trust whose age exceeds the age of the child by less than four years.


WVC 61-8D-6 §61-8D-6. Sending, distributing, exhibiting, possessing, displaying or transporting material by a parent, guardian or custodian, depicting a child engaged in sexually explicit conduct; penalty.
Any parent, guardian or custodian who, with knowledge, sends or causes to be sent, or distributes, exhibits, possesses, displays or transports, any material visually portraying a child under his or her care, custody or control engaged in any sexually explicit conduct, is guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be imprisoned in the penitentiary not more than two years, and fined not less than four hundred dollars nor more than four thousand dollars.


WVC 61-8D-7 §61-8D-7. Presentation of false information regarding child's injuries; penalty.
Any person who presents false information concerning acts or conduct which would constitute an offense under the provisions of this article to attending medical personnel shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than one hundred dollars nor more than one thousand dollars, and shall be confined in the county jail not more than one year.


WVC 61-8D-8 §61-8D-8. Testimony of husband and wife.
Husband and wife are competent witnesses in any proceeding under this article and cannot refuse to testify on the grounds of their marital relationship or the privileged nature of their communications.


WVC 61 - 8 D- 9 §61-8D-9. Convictions for offenses against children.

     In any case where a person is convicted of a felony offense against a child as set forth in this article and the person has custodial, visitation or other parental rights to the child who is the victim of the offense or any child who resides in the same household as the victim, the court shall, at the time of sentencing, find that the person is an abusing parent within the meaning of article six, chapter forty-nine of this code as to the child victim, and may find that the person is an abusing parent as to any child who resides in the same household as the victim, and shall take such further action in accord with the provisions of said article.
WVC -8E- ARTICLE 8E. DISPLAY OF VIDEO RATINGS OR LACK THEREOF.


WVC 61-8E-1 §61-8E-1. Legislative purpose.
The Legislature finds that the motion picture industry has had an effective voluntary film rating system for many years. It further finds that with the advent of movie video cassette sales and rentals that the variety and number of movie video cassettes available to the consumer for home use has significantly increased. This growth in the marketplace has resulted in some film makers and distributors choosing not to be subject to the voluntary rating system, putting the consumer in the position of being without the guidance of such rating system in making rental or purchase decisions. The Legislature believes that the public has a right to be informed about movie video cassette ratings or the lack thereof in making rental or purchase decisions.


WVC 61-8E-2 §61-8E-2. Definitions.
In this article, unless a different meaning is plainly required:

(1) "Business entity" means any sole proprietorship, partnership or corporation;

(2) "Official rating" means an official rating of the Motion Picture Association of America and the Film Advisory Board, Inc.; and

(3) "Video movie" means a video tape or video disc copy of a motion picture film.


WVC 61-8E-3 §61-8E-3. Labeling of video movies designated for sale or rental; penalties.
(a) No business entity in this state shall sell, offer for sale, rent or offer for rent, any video movie which does not have visibly and legibly displayed on the cassette case or jacket, an official rating or, if the motion picture film has obtained no such rating, the designation "NOT RATED" or "N.R.".

(b) Any business entity which knowingly violates the provisions of subsection (a) of this section shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and for a first offense conviction shall be fined not more than twenty-five dollars. A conviction for a second or subsequent offense shall subject the offender to a fine not to exceed one hundred dollars.


WVC -8F- ARTICLE 8F. SEX OFFENDER REGISTRATION ACT.


WVC 61 - 8 F- 1 §§61-8F-1 to 61-8F-10.
Repealed.

Acts, 1999 Reg. Sess., Ch. 232.


WVC -9- ARTICLE 9. EQUITABLE REMEDIES IN AID OF CHASTITY, MORALITY AND DECENCY.


WVC 61-9-1 §61-9-1. Definition of terms.
For the purposes of this article the terms "place," "person," "nuisance" are defined as follows:" Place" shall include any building, structure, erection or place, or any separate part or portion thereof, or the ground itself; "person" shall include any individual, corporation, association, partnership, trustee, lessee, agent or assignee;"nuisance" shall mean any place as above defined in or upon which lewdness, assignation, or prostitution is conducted, permitted, continued or exists, and the personal property and contents used in conducting or maintaining any such place for any such purpose.


WVC 61-9-2 §61-9-2. Maintenance of nuisance; injunction.
Any person who shall use, occupy, establish or conduct a nuisance as defined in section one, or aid or abet therein, and the owner, agent, or lessee of any interest in any such nuisance, together with the person employed in or in control of any such nuisance, by any such owner, agent, or lessee, shall be guilty of maintaining a nuisance and shall be enjoined as hereinafter provided.


WVC 61-9-3 §61-9-3. Suit to enjoin; by whom instituted.
Whenever a nuisance exists, the attorney general of the state, the prosecuting attorney of the county wherein the same exists, or any person who is a citizen, resident or taxpayer of the county, may bring suit in equity in the name of the state of West Virginia, upon the relation of such attorney general, prosecuting attorney, or any person, to abate such nuisance and to perpetually enjoin the person or persons maintaining the same from further maintenance thereof.


WVC 61-9-4 §61-9-4. Venue; procedure; temporary injunction; order closing place; vacation of orders; bond.
Such suit shall be brought in the circuit court of the county in which the property is located, or in any other court of the county having equity jurisdiction. The bill of complaint and other pleadings, and all proceedings in the case, shall conform to the law of the state with respect to equity procedure and to the rules and principles governing courts of equity, except so far as otherwise herein provided.

At the time of the commencement of the suit, or at any time during the pendency thereof, the plaintiff or his attorney may file in the office of the clerk of the county court of the county in which such property is located a memorandum or notice setting forth the title of the case, the court in which it is pending, the general object of the suit, a brief description of the property to be affected thereby, and the name of the person or persons whose estate is intended to be affected by such suit. Such notice shall immediately be recorded by the clerk of the county court in the deed book, and he shall index the same in the name of all the parties whose interest in such property is to be affected; and such notice shall, from and after its recordation, be notice to all purchasers of such property of the pendency of such suit.

Upon the application for an injunction in such suit, the court or judge may, in his discretion, enjoin the defendants and all other persons from removing or in any manner interfering with the personal property and contents of the place where such nuisance is alleged to exist, until the final decision of the case. A copy of such injunction order may be posted in a conspicuous place upon the premises proceeded against, and any person thereafter removing or interfering with such property shall be guilty of a violation of such injunction, and any person removing or mutilating such copy of the order so posted, while the same remains in force, shall be guilty of contempt of court, provided such posted notice or order contains thereon or therein a notice to that effect. The officer serving such injunction order shall forthwith make and return into court an inventory of the personal property and contents situated in the building or place proceeded against and used in conducting or maintaining such nuisance.

If, at the time of granting a temporary injunction, the same shall appear proper, the court or judge granting the same may order the place proceeded against to be closed and not used for any purpose until the final decision of the case: Provided, however, That the owner of any property so closed or restrained may appear at any time before final hearing and decision, and upon payment of all the costs incurred, and upon the filing of a bond, with sureties to be approved by the clerk, in the amount of the full value of the property, to be ascertained by the court or judge, conditioned that such owner will immediately abate the nuisance and prevent the same from being established or kept until final decision of the case, then and in that case the court or judge, if satisfied of the good faith of the owner of the real or personal property and of his innocence of any knowledge of the use of such property as a nuisance, and that with reasonable care and diligence such owner could not have known thereof, may deliver such property to the owner thereof and vacate any order theretofore made for the closing of such real property, or restraining the removal or interference with such personal property. The release of any real or personal property under the provisions of this section, however, shall not release it from any judgment, lien, penalty or liability to which it may be subject by law.


WVC 61-9-5 §61-9-5. Prima facie evidence of nuisance; prosecution of complaint; dismissal; costs; permanent injunction.
In such suit evidence of the general reputation of the place, or an admission or finding of guilt of any person under the criminal laws against prostitution, lewdness or assignation at any such place, shall be admissible for the purpose of proving the existence of such nuisance, and shall be prima facie evidence of such nuisance and of knowledge thereof and acquiescence and participation therein on the part of the person or persons charged with maintaining such nuisance as herein defined. If the complaint is filed by a person who is a citizen, resident or taxpayer of the county, it shall not be dismissed except upon a sworn statement by the complainant and his or its attorney, setting forth the reasons why the action should be dismissed and the dismissal approved by the prosecuting attorney in writing or in open court. If the court or judge is of opinion that the action ought not to be dismissed, he may direct the prosecuting attorney to prosecute such action to judgment at the expense of the county, and if any such action is continued more than one term of court, any person who is a citizen, resident or taxpayer of the county, or the attorney general, or the prosecuting attorney, may be substituted for the complainant and prosecute such suit to final decree. If the suit is brought by any person who is a citizen, resident or taxpayer of the county and the court finds and enters of record in the case that there were no reasonable grounds or cause for such suit, the costs may be taxed to such person. If the existence of the nuisance be established upon the trial, a decree shall be entered which shall perpetually enjoin the defendants and any other person or persons from further maintaining the nuisance at the place complained of and the defendants from maintaining such nuisance elsewhere within the county.


WVC 61-9-6 §61-9-6. Order of abatement; sale of personal property; renewal of bond or continuance of closing order; release of property; breaking in or entering closed property; sheriff's fees.
If the existence of such nuisance be admitted or established in a suit as provided in this article, an order of abatement shall be entered as part of the decree in the case, which order shall direct the removal from the place of all personal property and contents used in conducting the nuisance, and not already released by and under the authority of the court as provided in section four of this article, and shall direct the sale of such thereof as belongs to the defendants notified or appearing in the manner provided for the sale of personal property under execution. Such order shall also require the renewal for one year of any bond furnished by the owner of the real property as provided in section four, or, if not so furnished, shall continue for one year any closing order issued at the time of granting the temporary injunction, or, if no such closing order was then issued, shall include an order directing the effectual closing of the place against its use for any purpose, and so keeping it closed for a period of one year unless sooner released: Provided, however, That the owner of any place so closed and not released under bond as hereinbefore provided may then or thereafter appear and obtain such release in the manner and upon fulfilling the requirements as hereinbefore provided. The release of the property under the provisions of this section shall not release it from any judgment, lien, penalty, or liability, to which it may be subject by law. Owners of unsold personal property and contents so seized shall appear and claim the same within ten days after such order of abatement is made, and if it has not been proved to the satisfaction of the court that such owner had knowledge of such use thereof, or, that with reasonable care and diligence, he could not have known thereof, such unsold personal property and contents shall be delivered to the owner, otherwise it shall be sold as hereinbefore provided. If any person shall break and enter or use any place so directed to be closed, he shall be punished as for contempt as provided hereinafter, in addition to any other penalties imposed by law. For removing and selling personal property and contents, the sheriff shall be entitled to charge and receive the same fees as he would for levying upon and selling like property on execution; and for closing the place and keeping it closed, a reasonable sum shall be allowed by the court.


WVC 61-9-7 §61-9-7. Nuisance disclosed in criminal proceedings; proceeds from sale of personal property.
In case the existence of such nuisance is established in a criminal proceeding in a court not having equitable jurisdiction, it shall be the duty of the prosecuting attorney to proceed promptly under this article to enforce the provisions and penalties thereof, and the finding of the defendant guilty in such criminal proceedings of any offense herein declared to be a nuisance, unless reversed or set aside, shall be conclusive as against such defendant as to the existence of the nuisance. The proceeds of the sale of the personal property, as provided in the preceding section of this article, shall be applied in payment of the costs of the suit and abatement, including the complainant's costs, or so much of the proceeds as may be necessary, except as hereinafter provided.


WVC 61-9-8 §61-9-8. Violation of injunction or closing order; trial; penalty.
In case of the violation of any injunction or closing order granted under the provisions of this article, or the commission of any contempt of court in proceedings under this article, the court, or a judge thereof in vacation, may summarily try and punish the offender. The proceedings shall conform to the practice in other suits in equity for violations of injunctions, and proceedings for contempt of court. The trial may be had upon affidavits, or either party may demand the production and oral examination of the witnesses. A party found guilty of contempt under the provisions of this article shall be punished by a fine of not less than one hundred nor more than one thousand dollars, or by imprisonment in the county jail not more than six months, or by both such fine and imprisonment.


WVC 61-9-9 §61-9-9. Permanent injunction; tax imposed on property.
Whenever a permanent injunction is granted against any person or persons for maintaining a nuisance as in this article defined, there shall be imposed upon such nuisance and against the person or persons maintaining the same a tax of three hundred dollars: Provided, however, That such tax may not be imposed upon the personal property or against the owner or owners thereof who have proven innocence as hereinbefore provided, or upon the real property or against the owner or owners thereof who shall show to the satisfaction of the court or judge thereof, at the time of the granting of the permanent injunction, that he or they have in good faith permanently abated the nuisance complained of. The imposition of such tax shall be made by the court as a part of the proceedings, and the clerk of such court shall make and certify a return of the imposition of such tax thereon to the county assessor, who shall enter the same as a tax upon the property and against the persons upon which or whom the lien was imposed, as a proper tax and charge upon such real or personal property, when making up his assessments for the next ensuing year, unless the same shall have been paid before such books are made up; and the same shall be and remain a perpetual lien upon all property, both real and personal, used for the purposes of maintaining such nuisance, except as herein excepted, until fully paid. The payment of such tax shall not relieve the persons or property from any other taxes provided by law. The provisions of the laws relating to the collection of taxes in this state, the delinquency thereof, and sale of property for taxes, shall govern in the collection of the tax herein prescribed insofar as the same are applicable; and the said tax collected shall be applied in payment of any deficiency in the costs of the action and abatement on behalf of the state to the extent of such deficiency after the application thereto of the proceeds of the sale of the personal property as hereinbefore provided, and the remainder of such tax, together with the unexpended portion of the proceeds of personal property, shall be paid into the county treasury.


WVC 61-9-10 §61-9-10. Notice to collect tax.
When such nuisance has been found to exist under any equity proceedings as in this article provided, and the owner or agent of such place whereon the same has been found to exist was not a party to such proceedings and has not appeared therein, the said tax of three hundred dollars shall, nevertheless, be imposed against the person served or appearing and against the property as in this article set forth. But no such tax shall be certified to the assessor or enforced against such property, unless the owner thereof shall have appeared therein or shall be served with summons or notice therein, and the provisions of existing laws regarding the service of process shall be applied to service in proceedings under this article. The person in whose name the real estate affected by the action stands on the land books of the county for purposes of taxation shall be presumed to be the owner thereof, and in case of unknown persons having or claiming any ownership, right, title, or interest in property affected by the action, such may be made parties to the action by designating them in the summons and complaint as "all other persons unknown claiming any ownership, right, title, or interest in the property affected by the action," and service thereon be had by publishing such summons in the same manner prescribed by law.


WVC 61-9-11 §61-9-11. Effect of holding any part of article unconstitutional.
Should any provision or section of this article be held unconstitutional, such fact shall not be held to invalidate the other provisions and sections hereof.


WVC -10- ARTICLE 10. CRIMES AGAINST PUBLIC POLICY.


WVC 61-10-1 §61-10-1. Keeping or exhibiting gaming table, machine, or device; penalty; seizure of table, machine or device; forfeiture of money used in such gaming.
Any person who shall keep or exhibit a gaming table, commonly called A.B.C. or E.O. table, or faro bank, or keno table, or any slot machine, multiple coin console machine, multiple coin console slot machine or device in the nature of a slot machine, or any other gaming table or device of like kind, under any denomination, or which has no name, whether the game, table, bank, machine or device be played with cards, dice or otherwise, or shall be a partner, or concerned in interest, in keeping or exhibiting such table, bank, machine or gaming device of any character, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction, shall be confined in jail not less than two nor more than twelve months and be fined not less than one hundred nor more than one thousand dollars. Any such table, faro bank, machine or gaming device, and all money staked or exhibited to allure persons to bet at such table, or upon such gaming device, may be seized by order of a court, or under the warrant of a justice, and the money so seized shall be forfeited to the county and paid into the treasury of the county in which such seizure is made, and the table, faro bank, machine or gaming device shall be completely destroyed: Provided, however, That the provisions of this section shall not extend to coin-operated nonpayout machines with free play feature or to automatic weighing, measuring, musical and vending machines which are so constructed as to give a certain uniform and fair return in value or services for each coin deposited therein and in which there is no element of chance.


WVC 61-10-2 §61-10-2. Permitting gaming table or device on premises; penalty.
If any person knowingly permit a gaming table, bank or device, such as is mentioned in the preceding section, to be kept or exhibited on any premises in his occupation, he shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction, shall be confined in jail not more than one year, and be fined not less than one hundred nor more than one thousand dollars.


WVC 61-10-3 §61-10-3. Unlawful to act as doorkeeper, guard or watch for keeper of gaming table or device; penalty.
If any person shall act as doorkeeper, guard or watch, or employ another person to act as such, for a keeper or exhibitor of any such gaming table, bank or device, or shall resist, or by any means or device, prevent, hinder or delay the lawful arrest of such keeper or exhibitor, or the seizure of the table, bank or device, or money exhibited or staked thereat, or shall unlawfully take the same from the person seizing it, he shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction, shall be confined in jail not more than one year and be fined not exceeding one thousand dollars.


WVC 61-10-4 §61-10-4. Playing or betting at gaming tables and devices; playing or betting on games at hotels and public places; penalty.
If any person bet or play at any such gaming table, bank or device as is mentioned in the first section of this article, or if, at any hotel or tavern, or other public place, or place of public resort, he play at any game except bowls, chess or backgammon, draughts or a licensed game, or bet on the sides of those who play at any game, whether the game be permitted or licensed or not, he shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction, shall be fined not less than five nor more than one hundred dollars, and shall, if required by the court, give security for his good behavior for one year, or, in default thereof, may be imprisoned in the county jail not more than three months.


WVC 61-10-5 §61-10-5. Betting on games of chance; furnishing money or thing of value therefor; penalty.
If any person at any place, public or private, bet or wage money or other thing of value on any game of chance, or shall knowingly furnish any money or other thing of value to any other person to bet or wage on any such game, he shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction, shall be fined not less than five nor more than three hundred dollars, and shall, if required by the court, give security for his good behavior for one year, and in default of the payment of such fine and the costs and the execution of such bond, if such bond be required, shall be imprisoned in the county jail not less than ten nor more than thirty days.


WVC 61-10-6 §61-10-6. Permitting gaming at hotels; penalty.
If the keeper of a hotel or tavern permit unlawful gaming at his house, or at any outhouse, booth, arbor, or other place appurtenant thereto or held therewith, he shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction, be fined not less than twenty nor more than one hundred dollars, and shall forfeit his license, and shall give security for his good behavior for one year, or, in default of such security, be imprisoned in the county jail not more than four months.


WVC 61-10-7 §61-10-7. Presumption against hotelkeeper.
In a prosecution under the preceding section, if the gaming be proved, it shall be presumed it was permitted by the keeper of the hotel, unless it appear that he did not know of or suspect such gaming, or that he endeavored to prevent it, and gave information of it, with the names of the players, to the next circuit court of the county in which such gaming occurred, or to the prosecuting attorney thereof.


WVC 61-10-8 §61-10-8. Gaming at outhouse of hotel; penalty.
If the keeper of a hotel or tavern let or hire to another person any outhouse or other place, which has been at any time appurtenant to or held with the house kept by him, with intent that unlawful gaming be permitted thereat, he shall suffer the same punishment and incur the same forfeiture as if such unlawful gaming were permitted at his own principal house; and in a prosecution therefor, if the gaming be proved, it shall be presumed that such outhouse or other place was let or hired with intent aforesaid, unless the presumption be repelled in the manner provided for in the preceding section.


WVC 61-10-9 §61-10-9. Cheating at gaming; penalty.
If any person playing at any game, or making a wager, or having a share in any stake or wager, or betting on the hands or sides of others playing at any game or making a wager, shall cheat, or by fraudulent means win or acquire for himself, or another, money or other valuable thing, he shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction, shall be confined in jail not more than one year and fined not less than five times the value of the money or thing won or acquired.


WVC 61-10-10 §61-10-10. Poolroom defined; selling tickets and chances in lottery; penalty.
The word "poolroom," wherever the same is used in this section, shall be held and construed to mean any room where any pool ticket, chance voucher or certificate is sold entitling or purporting to entitle the holder or promisee thereof, or any other person, to money or other thing of value, contingent upon the result of any horse race, prizefight, game of chance, game of skill or science, or other sport or contest. Any person who shall set up or promote, or be connected with or interested in the management or operation of any poolroom, his agents, servants or employees, they, and each of them, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than two hundred nor more than one thousand dollars for each offense, and may, in the discretion of the court, be confined in jail not to exceed one year. The buying, selling or transferring of tickets or chances in any lottery shall be and the same is hereby prohibited.


WVC 61-10-11 §61-10-11. Lotteries or raffles; penalty.
If any person shall set up or promote or be concerned in managing or drawing a lottery or raffle, for money or other thing of value, or knowingly permit such lottery in any house under his control, or knowingly permit money or other property to be raffled for in such house, or to be won therein, by throwing or using dice, or by any other game of chance, or knowingly permit the sale in such house of any chance or ticket, or share of a ticket, in a lottery, or any writing, certificate, bill, token or other device purporting or intended to guarantee or assure to any person, or to entitle him to a prize, or a share of, or interest in, a prize to be drawn in a lottery, or shall, for himself, or any other person, buy, sell, or transfer, or have in his possession for the purpose of sale, or with intent to exchange, negotiate, or transfer, or shall aid in selling, exchanging, negotiating, or transferring a chance or ticket, or a share of a ticket, in a lottery, or any such writing, certificate, bill, token or device, he shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction, shall, in the discretion of the court, be confined in jail not more than one year or be fined not exceeding one thousand dollars, or both: Provided, however, That this section shall not be deemed to apply to that certain type or form of lottery or raffle designated and familiarly known as "policy" or "numbers."


WVC 61-10-11a §61-10-11a. "Policy" or "numbers"; penalty.
Any person who keeps, occupies or uses, or permits to be kept, occupied or used, a place, building, room, table, establishment or apparatus for "policy" or "numbers" playing or for the sale of what are commonly called "lottery policies," or who delivers or receives money or other valuable consideration in playing "policy" or "numbers," or in aiding in the playing thereof, or for what is commonly called a "lottery policy," or for any writing, or document in the nature of a bet, wager, or insurance upon the drawing or selection, or the drawn or selected numbers of any "policy" or "numbers" lottery; or who shall have in his possession, knowingly, any writing, paper or document, representing or being a record of any chance, share or interest in numbers sold, drawn or selected, or to be drawn or selected in what is commonly called "policy" or "numbers," or in the nature of a bet, wager or insurance, upon the drawing or selection, or the drawn or selected numbers of any "policy" or "numbers" lottery; or any paper, print, writing, number, device, policy slip, or article of any kind such as is commonly used in carrying on, promoting or playing the game commonly called "policy" or "numbers"; or who is the owner, agent, superintendent, janitor or caretaker of any place, building, or room where "policy" or "numbers" playing or the sale of what are commonly called "lottery policies" is carried on with his knowledge or after notification that the premises are so used, permits such use to be continued, or who aids, assists, or abets in any manner, in any of the offenses, acts or matters herein named, shall be guilty of a felony, and upon conviction, shall, in the discretion of the court, either be confined in the penitentiary not less than one year nor more than five years, or be confined in jail not less than six nor more than twelve months and fined not less than two hundred dollars nor more than one thousand dollars. Upon commission of a second or subsequent offense under this section, he shall be guilty of a felony, and upon conviction shall be confined in the penitentiary of this state for a period of not less than two years nor more than ten years.


WVC 61-10-11b §61-10-11b. Possession of "policy" or "numbers" slips unlawful.
The possession, by any person other than a public officer acting in his official capacity, of any writing, paper, or document representing or being a record of any chance, share or interest in numbers, sold, given away, drawn, or selected, or to be drawn or selected, in what is commonly called "policy" or "numbers," or in the nature of a bet, wager or insurance upon the drawing or selection, or the drawn or selected numbers of any "policy" or "numbers" lottery, or any paper, print, writing, numbers of device, policy slip, or article of any kind, such as is commonly used in carrying on, promoting or playing the game commonly called "policy" or "numbers," is presumptive evidence of possession thereof knowingly and in violation of the provisions of section eleven-a of this article.


WVC 61-10-12 §61-10-12. Proceeds of lottery forfeited to the State.
All money and things of value drawn or proposed to be drawn by an inhabitant of this State, and all money or other things of value received by such person by reason of his being the owner or holder of a ticket, or a share of a ticket, in any lottery, or pretended lottery, contrary to the provisions of this article, shall be forfeited to the State.


WVC 61-10-13 §61-10-13. Associations and companies trading as bank without authority of law; penalty.
All members of any association or company that shall trade or deal as a bank, or carry on banking, without authority of law, and their officers and agents therein or thereof, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction, shall be confined in jail not more than six months, and fined not less than one hundred nor more than five hundred dollars.


WVC 61-10-14 §61-10-14. Laws on gaming, lotteries and unchartered banks remedial.
All laws for suppressing gaming, lotteries and unchartered banks shall be construed as remedial.


WVC 61 - 10 - 15 §61-10-15. Pecuniary interest of county and district officers, teachers and school officials in contracts; exceptions; offering or giving compensation; penalties.
(a) It is unlawful for any member of a county commission, district school officer, secretary of a board of education, supervisor or superintendent, principal or teacher of public schools or any member of any other county or district board or any county or district officer to be or become pecuniarily interested, directly or indirectly, in the proceeds of any contract or service or in the furnishing of any supplies in the contract for or the awarding or letting of a contract if, as a member, officer, secretary, supervisor, superintendent, principal or teacher, he or she may have any voice, influence or control: Provided, That nothing in this section prevents or makes unlawful the employment of the spouse of a member, officer, secretary, supervisor, superintendent, principal or teacher as a principal or teacher or auxiliary or service employee in the public schools of any county or prevents or makes unlawful the employment by any joint county and circuit clerk of his or her spouse.

(b) Any person who violates the provisions of subsection (a) of this section is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than $50 nor more than $500 or confined in jail not more than one year, or both fined and confined.

(c) Any person convicted of violating the provisions of subsection (a) of this section shall also be removed from his or her office and the certificate or certificates of any teacher, principal, supervisor or superintendent so convicted shall, upon conviction thereof, be immediately revoked: Provided, That no person may be removed from office and no certificate may be revoked for a violation of the provisions of this section unless the person has first been convicted of the violation.

(d) Any person, firm or corporation that offers or gives any compensation or thing of value or who forebears to perform an act to any of the persons named in subsection (a) of this section or to or for any other person with the intent to secure the influence, support or vote of the person for any contract, service, award or other matter as to which any county or school district becomes or may become the paymaster is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than $500 nor more than $2,500 and, in the court's discretion, the person or any member of the firm or, if it is a corporation, any agent or officer of the corporation offering or giving any compensation or other thing of value may, in addition to a fine, be confined in jail for a period not to exceed one year.

(e) The provisions of subsection (a) of this section do not apply to any person who is a salaried employee of a vendor or supplier under a contract subject to the provisions of said subsection if the employee, his or her spouse or child:

(1) Is not a party to the contract;

(2) Is not an owner, a shareholder, a director or an officer of a private entity under the contract;

(3) Receives no commission, bonus or other direct remuneration or thing of value by virtue of the contract;

(4) Does not participate in the deliberations or awarding of the contract; and

(5) Does not approve or otherwise authorize the payment for any services performed or supplies furnished under the contract.

(f) The provisions of subsection (a) of this section do not apply to any person who has a pecuniary interest in a bank within the county serving or under consideration to serve as a depository of funds for the county or board of education, as the case may be, if the person does not participate in the deliberations or any ultimate determination of the depository of the funds.

(g) The provisions of subsection (a) of this section do not apply to any person who has a pecuniary interest in a public utility which is subject to regulation by the Public Service Commission of this state.

(h) Where the provisions of subsection (a) of this section would result in the loss of a quorum in a public body or agency, in excessive cost, undue hardship or other substantial interference with the operation of a governmental body or agency, the affected governmental body or agency may make written application to the West Virginia Ethics Commission pursuant to subsection (d), section five, article two, chapter six-b of this code for an exemption from subsection (a) of this section.

(i) The provisions of this section do not apply to publications in newspapers required by law to be made.

(j) No school employee or school official subject to the provisions of subsection (a) of this section has an interest in the sale, proceeds or profits in any book or other thing used or to be used in the free school system of this state, as proscribed in section nine, article XII of the Constitution of West Virginia, if they qualify for the exceptions set forth in subsection (e), (f),(g) or (h) of this section.

(k) The provisions of subsection (a) of this section do not prevent or make unlawful the employment of the spouse of any member of a county commission as a licensed health care provider at government-owned hospitals or other government agencies who provide health care services: Provided, That the member of a county commission whose spouse is employed or to be employed may not:

(1) Serve on the board for the government-owned hospital or other government agency who provides health care services where his or her spouse is employed or to be employed;

(2) Vote on the appointment of members to the board for the government-owned hospital or other government agency who provides health care services where his or her spouse is employed or to be employed; or

(3) Seek to influence the hiring or promotion of his or her spouse by the government-owned hospital or other government agency who provides health care services.

(l) The provisions of subsection (a) of this section do not make unlawful the employment of a spouse of any elected county official by that county official: Provided, That the elected county official may not:

(1) Directly supervise the spouse employee; or

(2) Set the salary of the spouse employee: Provided, That the provisions of this subsection shall only apply to spouse employees who were neither married to nor engaged to the elected county official at the time of their initial hiring.


WVC 61-10-16 §61-10-16. Picture or theatrical act reflecting upon any race or class of citizens; penalty.
It shall be unlawful for any person, corporation or company to advertise, exhibit, display or show any picture or theatrical act in any theater or other place of public amusement or entertainment within this state, which shall in any manner injuriously reflect upon the proper and rightful progress, status, attainment or endeavor of any race or class of citizens, calculated to result in arousing the prejudice, ire or feelings of one race or class of citizens against any other race or class of citizens. Any person, corporation or company violating any of the provisions of this section shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction, shall be fined not less than one hundred nor more than one thousand dollars, and may, in the discretion of the court, be confined in jail not more than thirty days.


WVC 61-10-17 §61-10-17. Lobbying on floor of Legislature; ejection of lobbyist; penalty; jurisdiction.
It shall be unlawful for any person to lobby for or against any measure on the floor of either House of the Legislature while the same is in session. If any person be found so lobbying in violation of this section, it shall be the duty of the sergeant at arms to eject such person from the floor of either House of the Legislature, upon his own knowledge, or upon the complaint of any member. Any person violating the provisions of this section shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than fifty nor more than two hundred dollars, and in addition thereto he shall be imprisoned in the county jail of the county where such conviction is had, for not less than ten days nor more than six months. Any of the circuit courts, criminal courts, or justices of the peace within the county of Kanawha are hereby given jurisdiction of the offense herein set forth, and the proceedings hereunder shall be conducted as for other offenses.


WVC 61 - 10 - 18 §61-10-18.
Repealed.

Acts, 2010 Reg. Sess., Ch. 34.
WVC 61-10-19 §61-10-19. Cornering market in foods or other necessities of life; penalty.
It shall be unlawful for any person or body of persons buying or selling any foodstuffs, fuel or any article or articles pertaining to necessities of life, either in his individual capacity or as an officer, agent, or employee of a corporation, or a member of a partnership, to store any such foodstuffs, fuel, article or articles for the purpose of cornering the market or affecting the market price thereof, or for the purpose of limiting the supply thereof to the public, whether temporarily or otherwise. Any person violating any of the provisions of this section shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than one hundred nor more than one thousand dollars, and may, in the discretion of the court, be confined in the county jail not exceeding one year.


WVC 61-10-20 §61-10-20. Failure of employers to provide certain benefits for employees.
In addition to any other penalty or punishment otherwise prescribed by law, any employer who is party to an agreement to pay or provide benefits or wage supplements and who without reasonable justification willfully fails or refuses to pay the amount or amounts necessary to provide such benefits or furnish such supplements within thirty days after such payments are required to be made, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than one hundred dollars nor more than five hundred dollars. When such employer is a corporation, the president, secretary, treasurer or officer exercising responsibility for such nonpayment shall be guilty of the offense prohibited by this section.


WVC 61-10-21 §61-10-21. Unlawful use of prefix "Doctor" or "Dr." penalty.
It shall be unlawful for any person to use the prefix "Doctor" or "Dr." in connection with his name in any letter, business card, advertisement, sign or public display of any nature whatsoever, without affixing thereto suitable words or letters designating the degree which he holds. Any person who shall violate the provisions of this section shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction thereof shall be fined for each such offense not less than ten nor more than five hundred dollars, or imprisoned in the county jail not more than twelve months, or both fined and imprisoned, in the discretion of the court.


WVC 61-10-22 §61-10-22. Bribery of participants in professional or amateur games and horse racing; penalty.
Whoever gives, promises or offers to any professional or amateur baseball, football, basketball, hockey player or boxer or any player who participates in any professional or amateur game or sport or any jockey, driver, groom or any person participating in any horse race, including owners of racetracks and their employees, stewards, trainers, judges, starters, special policemen, any valuable thing with intent to influence him to lose or try to lose or cause to be lost a baseball, football, basketball or hockey game, boxing match or a horse race or any professional or amateur sport, or game, in which such player or participant or jockey or driver is taking part or expects to take part, or has any duty or connection therewith, or who, being either a professional or amateur baseball, football, basketball, hockey player, boxer, or jockey, driver, or groom or participant in any sport or game solicits or accepts any valuable thing to influence him to lose or cause to be lost a baseball, football, basketball, hockey or boxing match, or horse race or any professional or amateur game or any professional or amateur sport in which he is taking part, or expects to take part, or has any duty or connection therewith, shall be guilty of a felony, and punishable by imprisonment for not less than one year, nor more than three years, or by a fine of not more than one thousand dollars, or by both fine and imprisonment.


WVC 61-10-23 §61-10-23. Debt pooling; definition; offenses; penalty; jurisdiction; pleading and proof.
"Debt pooling" shall mean the rendering in any manner of advice or services of any and every kind in the establishment or operation of a plan pursuant to which a debtor would deposit or does deposit funds for the purpose of distributing such funds among his creditors. It shall be unlawful for any person to solicit in any manner a debt pooling. It shall further be unlawful for any person, except licensed attorneys, to make any charge for a debt pooling by way of fee, reimbursement of costs, or otherwise, in excess of an amount equal to two percent of the total amount of money actually deposited pursuant to a debt pooling: Provided, That any nonprofit firm, corporation or voluntary association may make an additional charge not exceeding five percent of the total amount of money actually deposited pursuant to a debt pooling, to defray costs of counseling services furnished for the benefit of its clientele of debtors generally with respect to personal money management. Any person, whether acting as agent or otherwise, who violates any provision of this section shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction, shall be fined not less than one hundred nor more than two hundred fifty dollars or confined in jail not less than thirty nor more than sixty days or both. Justices of the peace and other competent courts shall have concurrent jurisdiction of offenses under this section. It shall not be necessary in any warrant issued or indictment returned under this section to allege exceptions or provisos contained in this section but in the trial of an offense subject thereto it shall be the duty of the state to negative such exceptions and provisos.


WVC 61-10-24 §61-10-24.
Repealed.

Acts, 1969 Reg. Sess., Ch. 150.


WVC 61 - 10 - 25 §61-10-25.
Repealed.

Acts, 2010 Reg. Sess., Ch. 34.
WVC 61 - 10 - 26 §61-10-26.
Repealed.

Acts, 2010 Reg. Sess., Ch. 34.
WVC 61 - 10 - 27 §61-10-27.
Repealed.

Acts, 2010 Reg. Sess., Ch. 34.
WVC 61 - 10 - 28 §61-10-28.
Repealed.

Acts, 2010 Reg. Sess., Ch. 34.
WVC 61 - 10 - 29 §61-10-29.
Repealed.

Acts, 2010 Reg. Sess., Ch. 34.
WVC 61-10-30 §61-10-30. Open water wells prohibited.
It shall be unlawful for any person to keep, maintain or allow any abandoned or currently used water well upon any land in which such person has any right to possession as owner, tenant or otherwise, which does not have affixed thereto a cover of sufficient strength to prevent any person from accidentally falling into such well.


WVC 61-10-31 §61-10-31. Conspiracy; construction of section; penalties.
It shall be unlawful for two or more persons to conspire (1) to commit any offense against the state or (2) to defraud the state, the state or any county board of education, or any county or municipality of the state, if, in either case, one or more of such persons does any act to effect the object of the conspiracy.

Nothing in this section shall be construed to supersede, limit, repeal or affect the provisions of section eight, article nine, chapter three; section two, article one, chapter five; section thirty-eight, article three, chapter five-a; section seven, article seven, chapter twenty; section sixteen, article six, chapter sixty; sections seven, eight, nine and ten, article six, chapter sixty-one; or section one, article eight, chapter sixty-two; all of this code. It shall not be a defense to any prosecution under this section thirty-one that the conduct charged or proven is also a crime under any other provision or provisions of this code or the common law.

Any person who violates the provisions of this section by conspiring to commit an offense against the state which is a felony, or by conspiring to defraud the state, the state or any county board of education, or any county or municipality of the state, shall be guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be punished by imprisonment in the penitentiary for not less than one nor more than five years or by a fine of not more than ten thousand dollars, or, in the discretion of the court, by both such imprisonment and fine. Any person who violates the provisions of this section by conspiring to commit an offense against the state which is a misdemeanor shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be punished by confinement in the county jail for not more than one year or by a fine of not more than one thousand dollars, or, in the discretion of the court, by both such confinement and fine.


WVC 61 - 10 - 32 §61-10-32. Unlawful contact with a Division of Corrections employee or member of the parole board; penalty.
(a) It shall be unlawful for a former inmate of the Division of Corrections to make a telephone call to a Division of Corrections employee or member of the parole board when the employee has requested in writing to that former inmate that he or she not call and the former inmate has actually been served with a copy of the written request.

(b) It shall be unlawful for a former inmate of the Division of Corrections to willfully and repeatedly follow a Division of Corrections employee or member of the parole board with whom he or she seeks to establish a personal or social relationship when the Division of Corrections employee or member of the parole board has expressed to the former inmate that he or she wishes not to have contact with the former inmate.

(c) It shall be unlawful for a former inmate of the Division of Corrections to harass or make credible threats against a Division of Corrections employee or member of the parole board.

(d) Any offense committed under subsection (a) may be deemed to have occurred at the place at which the telephone call was made, or the place at which the telephone call was received.

(e) Any person who violates any provision of this section shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall, for a first offense, be fined not more than five hundred dollars. Any person violating this section for a second offense shall be imprisoned not less than ten days nor more than six months, or both fined and imprisoned.

(f) For purposes of this section:

(1) "Harass" means willful conduct directed at a specific person or persons which would cause a reasonable person mental injury or emotional distress;

(2) "Credible threat" means a threat of bodily injury made with apparent ability to carry out the threat and with the result that a reasonable person would believe that the threat would be carried out;

(3) "Bodily injury" means substantial physical pain, illness or any impairment of physical condition;

(4) "Immediate family" means a spouse, parent, stepparent, mother-in-law, father-in-law, child, stepchild, sibling, or any person who regularly resides in the household or within the prior six months regularly resided in the household.

(g) Upon conviction, the court may issue an order restraining the defendant from any contact with the victim for a period not to exceed ten years. The length of any restraining order shall be based upon the seriousness of the violation before the court, the probability of future violations, and the safety of the victim or his immediate family. The duration of the restraining order may be longer than five years only in cases when a longer duration is necessary to protect the safety of the victim or his or her immediate family.

(h) It is a condition of bond for any person accused of the offense described in this section that the person is to have no contact, direct or indirect, verbal or physical with the alleged victim.


WVC -11- ARTICLE 11. GENERAL PROVISIONS CONCERNING CRIMES.


WVC 61-11-1 §61-11-1. Classification of offenses.
Offenses are either felonies or misdemeanors. Such offenses as are punishable by confinement in the penitentiary are felonies; all other offenses are misdemeanors.

The word "penitentiary" as used in this section shall mean and include any and all institutions provided by the state for the confinement of persons sentenced to confinement in the penitentiary, notwithstanding that transfers of such persons from any one of such institutions to another may be authorized.


WVC 61-11-1a §61-11-1a. Sentence of female felons.
Upon conviction of a female for a felony and subsequent sentence of confinement, the trial court shall sentence her to the custody of the state department of corrections.


WVC 61-11-2 §61-11-2. Capital punishment abolished.
Capital punishment is hereby abolished for all offenses against the laws of the state of West Virginia, and no person heretofore or hereafter convicted of any offense in violation of said laws shall be executed, irrespective of whether the crime was committed, the conviction had, or the sentence imposed, before or after the enactment of this section.


WVC 61-11-3 §61-11-3. Punishment for common-law offenses.
A common-law offense for which punishment is prescribed by statute shall be punished only in the mode so prescribed.


WVC 61-11-4 §61-11-4. Corruption of blood and forfeiture of estate abolished.
No suicide or attainder of felony shall work corruption of blood or forfeiture of estate.


WVC 61-11-5 §61-11-5. No merger of civil remedy by commission of felony.
The commission of a felony shall not stay or merge any civil remedy.


WVC 61 - 11 - 6 §61-11-6. Punishment of principals in the second degree and accessories before and after the fact.
(a) In the case of every felony, every principal in the second degree and every accessory before the fact shall be punishable as if he or she were the principal in the first degree; and every accessory after the fact shall be confined in jail not more than one year and fined not exceeding $500. But no person in the relation of husband and wife, parent or grandparent, child or grandchild, brother or sister, by consanguinity or affinity, or servant to the offender, who, after the commission of a felony, shall aid or assist a principal felon, or accessory before the fact, to avoid or escape from prosecution or punishment shall be deemed an accessory after the fact.

(b) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (a) of this section, any person who knowingly harbors, conceals, maintains or assists the principal felon after the commission of the underlying offense violating the felony provisions of sections one, four, or nine of article two of this chapter, or gives such offender aid knowing that he or she has committed such felony, with the intent that the offender avoid or escape detention, arrest, trial or punishment, shall be considered an accessory after the fact and, upon conviction, be guilty of a felony and confined in a state correctional facility for a period not to exceed five years, or a period of not more than one half of the maximum penalty for the underlying felony offense, whichever is the lesser maximum term of confinement. But no person who is a person in the relation of husband and wife, parent, grandparent, child, grandchild, brother or sister, whether by consanguinity or affinity, or servant to the offender shall be considered an accessory after the fact.


WVC 61-11-7 §61-11-7. Prosecution of accessories.
An accessory, either before or after the fact, may, whether the principal felon be convicted or not, or be amenable to justice or not, be indicted, convicted, and punished in the county in which he became accessory, or in which the principal felon might be indicted. Any such accessory before the fact may be indicted with such principal or separately.


WVC 61 - 11 - 8 §61-11-8. Attempts; classification and penalties therefor.
Every person who attempts to commit an offense, but fails to commit or is prevented from committing it, shall, where it is not otherwise provided, be punished as follows:

(1) If the offense attempted be punishable with life imprisonment, the person making such attempt shall be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction, shall be imprisoned in the penitentiary not less than three nor more than fifteen years.

(2) If the offense attempted be punishable by imprisonment in the penitentiary for a term less than life, such person shall be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction, shall, in the discretion of the court, either be imprisoned in the penitentiary for not less than one nor more than three years, or be confined in jail not less than six nor more than twelve months, and fined not exceeding five hundred dollars.

(3) If the offense attempted be punishable by confinement in jail, such person shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction, shall be confined in jail not more than six months, or fined not exceeding one hundred dollars.


WVC 61 - 11 - 8 A §61-11-8a. Solicitation to commit certain felonies; classification; defenses.
(a) Any person who solicits another to commit a violation of the law which constitutes a felony crime of violence against the person is guilty of a felony, and upon conviction thereof, shall be:

(1) Confined in a state correctional facility for not less than three nor more than fifteen years if the offense solicited is punishable by life imprisonment;

(2) Imprisoned in the state correctional facility for not less than one nor more three years or fined not more than five thousand dollars, or both, if the offense solicited is punishable by incarceration in the state correctional facility for a term of less than life imprisonment. In the circuit court's discretion a person so convicted may be ordered confined in jail for a term not to exceed one year in lieu of incarceration in a state correctional facility;

(b)(1) As used in this section, "solicitation" means the willful and knowing instigation or inducement of another to commit a felony crime of violence against the person of a third person; and

(2) As used in this section, "felony crime of violence against the person" means the felony offense set forth in sections one, nine, ten-b and twelve, article two of this chapter.

(c) In a prosecution under the provisions of this section, it is not a defense:

(1) That the defendant belongs to a class of persons who by definition are legally incapable in an individual capacity of committing the crime that is the object of the solicitation; or

(2) That a person whom the defendant solicits could not be guilty of a crime that is the object of the solicitation.

(d) It is an affirmative and complete defense to a prosecution under the provisions of this section that the defendant under circumstances manifesting a voluntary and complete renunciation of the defendant's criminal intent, after soliciting another person to engage in conduct constituting a felony, prevented the commission of the crime.


WVC 61 - 11 - 9 §61-11-9. Limitation of prosecution; lost indictment.
A prosecution for committing or procuring another person to commit perjury shall be commenced within three years next after the perjury was committed. A prosecution for a misdemeanor shall be commenced within one year after the offense was committed: Provided, That whenever the indictment in any case shall be stolen, lost or destroyed, a new indictment may be found for the same offense mentioned in the former indictment, at the first term of the court after such theft, loss or destruction is discovered, or at the next term thereafter, and as often as any such new indictment is stolen, lost or destroyed, another indictment for the same offense may be found at the first term of the court after such theft, loss or destruction is discovered, or at the next term thereafter; and the court shall, in every case where any such indictment has been stolen, lost or destroyed, enter such fact on its record. Whenever such new indictment is found, the clerk shall add to the entry of the finding thereof the following: "This is the second (or third, etc., as the case may be) indictment found against the said ............... for the same offense"; and the same proceedings shall be had in all respects on any such new indictment as might have been had on the first indictment if it had not been stolen, lost or destroyed. And if the offense mentioned in any such indictment is barred by the statute of limitations, the time between the finding of the first and last of such indictments shall not be computed or taken into consideration in the computation of the time in which any such indictment, after the first, should have been found.


WVC 61-11-10 §61-11-10. Venue of offenses.
Prosecutions for offenses committed, wholly or in part, without, and made punishable within, this state, may be in any county in which the offender may be found, or to which he may be sent by any judge, justice, or court.


WVC 61-11-11 §61-11-11. Offense committed on county boundary.
An offense committed on the boundary of any two counties may be alleged to have been committed, and may be prosecuted and punished, in either county.


WVC 61-11-12 §61-11-12. Venue of offense committed in more than one county.
When an offense is committed partly in one county and partly in one or more other counties within this state, it may be alleged that the offense was committed and the accused may be tried in any one county in which any substantial element of the offense occurred.


WVC 61-11-13 §61-11-13. Former acquittal on merits.
A person acquitted by the jury upon the facts and merits on a former trial may plead such acquittal in bar of a second prosecution for the same offense, notwithstanding any defect in the form or substance of the indictment or accusation on which he was acquitted.


WVC 61-11-14 §61-11-14. Acquittal for variance or insufficient indictment.
A person acquitted of an offense, on the ground of a variance between the allegations and the proof of the indictment or other accusation, or upon an exception to the form or substance thereof, may be arraigned again upon a new indictment or other proper accusation, and tried and convicted for the same offense, notwithstanding such former acquittal.


WVC 61-11-15 §61-11-15. Modes of conviction of felony.
No person shall be convicted of felony, unless by his confession in court, or by his plea or demurrer, or by the verdict of a jury accepted and recorded by the court.


WVC 61-11-16 §61-11-16. Term of imprisonment for felony; indeterminate sentence.
Every sentence to the penitentiary of a person convicted of a felony for which the maximum penalty prescribed by law is less than life imprisonment, except offenses committed by convicts in the penitentiary punishable under chapter sixty-two, article eight, section one of the code, shall be a general sentence of imprisonment in the penitentiary. In imposing this sentence, the judge may, however, designate a definite term, which designation may be considered by the board of probation and parole as the opinion of the judge under the facts and circumstances then appearing of the appropriate term recommended by him to be served by the person sentenced. Imprisonment under a general sentence shall not exceed the maximum term prescribed by law for the crime for which the prisoner was convicted, less such good time allowance as is provided by sections twenty-seven and twenty-seven-a, article five, chapter twenty-eight of this code, in the case of persons sentenced for a definite term. Every other sentence of imprisonment in the penitentiary shall be for a definite term or for life, as the court may determine. The term of imprisonment in jail, where that punishment is prescribed in the case of conviction for felony, shall be fixed by the court.


WVC 61-11-17 §61-11-17. Court to fix imprisonment and fine for misdemeanor.
The term of confinement in jail of a person found guilty of a misdemeanor, where that punishment is prescribed, shall, unless otherwise provided, be ascertained by the court, and the amount of the fine, where the punishment is by fine, shall, except where it is otherwise provided, be assessed by the court, so far as the term of confinement and the amount of the fine are not fixed by law. In addition to or in lieu of any other punishment prescribed herein, the court may require the person found guilty of such misdemeanor to participate in the litter control program.


WVC 61 - 11 - 18 §61-11-18. Punishment for second or third offense of felony.
(a) Except as provided by subsection (b) of this section, when any person is convicted of an offense and is subject to confinement in the state correctional facility therefor, and it is determined, as provided in section nineteen of this article, that such person had been before convicted in the United States of a crime punishable by confinement in a penitentiary, the court shall, if the sentence to be imposed is for a definite term of years, add five years to the time for which the person is or would be otherwise sentenced. Whenever in such case the court imposes an indeterminate sentence, the minimum term shall be twice the term of years otherwise provided for under such sentence.

(b) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (a) or (c) of this section or any other provision of this code to the contrary, when any person is convicted of first degree murder or second degree murder or a violation of section three, article eight-b of this chapter and it is determined, as provided in section nineteen of this article, that such person had been before convicted in this state of first degree murder, second degree murder or a violation of section three, article eight-b of said chapter or has been so convicted under any law of the United States or any other state for an offense which has the same elements as any offense described in this subsection, such person shall be punished by confinement in the state correctional facility for life and is not eligible for parole.

(c) When it is determined, as provided in section nineteen of this article, that such person shall have been twice before convicted in the United States of a crime punishable by confinement in a penitentiary, the person shall be sentenced to be confined in the state correctional facility for life.


WVC 61-11-19 §61-11-19. Procedure in trial of persons for second or third offense.
It shall be the duty of the prosecuting attorney when he has knowledge of former sentence or sentences to the penitentiary of any person convicted of an offense punishable by confinement in the penitentiary to give information thereof to the court immediately upon conviction and before sentence. Said court shall, before expiration of the term at which such person was convicted, cause such person or prisoner to be brought before it, and upon an information filed by the prosecuting attorney, setting forth the records of conviction and sentence, or convictions and sentences, as the case may be, and alleging the identity of the prisoner with the person named in each, shall require the prisoner to say whether he is the same person or not. If he says he is not, or remains silent, his plea, or the fact of his silence, shall be entered of record, and a jury shall be impanelled to inquire whether the prisoner is the same person mentioned in the several records. If the jury finds that he is not the same person, he shall be sentenced upon the charge of which he was convicted as provided by law; but if they find that he is the same, or after being duly cautioned if he acknowledged in open court that he is the same person, the court shall sentence him to such further confinement as is prescribed by section eighteen of this article on a second or third conviction as the case may be.

The clerk of such court shall transmit a copy of said information to the warden of the penitentiary, together with the other papers required by the provisions of section ten, article eight (seven), chapter sixty-two of the code of West Virginia, one thousand nine hundred thirty-one.

Nothing contained herein shall be construed as repealing the provisions of section four, article eight, chapter sixty-two of the code of West Virginia, one thousand nine hundred thirty-one, but no proceeding shall be instituted by the warden, as provided therein, if the trial court has determined the fact of former conviction or convictions as provided herein.


WVC 61 - 11 - 20 §61-11-20.
Repealed.

Acts, 2009 Reg. Sess., Ch. 66.


WVC 61-11-21 §61-11-21. Cumulative sentences.
When any person is convicted of two or more offenses, before sentence is pronounced for either, the confinement to which he may be sentenced upon the second, or any subsequent conviction, shall commence at the termination of the previous term or terms of confinement, unless, in the discretion of the trial court, the second or any subsequent conviction is ordered by the court to run concurrently with the first term of imprisonment imposed.


WVC 61 - 11 - 22 §61-11-22. Pretrial diversion agreements; conditions; drug court programs.
(a) A prosecuting attorney of any county of this state or a person acting as a special prosecutor may enter into a pretrial diversion agreement with a person under investigation or charged with an offense against the state of West Virginia, when he or she considers it to be in the interests of justice. The agreement is to be in writing and is to be executed in the presence of the person's attorney, unless the person has executed a waiver of counsel.

(b) Any agreement entered into pursuant to the provisions of subsection (a) of this section may not exceed twenty-four months in duration. The duration of the agreement must be specified in the agreement. The terms of any agreement entered into pursuant to the provisions of this section may include conditions similar to those set forth in section nine, article twelve, chapter sixty-two of this code relating to conditions of probation. The agreement may require supervision by a probation officer of the circuit court, with the consent of the court. An agreement entered into pursuant to this section must include a provision that the applicable statute of limitations be tolled for the period of the agreement.

(c) A person who has entered into an agreement for pretrial diversion with a prosecuting attorney and who has successfully complied with the terms of the agreement is not subject to prosecution for the offense or offenses described in the agreement or for the underlying conduct or transaction constituting the offense or offenses described in the agreement, unless the agreement includes a provision that upon compliance the person agrees to plead guilty or nolo contendere to a specific related offense, with or without a specific sentencing recommendation by the prosecuting attorney.

(d) No person charged with a violation of the provisions of section two, article five, chapter seventeen-c of this code may participate in a pretrial diversion program: Provided, That a court may defer proceedings in accordance with section two-b, article five, chapter seventeen-c of this code. No person charged with a violation of the provisions of section twenty-eight, article two of this chapter may participate in a pretrial diversion program unless the program is part of a community corrections program approved pursuant to the provisions of article eleven-c, chapter sixty-two of this code. No person indicted for a felony crime of violence against the person where the alleged victim is a family or household member as defined in section two hundred three, article twenty-seven, chapter forty-eight of this code or indicted for a violation of the provisions of sections three, four or seven, article eight-b of this chapter is eligible to participate in a pretrial diversion program. No defendant charged with a violation of the provisions of section twenty-eight, article two of this chapter or subsections (b) or (c), section nine, article two of this chapter where the alleged victim is a family or household member is eligible for pretrial diversion programs if he or she has a prior conviction for the offense charged or if he or she has previously been granted a period of pretrial diversion pursuant to this section for the offense charged. Notwithstanding any provision of this code to the contrary, defendants charged with violations of the provisions of section twenty-eight, article two, chapter sixty-one of this code or the provisions of subsection (b) or (c), section nine, article two of said chapter where the alleged victim is a family or household member as defined by the provisions of section two hundred three, article twenty-seven, chapter forty-eight of this code are ineligible for participation in a pretrial diversion program before July 1, 2002, and before the community corrections subcommittee of the Governor's Committee on Crime, Delinquency and Correction established pursuant to the provisions of section two, article eleven-c, chapter sixty-two of this code, in consultation with the working group of the subcommittee, has approved guidelines for a safe and effective program for diverting defendants charged with domestic violence.

(e) The provisions of section twenty-five of this article are inapplicable to defendants participating in pretrial diversion programs who are charged with a violation of the provisions of section twenty-eight, article two, chapter sixty-one of this code. The community corrections subcommittee of the Governor's Committee on Crime, Delinquency and Correction established pursuant to the provisions of section two, article eleven-c, chapter sixty-two of this code shall, upon approving any program of pretrial diversion for persons charged with violations of the provisions of section twenty-eight, article two, chapter sixty-one of this code, establish and maintain a central registry of the participants in the programs which may be accessed by judicial officers and court personnel.


WVC 61 - 11 - 23 §61-11-23. Punishment for juvenile convicted as an adult; eligibility for parole; factors to be considered prior to sentencing.

          (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of law to the contrary, a sentence of life imprisonment without the possibility of parole may not be imposed on a person who:

          (1) Is convicted of an offense punishable by life imprisonment; and

          (2) Was less than eighteen years of age at the time the offense was committed.

          (b) Unless otherwise provided by this code, the provisions of article twelve, chapter sixty-two of this code shall govern the eligibility for parole of a person who is convicted of an offense and sentenced to confinement if he or she was less than eighteen years of age at the time the offense was committed, except that a person who is convicted of one or more offenses for which the sentence or any combination of sentences imposed is for a period that renders the person ineligible for parole until he or she has served more than fifteen years shall be eligible for parole after he or she has served fifteen years if the person was less than eighteen years of age at the time each offense was committed.

          (c) In addition to other factors required by law to be considered prior to the imposition of a sentence, in determining the appropriate sentence to be imposed on a person who has been transferred to the criminal jurisdiction of the court pursuant to section ten, article five, chapter forty-nine of this code and who has been subsequently tried and convicted of a felony offense as an adult, the court shall consider the following mitigating circumstances:

          (1) Age at the time of the offense;

          (2) Impetuosity;

          (3) Family and community environment;

          (4) Ability to appreciate the risks and consequences of the conduct;

          (5) Intellectual capacity;

          (6) The outcomes of a comprehensive mental health evaluation conducted by an mental health professional licensed to treat adolescents in the State of West Virginia: Provided, That no provision of this section may be construed to require that a comprehensive mental health evaluation be conducted;

          (7) Peer or familial pressure;

          (8) Level of participation in the offense;

          (9) Ability to participate meaningfully in his or her defense;

          (10) Capacity for rehabilitation;

          (11) School records and special education evaluations;

          (12) Trauma history;

          (13) Faith and community involvement;

          (14) Involvement in the child welfare system; and

          (15) Any other mitigating factor or circumstances.

          (d)(1) Prior to the imposition of a sentence on a person who has been transferred to the criminal jurisdiction of the court pursuant to section ten, article five, chapter forty-nine of this code and who has been subsequently tried and convicted of an felony offense as an adult, the court shall consider the outcomes of any comprehensive mental health evaluation conducted by an mental health professional licensed to treat adolescents in the State of West Virginia. The comprehensive mental health evaluation must include the following:

          (A) Family interviews;

          (B) Prenatal history;

          (C) Developmental history;

          (D) Medical history;

          (E) History of treatment for substance use;

          (F) Social history; and

          (G) A psychological evaluation.

          (2) The provisions of this subsection are only applicable to sentencing proceedings for convictions rendered after the effective date of this section and shall not constitute sufficient grounds for the reconsideration of sentences imposed as the result of convictions rendered after the effective date of this section.
WVC 61-11-24 §61-11-24. Offender may have credit for term of confinement before conviction.
Whenever any person is convicted of an offense in a court of this state having jurisdiction thereof, and sentenced to confinement in jail or the penitentiary of this state, or by a justice of the peace having jurisdiction of the offense, such person may, in the discretion of the court or justice, be given credit on any sentence imposed by such court or justice for the term of confinement spent in jail awaiting such trial and conviction.


WVC 61 - 11 - 25 §61-11-25. Expungement of criminal records for those found not guilty of crimes or against whom charges have been dismissed.

     (a) Any person who has been charged with a criminal offense under the laws of this state and who has been found not guilty of the offense, or against whom charges have been dismissed, and not in exchange for a guilty plea to another offense, may file a civil petition in the circuit court in which the charges were filed to expunge all records relating to the arrest, charge or other matters arising out of the arrest or charge: Provided, That no record in the Division of Motor Vehicles may be expunged by virtue of any order of expungement entered pursuant to section two-b, article five, chapter seventeen-C of this code: Provided, further, That any person who has previously been convicted of a felony may not file a petition for expungement pursuant to this section. The term records as used in this section includes, but is not limited to, arrest records, fingerprints, photographs, index references or other data whether in documentary or electronic form, relating to the arrest, charge or other matters arising out of the arrest or charge. Criminal investigation reports and all records relating to offenses subject to the provisions of article twelve, chapter fifteen of this code because the person was found not guilty by reason of mental illness, mental retardation or addiction are exempt from the provisions of this section.

     (b) The expungement petition shall be filed not sooner than sixty days following the order of acquittal or dismissal by the court. Any court entering an order of acquittal or dismissal shall inform the person who has been found not guilty or against whom charges have been dismissed of his or her rights to file a petition for expungement pursuant to this section.

     (c) Following the filing of the petition, the court may set a date for a hearing. If the court does so, it shall notify the prosecuting attorney and the arresting agency of the petition and provide an opportunity for a response to the expungement petition.

     (d) If the court finds that there are no current charges or proceedings pending relating to the matter for which the expungement is sought, the court may grant the petition and order the sealing of all records in the custody of the court and expungement of any records in the custody of any other agency or official including law enforcement records. Every agency with records relating to the arrest, charge or other matters arising out of the arrest or charge, that is ordered to expunge records, shall certify to the court within sixty days of the entry of the expungement order, that the required expungement has been completed. All orders enforcing the expungement procedure shall also be sealed.

     (e) Upon expungement, the proceedings in the matter shall be deemed never to have occurred. The court and other agencies shall reply to any inquiry that no record exists on the matter. The person whose record is expunged shall not have to disclose the fact of the record or any matter relating thereto on an application for employment, credit or other type of application.

     (f) Inspection of the sealed records in the court's possession may thereafter be permitted by the court only upon a motion by the person who is the subject of the records or upon a petition filed by a prosecuting attorney that inspection and possible use of the records in question are necessary to the investigation or prosecution of a crime in this state or another jurisdiction. If the court finds that the interests of justice will be served by granting the petition, it may be granted.

     (g) There shall be no filing fees charged or costs assessed for filing an action pursuant to this section.


WVC 61 - 11 - 26 §61-11-26. Expungement of certain criminal convictions; procedures; effect.
(a) Any person convicted of a misdemeanor offense or offenses arising from the same transaction committed while he or she was between the ages of eighteen and twenty-six, inclusive, may, pursuant to the provisions of this section, petition the circuit court in which the conviction or convictions occurred for expungement of the conviction or convictions and the records associated therewith. The clerk of the circuit court shall charge and collect in advance the same fee as is charged for instituting a civil action pursuant to subdivision (1), subsection (a), section eleven, article one, chapter fifty-nine of this code for a petition for expungement.
(b) Expungement shall not be available for any conviction of an offense listed in subsection (i) of this section. The relief afforded by this subsection is only available to persons having no other prior or subsequent convictions other than minor traffic violations at the time the petition is filed: Provided, That at the time the petition is filed and during the time the petition is pending, petitioner may not be the subject of an arrest or any other pending criminal proceeding. No person shall be eligible for expungement pursuant to the provisions of subsection (a) of this section until one year after the conviction, completion of any sentence of incarceration or probation, whichever is later in time.
(c) Each petition to expunge a conviction or convictions pursuant to this section shall be verified under oath and include the following information:
(1) Petitioner's current name and all other legal names or aliases by which petitioner has been known at any time;
(2) All of petitioner's addresses from the date of the offense or alleged offense in connection with which an expungement order is sought to date of the petition;
(3) Petitioner's date of birth and social security number;
(4) Petitioner's date of arrest, the court of jurisdiction and criminal complaint, indictment, summons or case number;
(5) The statute or statutes and offense or offenses for which petitioner was charged and of which petitioner was convicted;
(6) The names of any victim or victims, or that there were no identifiable victims;
(7) Whether there is any current order for restitution, protection, restraining order or other no contact order prohibiting the petitioner from contacting the victims or whether there has ever been a prior order for restitution, protection or restraining order prohibiting the petitioner from contacting the victim. If there is such a current order, petitioner shall attach a copy of that order to his or her petition;
(8) The court's disposition of the matter and punishment imposed, if any;
(9) Why expungement is sought, such as, but not limited to, employment or licensure purposes, and why it should be granted;
(10) The steps the petitioner has taken since the time of the offenses toward personal rehabilitation, including treatment, work or other personal history that demonstrates rehabilitation;
(11) Whether petitioner has ever been granted expungement or similar relief regarding a criminal conviction by any court in this state, any other state or by any federal court; and
(12) Any supporting documents, sworn statements, affidavits or other information supporting the petition to expunge.
(d) A copy of the petition, with any supporting documentation, shall be served by petitioner pursuant to the rules of the trial court upon the Superintendent of the State Police; the prosecuting attorney of the county of conviction; the chief of police or other executive head of the municipal police department wherein the offense was committed; the chief law-enforcement officer of any other law-enforcement agency which participated in the arrest of the petitioner; the superintendent or warden of any institution in which the petitioner was confined; the magistrate court or municipal court which disposed of the petitioner's criminal charge; and all other state and local government agencies whose records would be affected by the proposed expungement. The prosecutorial office that had jurisdiction over the offense or offenses for which expungement is sought shall serve by first class mail the petition for expungement, accompanying documentation and any proposed expungement order to any identified victims.
(e) Upon receipt of a petition for expungement, the Superintendent of the State Police; the prosecuting attorney of the county of conviction; the chief of police or other executive head of the municipal police department wherein the offense was committed; the chief law-enforcement officer of any other law-enforcement agency which participated in the arrest of the petitioner; the superintendent or warden of any institution in which the petitioner was confined; the magistrate court or municipal court which disposed of the petitioner's criminal charge; all other state and local government agencies whose records would be affected by the proposed expungement and any other interested individual or agency that desires to oppose the expungement shall, within thirty days of receipt of the petition, file a notice of opposition with the court with supporting documentation and sworn statements setting forth the reasons for resisting the petition for expungement. A copy of any notice of opposition with supporting documentation and sworn statements shall be served upon the petitioner in accordance with trial court rules. The petitioner may file a reply no later than ten days after service of any notice of opposition to the petition for expungement.
(f) The burden of proof shall be on the petitioner to prove by clear and convincing evidence that: (1) The conviction or convictions for which expungement is sought are the only convictions against petitioner and that the conviction or convictions are not excluded from expungement by subsection (j) of this section; (2) that the requisite time period has passed since the conviction or convictions or end of the completion of any sentence of incarceration or probation; (3) petitioner has no criminal charges pending against him or her; (4) the expungement is consistent with the public welfare; (5) petitioner has, by his or her behavior since the conviction or convictions, evidenced that he or she has been rehabilitated and is law-abiding; and (6) any other matter deemed appropriate or necessary by the court to make a determination regarding the petition for expungement.
(g) Within sixty days of the filing of a petition for expungement the circuit court shall:
(1) Summarily grant the petition;
(2) Set the matter for hearing; or
(3) Summarily deny the petition if the court determines that the petition is insufficient or, based upon supporting documentation and sworn statements filed in opposition to the petition, the court determines that the petitioner, as a matter of law, is not entitled to expungement.
(h) If the court sets the matter for hearing, all interested parties who have filed a notice of opposition shall be notified. At the hearing, the court may inquire into the background of the petitioner and shall have access to any reports or records relating to the petitioner that are on file with any law-enforcement authority, the institution of confinement, if any, and parole authority or other agency which was in any way involved with the petitioner's arrest, conviction, sentence and post-conviction supervision, including any record of arrest or conviction in any other state or federal court. The court may hear testimony of witnesses and any other matter the court deems proper and relevant to its determination regarding the petition. The court shall enter an order reflecting its ruling on the petition for expungement with appropriate findings of fact and conclusions of law.
(i) No person shall be eligible for expungement of a conviction and the records associated therewith pursuant to the provisions of subsection (a) of this section for any violation involving the infliction of serious physical injury; involving the provisions of article eight-b of this chapter where the petitioner was eighteen years old, or older, at the time the violation occurred and the victim was twelve years of age, or younger, at the time the violation occurred; involving the use or exhibition of a deadly weapon or dangerous instrument; of the provisions of subsection (b) or (c), section nine, article two of this chapter where the victim was a spouse, a person with whom the person seeking expungement had a child in common or with whom the person seeking expungement ever cohabitated prior to the offense; any violation of the provisions of section twenty-eight of said article; a conviction for driving under the influence of alcohol, controlled substances or a conviction for a violation of section three, article four, chapter seventeen-b of this code or section nineteen, article eight of this chapter.
(j) If the court grants the petition for expungement, it shall order the sealing of all records in the custody of the court and expungement of any records in the custody of any other agency or official, including law-enforcement records. Every agency with records relating to the arrest, charge or other matters arising out of the arrest or conviction that is ordered to expunge records shall certify to the court within sixty days of the entry of the expungement order that the required expungement has been completed. All orders enforcing the expungement procedure shall also be sealed. For the purposes of this section, "records" do not include the records of the Governor, the Legislature or the Secretary of State that pertain to a grant of pardon. Such records that pertain to a grant of pardon are not subject to an order of expungement. The amendment to this section during the fourth extraordinary session of the Legislature in the year 2009 is not for the purpose of changing existing law, but is intended to clarify the intent of the Legislature as to existing law regarding expungement.
(k) Upon expungement, the proceedings in the matter shall be deemed never to have occurred. The court and other agencies shall reply to any inquiry that no record exists on the matter. The person whose record is expunged shall not have to disclose the fact of the record or any matter relating thereto on an application for employment, credit or other type of application.
(l) Inspection of the sealed records in the court's possession may thereafter be permitted by the court only upon a motion by the person who is the subject of the records or upon a petition filed by a prosecuting attorney that inspection and possible use of the records in question are necessary to the investigation or prosecution of a crime in this state or another jurisdiction. If the court finds that the interests of justice will be served by granting a petition to inspect the sealed record, it may be granted.

WVC -11A- ARTICLE 11A. VICTIM PROTECTION ACT OF 1984.


WVC 61-11A-1 §61-11A-1. Legislative findings and purpose.
(a) The Legislature finds and declares that without the cooperation of victims and witnesses, the criminal justice system would cease to function, yet too often these individuals are either ignored by the criminal justice system or simply used as tools to identify and punish offenders.

The Legislature finds further that all too often the victim of a serious crime is forced to suffer physical, psychological or financial hardship first as a result of the criminal act and then as a result of contact with a criminal justice system not totally responsive to the needs of such victims.

The Legislature finds further that under the current law, law-enforcement agencies must have cooperation from a victim of crime and yet neither the agencies nor the legal system can offer adequate protection or assistance when the victim, as a result of such cooperation, is threatened or intimidated.

The Legislature finds further that while the defendant is provided with counsel who can explain both the criminal justice process and the rights of the defendant, the victim or witness has no counterpart and is usually not even notified when the defendant is released on bail, the case is dismissed, a plea to a lesser charge is accepted or a court date is changed.

The Legislature finds further that the victim or witness who cooperates with the prosecutor often finds that the transportation, parking facilities and child care services at the court are unsatisfactory and they must often share the pretrial waiting room with the defendant or his family and friends.

The Legislature finds further that the victim may lose valuable property to a criminal only to lose it again for long periods of time to law-enforcement officials, until the trial and appeals are over; many times the property is damaged or lost, which is particularly stressful for the elderly or poor.

(b) The Legislature declares that the purposes of this article are to enhance and protect the necessary role of crime victims and witnesses in the criminal justice process and to ensure that the state and local governments do all that is possible within the limits of available resources to assist victims and witnesses of crime without infringing on the constitutional rights of the defendant.


WVC 61 - 11 A- 2 §61-11A-2. Testimony of crime victim at sentencing hearing.

     (a) For the purposes of this section, "victim" means a person who is a victim of a felony, or, where a death occurs during the commission of a felony or a misdemeanor, the following persons shall be notified if known by the prosecutor: A member of the deceased victim's immediate family, the fiduciary of the deceased victim's estate or an adult household member residing with the victim.

     (b) Prior to the imposition of sentence upon a defendant who has been found guilty of a felony, or of a misdemeanor if death occurs during the commission of a crime, or has pleaded guilty or nolo contendere to a felony, or to a misdemeanor if death occurs during the commission of a crime, the court shall permit the victim of the crime to appear before the court to make an oral statement for the record if the victim notifies the court of his or her desire to make such a statement after receiving notification provided in subsection (c) of this section. If the victim fails to notify the court, the failure is a waiver of the right to make an oral statement. In lieu of the appearance and oral statement, the victim may submit a written statement to the court or to the probation officer in charge of the case. The probation officer shall forthwith file the statement delivered to his or her office with the sentencing court and the statement must be made a part of the record at the sentencing hearing. The statement, whether oral or written, must relate solely to the facts of the case and the extent of injuries, financial losses and loss of earnings directly resulting from the crime for which the defendant is being sentenced.

     (c) Within a reasonable time prior to the imposition of sentence upon the defendant, the prosecuting attorney or assistant prosecuting attorney in charge of the case shall make reasonable efforts, in writing, to advise the person who was the victim of the crime, the parent or guardian of a minor who was the victim of a crime, the fiduciary of the victim's estate if the victim is deceased and the immediate family members of the victim if the victim is deceased and if their whereabouts are known to the prosecutor or assistant prosecutor. The writing will provide the date, time and place of the original sentencing hearing and of the victim's right to submit a written or oral statement to the sentencing court.

     (d) The oral or written statement given or submitted by a victim in accordance with the provisions of this section is in addition to and not in lieu of the victim impact statement required by the provisions of section three of this article.
WVC 61-11A-2a §61-11A-2a. Notification of crime victims compensation fund.
Whenever the prosecuting attorney's office presents a case to a grand jury or proceeds in the circuit court on an information, the prosecutor or assistant prosecutor shall within thirty days following said presentment or information notify in writing each victim of the alleged offense of the existence and basic provisions of article two-a, chapter fourteen of this code. Nothing in this section shall be construed as precluding the prosecuting attorney's office from other notification to victims of crime, or as creating a cause of action for damages against any prosecuting attorney or their staff, or against the state of West Virginia or any of its political subdivisions.


WVC 61-11A-3 §61-11A-3. Victim impact statement; when required; contents; use; right of defendant to review and present evidence.
(a) In every case in which a presentence report is ordered by the court, such presentence report shall contain a victim impact statement unless the court orders otherwise, if the defendant, in committing a felony or misdemeanor, caused physical, psychological or economic injury or death of the victim.

(b) The victim impact statement shall be prepared by the probation officer and shall include the identity of the victim, an itemization of any economic loss suffered by the victim as a result of the offense, a description of the nature and extent of any physical or psychological injury suffered by the victim as a result of the offense, the details of any change in the victim's personal welfare, lifestyle or family relationships as a result of the offense, whether there has been any request for psychological or medical services initiated by the victim or the victim's family as a result of the offense and such other information related to the impact of the offense upon the victim as may be required by the court.

(c) If the court does not order a presentence investigation and report, the prosecuting attorney may request that the probation officer prepare a victim impact statement. The victim impact statement shall be considered by the court as a factor in determining the appropriate sentence. Additionally, the statement may be utilized for the determination of claims by victims of crimes pursuant to the provisions of article two-a, chapter fourteen of this code.

(d) In cases that involve child victims of offenses defined in section twelve, article eight of this chapter or article eight-b or eight-d of this chapter, any victim impact statement in a presentence report may include a statement from a therapist, psychologist or physician who is providing treatment to the child as to the recommendations regarding the effect that possible disposition may have on the child.

(e) A victim impact statement prepared in accordance with the provisions of this section, other than for claims by victims of crimes pursuant to the provisions of article two-a, chapter fourteen of this code, shall be made available to the defendant, and his counsel if he is so represented, at least ten days prior to the date set for pronouncement of his sentence. The court shall, upon motion by or on behalf of the defendant, grant the defendant a hearing, whereby he may introduce testimony or other information related to any alleged factual inaccuracies in the statement.


WVC 61 - 11 A- 4 §61-11A-4. Restitution; when ordered.
(a) The court, when sentencing a defendant convicted of a felony or misdemeanor causing physical, psychological or economic injury or loss to a victim, shall order, in addition to or in lieu of any other penalty authorized by law, that the defendant make restitution to any victim of the offense, unless the court finds restitution to be wholly or partially impractical as set forth in this article.

If the court does not order restitution, or orders only partial restitution, under this section, the court shall state on the record the reasons therefor.

(b) The order shall require that the defendant:

(1) In the case of an offense resulting in damage to, loss of, or destruction of property of a victim of the offense:

(A) Return the property to the owner of the property or someone designated by the owner; or

(B) If return of the property under subparagraph (A) is impossible, impractical or inadequate, pay an amount equal to the greater of: (i) The value of the property on the date of sentencing; or (ii) the value of the property on the date of the damage, loss or destruction less the value (as of the date the property is returned) of any part of the property that is returned;

(2) In the case of an offense resulting in bodily injury to a victim:

(A) Pay an amount equal to the cost of necessary medical and related professional services and devices relating to physical, psychiatric and psychological care, including nonmedical care and treatment rendered in accordance with a method of healing recognized by the law of the place of treatment;

(B) Pay an amount equal to the cost of necessary physical and occupational therapy and rehabilitation; and

(C) Reimburse the victim for income lost by the victim as a result of the offense;

(3) In the case of an offense resulting in bodily injury that also results in the death of a victim, pay an amount equal to the cost of necessary funeral and related services; and

(4) In any case, if the victim (or if the victim is deceased, the victim's estate) consents, or if payment is impossible or impractical, make restitution in services in lieu of money, or make restitution to a person or organization designated by the victim or the estate.

(c) If the court decides to order restitution under this section, the court shall, if the victim is deceased, order that the restitution be made to the victim's estate.

(d) The court shall impose an order of restitution to the extent that the order is as fair as possible to the victim and the imposition of the order will not unduly complicate or prolong the sentencing process.

(e) The court shall not impose restitution with respect to a loss for which the victim has received or is to receive compensation, except that the court may, in the interest of justice, order restitution to any person who has compensated the victim for loss to the extent that the person paid the compensation. An order of restitution shall require that all restitution to victims under the order be made before any restitution to any other person under the order is made.

(f) The court may require that such defendant make restitution under this section within a specified period or in specified installments. The end of the period or the last installment shall not be later than: (i) The end of the period of probation, if probation is ordered; (ii) five years after the end of the term of imprisonment imposed, if the court does not order probation; and (iii) five years after the date of sentencing in any other case.

If not otherwise provided by the court under this subsection, restitution shall be made immediately.

(g) If the defendant is placed on probation or paroled under this article, any restitution ordered under this section shall be a condition of the probation or parole unless the court or Parole Board finds restitution to be wholly or partially impractical as set forth in this article.

The court may revoke probation and the Parole Board may revoke parole if the defendant fails to comply with the order. In determining whether to revoke probation or parole, the court or Parole Board shall consider the defendant's employment status, earning ability, financial resources, the willfulness of the defendant's failure to pay, and any other special circumstances that may have a bearing on the defendant's ability to pay.

(h) An order of restitution may be enforced by the state or a victim named in the order to receive the restitution in the same manner as a judgment in a civil action.

(i) Notwithstanding any provision of this section to the contrary, the court may order, in addition to or in lieu of, restitution, that a defendant be required to contribute monetarily, or through hours of service, to a local crime victim's assistance program or juvenile mediation program which meets the following requirements:

(1) The program is approved by a circuit judge presiding in the judicial circuit; and

(2) The program is a nonprofit organization certified as a corporation in this state, and is governed by a board of directors.


WVC 61-11A-5 §61-11A-5. Restitution; procedure for issuing order.
(a) The court, in determining whether to order restitution under this article, and in determining the amount of such restitution, shall consider the amount of the loss sustained by any victim as a result of the offense, the financial resources of the defendant, the financial needs and earning ability of the defendant and the defendant's dependents, and such factors as the court deems appropriate.

(b) The court may order the probation officer of the court to obtain information pertaining to the factors set forth in subsection (a) of this section. The probation officer of the court shall include the information collected in the report of presentence investigation or in a separate report, as the court directs.

(c) The court shall disclose to both the defendant and the prosecuting attorney all portions of the presentence or other report pertaining to the matters described in subsection (a) of this section.

(d) Any dispute as to the proper amount or type of restitution shall be resolved by the court by the preponderance of the evidence. The burden of demonstrating the amount of the loss sustained by a victim as a result of the offense shall be on the prosecuting attorney. The burden of demonstrating the financial resources of the defendant and the financial needs of the defendant and such defendant's dependents shall be on the defendant. The burden of demonstrating such other matters as the court deems appropriate shall be upon the party designated by the court as justice requires.


WVC 61 - 11 A- 6 §61-11A-6. State guidelines for fair treatment of crime victims and witnesses in the criminal justice system.

     (a) No later than July 1, 1984, the Attorney General shall promulgate rules and regulations in accordance with the provisions of chapter twenty-nine-a of this code, establishing guidelines for law-enforcement agencies and prosecuting attorneys' offices consistent with the purposes of this article. The Attorney General shall seek the advice of the West Virginia State Police and Department of Health and Human Resources in preparing such rules and regulations. In preparing such rules and regulations, the following objectives shall be considered:

     (1) The arresting law-enforcement agency should ensure that victims routinely receive emergency social and medical services as soon as possible and are given information on the following:

     (A) Availability of crime victim compensation (where applicable);

     (B) Community-based victim treatment programs;

     (C) The role of the victim in the criminal justice process, including what they can expect from the system as well as what the system expects from them; and

     (D) Stages in the criminal justice process of significance to a crime victim, and the manner in which information about such stages can be obtained.

     (2) The prosecuting attorney or his or her assistant should ensure that victims and witnesses receive information on steps that law-enforcement officers and prosecuting attorneys can take to protect victims and witnesses from intimidation.

     (3) All victims and witnesses who have been scheduled to attend criminal justice proceedings should be notified by the prosecuting attorneys' offices as soon as possible of any scheduling changes which will affect their appearances.

     (4) Victims, witnesses, one member of the immediate family and any adult household member residing with the victim should, if such persons provide the appropriate official with a current address and telephone number, receive prompt advance notification, if possible, of judicial proceedings relating to their case, from the prosecuting attorney's office, including:

     (A) The arrest of an accused;

     (B) The initial appearance of an accused before a judicial officer;

     (C) The release of the accused pending judicial proceedings; and

     (D) Proceedings in the prosecution of the accused including, but not limited to, the entry of a plea of guilty, trial, sentencing and, where a term of imprisonment is imposed, the release of the accused from such imprisonment.

     (5) The victim of a serious crime, or in the case of a minor child or a homicide the family of the victim, shall be consulted by the prosecuting attorney in order to obtain the views of the victim or family about the disposition of any criminal case brought as a result of such crime, including the views of the victim or family about:

     (A) Dismissal;

     (B) Release of the accused pending judicial proceedings;

     (C) Plea negotiations; and

     (D) Pretrial diversion program.

     (6) Victims and other prosecution witnesses should be provided a waiting area that is separate from all other witnesses prior to court appearances, if feasible.

     (7) Law-enforcement agencies should promptly return victims' property held for evidentiary purposes unless there is a compelling law-enforcement reason for retaining it.

     (8) A victim or witness who so requests should be assisted by law-enforcement agencies and prosecuting attorneys in informing employers that the need for victim and witness cooperation in the prosecution of the case may necessitate absence of that victim or witness from work. A victim or witness who, as a direct result of a crime or of cooperation with law-enforcement agencies or attorneys for the government, is subjected to serious financial strain should be assisted by the appropriate state agencies in dealing with creditors.

     (b) Nothing in this section shall be construed as creating a cause of action against the State of West Virginia or any of its political subdivisions.
WVC 61-11A-7 §61-11A-7. Severability.
The provision of subsection (cc), section ten, article two, chapter two of this code shall apply to the provisions of this article to the same extent as if the provision of said subsection were set forth in extenso herein.


WVC 61 - 11 A- 8 §61-11A-8. Notification to victim of offenders's release, placement, or escape from custody.
(a) At the time a criminal prosecution is commenced by the filing of a complaint, if the complaint charges a person with committing an offense described in subsection (e) of this section, then in such case the prosecuting attorney is required to provide notice, in writing or by telephone, to the victim or a family member that he or she may request that they be notified prior to or at the time of any release of the accused from custody pending judicial proceedings.

(b) If a person is convicted of an offense described in subsection (e) of this section, the prosecuting attorney is required to provide notice, in writing or by telephone, to the victim or a family member that he or she may request that they be notified prior to or at the time of sentencing if the convicted person will be placed on work release, home confinement or probation.

(c) If a person is convicted of an offense described in subsection (e) of this section and is imprisoned in a state correctional facility or confined in a county or regional jail, the commissioner of corrections, the regional jail supervisor or the sheriff, as the case may be, is required to provide notice, in writing or by telephone, to the victim or a family member that he or she may request that they be notified prior to or at the time of:

(1) Releasing the convicted person from imprisonment in any correctional facility;

(2) Releasing the convicted person from confinement in any county or regional jail;

(3) Placing the convicted person in a halfway house or other non-secure facility to complete his or her sentence; or

(4) Any escape by the convicted person from a state correctional facility or a county or regional jail.

(d) The notice shall include instructions for the victim or the victim's family member on how to request the notification.

(e) Offenses which are subject to the provisions of this section are as follows:

(1) Murder;

(2) Aggravated robbery;

(3) Sexual assault in the first degree;

(4) Kidnapping;

(5) Arson;

(6) Any sexual offense against a minor; or

(7) Any violent crime against a person.

(f) The commissioner of corrections, a regional jail supervisor, a sheriff or a prosecuting attorney who receives a written request for notification shall provide notice, in writing or by telephone, to the last known address or addresses or telephone number or numbers provided by the victim or a member of the victim's family, or in the case of a minor child, to the custodial parent of the child, in accordance with the provisions of this section. In case of escape, notification shall be by telephone, if possible.

(g) If one or more family members request notification and if the victim is an adult and is alive and competent, notification shall be sent to the victim, if possible, notwithstanding that the victim did not request the notification.

(h) If notification by telephone to a victim is attempted, notification is not complete unless it is given directly to the person requesting notification and after that person's identity has been verified. An attempted notification made to a voice mail or another recording device or to another member of the household is insufficient.

(i) For the purposes of this section, the following words or phrases defined in this subsection have the meanings ascribed to them. These definitions are applicable unless a different meaning clearly appears from the context.

(1) "Filing of a complaint" means the filing of a complaint in accordance with the requirements of rules promulgated by the supreme court of appeals or the provisions of this code.

(2) "Victim" means a victim of a crime listed in subsection (e) of this section who is alive and competent.

(3) "Victim's family member" means a member of the family of a victim of a crime listed in subsection (e) of this section who is not alive and competent.


WVC -12- ARTICLE 12. POSTMORTEM EXAMINATIONS.


WVC 61-12-1 §61-12-1.
Repealed.

Acts, 1986 Reg. Sess., Ch. 153.


WVC 61-12-2 §61-12-2.
Repealed.

Acts, 1986 Reg. Sess., Ch. 153.


WVC 61 - 12 - 3 §61-12-3. Office of chief medical examiner established; appointment, duties, etc., of chief medical examiner; assistants and employees; promulgation of rules.
(a) The office of chief medical examiner is hereby established within the division of health in the department of health and human resources. The office shall be directed by a chief medical examiner, who may employ pathologists, toxicologists, other forensic specialists, laboratory technicians, and other staff members, as needed to fulfill the responsibilities set forth in this article.

(b) All persons employed by the chief medical examiner shall be responsible to him or her and may be discharged for any reasonable cause. The chief medical examiner shall specify the qualifications required for each position in the office of chief medical examiner, and each position shall be subject to rules prescribed by the secretary of the department of health and human resources.

(c) The chief medical examiner shall be a physician licensed to practice medicine or osteopathic medicine in the state of West Virginia, who is a diplomat of the American board of pathology in forensic pathology, and who has experience in forensic medicine. The chief medical examiner shall be appointed by the director of the division of health to serve a five-year term unless sooner removed, but only for cause, by the governor or by the director.

(d) The chief medical examiner shall be responsible to the director of the division of health in all matters except that the chief medical examiner shall operate with independent authority for the purposes of:

(1) The performance of death investigations conducted pursuant to section eight of this article;

(2) The establishment of cause and manner of death; and

(3) The formulation of conclusions, opinions or testimony in judicial proceedings.

(e) The chief medical examiner, or his or her designee, shall be available at all times for consultation as necessary for carrying out the functions of the office of the chief medical examiner.

(f) The secretary of the department of health and human resources is hereby directed to propose legislative rules in accordance with the provisions of article three, chapter twenty-nine-a of this code concerning:

(1) The proper conduct of medical examinations into the cause of death;

(2) The proper methods and procedures for postmortem inquiries conducted by county medical examiners and coroners;

(3) The examination of substances taken from human remains in order to determine the cause and manner of death; and

(4) The training and certification of county medical examiners and coroners.

(g) The chief medical examiner is authorized to prescribe specific forms for record books and official papers which are necessary to the functions and responsibilities of the office of the chief medical examiner.

(h) The chief medical examiner, or his or her designee, is authorized to order and conduct an autopsy in accordance with the provisions of this article and this code. The chief medical examiner, or his or her designee, shall perform an autopsy upon the lawful request of any person authorized by the provisions of this code to request the performance of the autopsy.

(i) The salary of the chief medical examiner and the salaries of all assistants and employees of the office of the chief medical examiner shall be fixed by the Legislature from funds appropriated for that purpose. The chief medical examiner shall take an oath and provide a bond as required by law. Within the discretion of the director of the division of health, the chief medical examiner and his or her assistants shall lecture or instruct in the field of legal medicine and other related subjects to the West Virginia university or Marshall university school of medicine, the West Virginia school of osteopathic medicine, the West Virginia state police, other law-enforcement agencies and other interested groups.
WVC 61 - 12 - 4 §61-12-4. Central office and laboratory.
The office of the chief medical examiner shall establish and maintain a central office and a laboratory having adequate professional and technical personnel and medical and scientific facilities for the performance of the duties imposed by this article. In order to secure facilities sufficient to meet the duties imposed by the provisions of this code, the chief medical examiner is authorized to enter into agreements, subject to the approval of the director of the division of health, with other state agencies or departments, with public or private colleges or universities, schools of medicine or hospitals for the use of laboratories, personnel, equipment and other fixtures, facilities or services.


WVC 61 - 12 - 5 §61-12-5. Certain salaries and expenses paid by state.
The salaries of the chief medical examiner, the salaries of all assistants and employees employed in the central office and laboratory, the expenses of maintaining the central office and laboratory and the cost of pathological, bacteriological and toxicological services rendered by persons other than the chief medical examiner and his assistants shall be paid by the state out of funds appropriated for that purpose.


WVC 61 - 12 - 6 §61-12-6. Chief medical examiner may obtain additional services and facilities.
Subject to the approval of the director of the division of health, the chief medical examiner may, in order to provide for the investigation of the cause of death as authorized in this article, employ and pay qualified pathologists and toxicologists to make autopsies and such pathological and chemical studies and investigations as he or she considers necessary, in the several counties or regions of the state and he or she may arrange for the use of existing laboratory facilities for such purposes. Qualified pathologists shall hold board certification or board eligibility in forensic pathology or have completed an American board of pathology fellowship in forensic pathology.


WVC 61 - 12 - 7 §61-12-7. Medical examiners.
(a) The chief medical examiner shall appoint for each county in the state a county medical examiner to serve for a term of three years under the supervision of the chief medical examiner. A county medical examiner shall be medically trained and licensed by the state of West Virginia as a physician, registered nurse, paramedic, emergency medical technician or a physician assistant, be certified in the practice of medicolegal death investigation and be of good moral character. County medical examiners are authorized to establish the fact of death, and to make investigations into all deaths in their respective counties that come within the provisions of section eight or ten of this article and shall in timely fashion record findings of an investigation using forms prescribed by the chief medical examiner. A county medical examiner may be removed from office for cause at any time by the chief medical examiner. Any vacancy in the office of county medical examiner shall be filled by the chief medical examiner. One person may be appointed to serve as county medical examiner for more than one county, and a county medical examiner need not be a resident of the county which he or she serves. If the chief medical examiner determines that it is necessary, he or she may appoint any person medically trained and licensed by the state of West Virginia as a physician, registered nurse, paramedic, emergency medical technician or a physician assistant and of good moral character to act as an assistant county medical examiner for a term of three years. An assistant shall have the same powers and duties as a county medical examiner and shall perform his or her duties under the supervision of the chief medical examiner.

(b) A county medical examiner or his or her assistant county medical examiner shall, at all times, be available to perform the duties required under this article. He or she shall, additionally, be paid a fee, as determined by the chief medical examiner, but only for the actual performance of his or her duties.

(c) County medical examiners and assistant county medical examiners are authorized to determine the cause and manner of death in any case falling within the provisions of section eight of this article, subject to the supervision of the chief medical examiner, and may exercise any of the powers attendant to the investigation of deaths.


WVC 61 - 12 - 8 §61-12-8. Certain deaths to be reported to medical examiners; failure to report deaths; investigations and reports; authority of medical examiners to administer oaths, etc., fees.
(a) When any person dies in this state from violence, or by apparent suicide, or suddenly when in apparent good health, or when unattended by a physician, or when an inmate of a public institution, or from some disease which might constitute a threat to public health, or in any suspicious, unusual or unnatural manner, the chief medical examiner, or his or her designee or the county medical examiner, or the coroner of the county in which death occurs shall be immediately notified by the physician in attendance, or if no physician is in attendance, by any law-enforcement officer having knowledge of the death, or by the funeral director, or by any other person present or having knowledge. Any physician or law-enforcement officer, funeral director or embalmer who willfully fails to comply with this notification requirement is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction, shall be fined not less than one hundred dollars nor more than five hundred dollars. Upon notice of a death under this section, the chief medical examiner, or his or her designee or the county medical examiner, shall take charge of the body and any objects or articles which, in his or her opinion, may be useful in establishing the cause or manner of death, and deliver them to the law-enforcement agency having jurisdiction in the case. In the course of an investigation of a death required to be reported by this section, the chief medical examiner shall, upon written request to any law-enforcement agency or any state or regional correctional facility, be provided with all records of the investigation of decedent's death and all records of decedent's incarceration. Where a decedent received therapeutic, corrective or medical treatment prior to death, the chief medical examiner may request in writing that any person or other entity which rendered the treatment promptly provide all records within its possession or control pertaining to the decedent and the treatment rendered: Provided, That nothing contained in this section may be construed as precluding the chief medical examiner from directly inspecting or obtaining investigation records, incarceration records or medical records related to the case. Where records of a decedent become part of the chief medical examiner's file, they are not subject to subpoena or a request for production directed to the chief medical examiner.

(b) A county medical examiner, or his or her assistant, shall make inquiries regarding the cause and manner of death, reduce his or her findings to writing, and promptly make a full report thereof to the chief medical examiner on forms prescribed by the chief medical examiner, retaining one copy of the report for his or her own office records and providing one copy to the prosecuting attorney of the county in which the death occurred.

(c) A county medical examiner or assistant medical examiner shall receive a fee for each investigation performed under the provisions of this article, including the making of required reports, which fee shall be determined by the chief medical examiner and paid out of funds appropriated therefor.


WVC 61 - 12 - 9 §61-12-9. Permits required for cremation; fee.

     (a) It is the duty of any person cremating, or causing or requesting the cremation of, the body of any dead person who died in this state, to secure a permit for the cremation from the Chief Medical Examiner, the county medical examiner or county coroner of the county wherein the death occurred. Any person who willfully fails to secure a permit for a cremation, is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than $200. A permit for cremation shall be acted upon by the Chief Medical Examiner, the county medical examiner or the county coroner after review of the circumstances surrounding the death, as indicated by the death certificate. The person requesting issuance of a permit for cremation shall pay a reasonable fee, as determined by the Chief Medical Examiner, to the county medical examiner or coroner or to the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, as appropriate, for issuance of the permit.

     (b) Any person operating a crematory who does not perform a cremation pursuant to the terms of a cremation contract, or pursuant to the order of a court of competent jurisdiction, within the time contractually agreed upon, or, if the cremation contract does not specify a time period, within twenty-one days of receipt of the deceased person's remains by the crematory, whichever time is less, is guilty of a misdemeanor.

     (c) Any person operating a crematory who fails to deliver the cremated remains of a deceased person, pursuant to the terms of a cremation contract, or pursuant to the order of a court of competent jurisdiction, within the time contractually agreed upon, or, if the cremation contract does not specify a time period, within thirty-five days of receipt of the deceased person's remains by the crematory, whichever time is less, is guilty of a misdemeanor.

     (d) Any person convicted of a violation of the provisions of subsection (b) or (c) of this section shall be fined not less than $1,000 nor more than $5,000 or confined in jail for a period not to exceed six months, or both.

     (e) In any criminal proceeding alleging that a person violated the time requirements of this section, it is a defense to the charge that a delay beyond the time periods provided for in this section were caused by circumstances wholly outside the control of the defendant.

     (f) For purposes of this section, "cremation contract" means an agreement to perform a cremation, as a "cremation" is defined in subsection (g), section three, article six, chapter thirty of this code. A cremation contract is an agreement between a crematory and any authorized person or entity, including, but not limited to, the following persons in order of precedence:

     (1) The deceased, who has expressed his or her wishes regarding the disposal of their remains through a last will and testament, an advance directive or preneed funeral contract, as defined in section two, article fourteen, chapter forty-five of this code;

     (2) The surviving spouse of the deceased, unless a petition to dissolve the marriage was pending at the time of decedent's death;

     (3) An individual previously designated by the deceased as the person with the right to control disposition of the deceased's remains in a writing signed and notarized by the deceased: Provided, That no person may be designated to serve in such capacity for more than one nonrelative at any one time;

     (4) The deceased person's next of kin;

     (5) A public official charged with arranging the final disposition of an indigent deceased person or an unclaimed corpse;

     (6) A representative of an institution who is charged with arranging the final disposition of a deceased who donated his or her body to science;

     (7) A public officer required by statute to arrange the final disposition of a deceased person;

     (8) Another funeral establishment; or

     (9) An executor, administrator or other personal representative of the deceased.
WVC 61 - 12 - 10 §61-12-10. When autopsies made and by whom performed; records of date investigated; copies of records and information; reporting requirements.

     (a) If in the opinion of the chief medical examiner, or of the county medical examiner of the county in which the death in question occurred, it is advisable and in the public interest that an autopsy be made, or if an autopsy is requested by either the prosecuting attorney or the judge of the circuit court or other court of record having criminal jurisdiction in that county, an autopsy shall be conducted by the chief medical examiner or his or her designee, by a member of his or her staff, or by a competent pathologist designated and employed by the chief medical examiner under the provisions of this article. For this purpose, the chief medical examiner may employ any county medical examiner who is a pathologist who holds board certification or board eligibility in forensic pathology or has completed an American Board of Pathology fellowship in forensic pathology to make the autopsies, and the fees to be paid for autopsies under this section shall be in addition to the fee provided for investigations pursuant to section eight of this article. A full record and report of the findings developed by the autopsy shall be filed with the office of the chief medical examiner by the person making the autopsy.

     (b) Within the discretion of the chief medical examiner, or of the person making the autopsy, or if requested by the prosecuting attorney of the county, or of the county where any injury contributing to or causing the death was sustained, a copy of the report of the autopsy shall be furnished to the prosecuting attorney.

     (c) The office of the chief medical examiner shall keep full, complete and properly indexed records of all deaths investigated, containing all relevant information concerning the death and the autopsy report if an autopsy report is made. Any prosecuting attorney or law-enforcement officer may secure copies of these records or information necessary for the performance of his or her official duties.

     (d) Copies of these records or information shall be furnished, upon request, to any court of law, or to the parties therein to whom the cause of death is a material issue, except where the court determines that interests in a civil matter conflict with the interests in a criminal proceeding, in which case the interests in the criminal proceeding shall take precedence. The office of chief medical examiner shall be reimbursed a reasonable rate by the requesting party for costs incurred in the production of records under this subsection and subsection (c) of this section.

     (e) The chief medical examiner is authorized to release investigation records and autopsy reports to the multidisciplinary team authorized by section three, article five-d, chapter forty-nine of this code and as authorized in subsection (h) of this section. At the direction of the Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Resources the chief medical examiner may release records and information to other state agencies when considered to be in the public interest.

     (f) Any person performing an autopsy under this section is empowered to keep and retain, for and on behalf of the chief medical examiner, any tissue from the body upon which the autopsy was performed which may be necessary for further study or consideration.

     (g) In cases of the death of any infant in the State of West Virginia where sudden infant death syndrome is the suspected cause of death and the chief medical examiner or the medical examiner of the county in which the death in question occurred considers it advisable to perform an autopsy, it is the duty of the chief medical examiner or the medical examiner of the county in which the death occurred to notify the sudden infant death syndrome program within the division of maternal and child health and to inform the program of all information to be given to the infant's parents.

     (h) If the chief medical officer determines that a drug overdose is the cause of death of a person, the chief medical examiner shall provide notice of the death to the West Virginia Controlled Substances Monitoring Program Database Review Committee established pursuant to subsection (b), section five, article nine, chapter sixty-a of this code and shall include in the notice any information relating to the cause of the fatal overdose.
WVC 61 - 12 - 10 A §61-12-10a. Costs of transportation of bodies; when state will pay; amount of payment.
Whenever an examination of a body is ordered pursuant to section eight or ten of this article and the body of the deceased is transported to the central laboratory or other place of examination, the reasonable cost of the transportation shall be paid by the state out of funds appropriated to or for the use of the office of the chief medical examiner. Transportation at state expense shall be provided from the place where the body is being kept at the time the examination is ordered to the central laboratory or other place of examination, and, upon completion of the examination, to the place designated by the person entitled to possession of the body: Provided, That if the body is to be returned a greater distance than it was taken for the examination, the state shall only be obligated for the cost of return of the body equal to or less than that incurred to take the body for the examination. The payment shall be of a reasonable amount set by the office of the chief medical examiner, including, but not limited to, payment of any part of the total cost as the office of the chief medical examiner allows.


WVC 61 - 12 - 11 §61-12-11. Exhumation; when ordered.
If, in any case of sudden, violent or suspicious death, the body is buried without any investigation by the chief medical examiner, or by a county medical examiner or coroner, it is the duty of the chief medical examiner or the county medical examiner or coroner, upon being advised of this fact, to notify the prosecuting attorney of the county, who shall communicate the same to the judge of the circuit court or other court of record having jurisdiction in the county and the judge may order that the body be exhumed and an autopsy performed thereon, as provided in section ten of this article and the pertinent facts disclosed by the autopsy shall be communicated to the prosecuting attorney of the county.


WVC 61 - 12 - 12 §61-12-12. Facilities and services available to medical examiners. Pursuant to rules promulgated by the secretary of the department of health and human resources, the facilities of the office of the chief medical examiner and its laboratory, and the services of its professional staff, shall be made available to the county medical examiners and coroners in their investigations under the provisions of section eight of this article, and to the persons conducting autopsies under the provisions of section ten of this article.


WVC 61 - 12 - 13 §61-12-13. Reports and records received as evidence; copies.
Reports of investigations and autopsies, and the records thereof, on file in the office of the chief medical examiner or in the office of any county medical examiner, shall be received as evidence in any court or other proceeding, and copies of records, photographs, laboratory findings and records on file in the office of the chief medical examiner or in the office of any county medical examiner, when duly attested by the chief medical examiner or by the county medical examiner, assistant county medical examiner or coroner in whose office the same are filed, shall be received as evidence in any court or other proceeding for any purpose for which the original could be received without any proof of the official character of the person whose name is signed thereto unless objected to by counsel: Provided, That statements of witnesses or other persons and conclusions upon extraneous matters are not hereby made admissible.


WVC 61 - 12 - 14 §61-12-14. County coroners; appointment, oath, etc.; duties; fees.
It is the duty of the county commission of every county, from time to time, to appoint a coroner for the county, who shall hold the office during the pleasure of the commission and shall take the oath of office prescribed for other county officers. The county coroners shall be certified in medicolegal investigations, be continually available to perform the duties required under this article and shall be paid such fees or amounts for the services as may be fixed by the chief medical examiner.


WVC 61-12-15 §61-12-15. Invalidity of any provision or application.
If any provision or application of this article is held invalid such invalidity shall not affect other provisions or application of this article which can be given effect without the invalid provisions or application, and to this end the provisions of this article are declared to be severable.


WVC 61 - 12 A- ARTICLE 12A. FATALITY AND MORTALITY REVIEW TEAM.
WVC 61 - 12 A- 1 §61-12A-1. Fatality and Mortality Review Team.

     (a) The Fatality and Mortality Review Team is created under the Bureau for Public Health. The Fatality and Mortality Review Team is a multidisciplinary team created to oversee and coordinate the examination, review and assessment of:

     (1) The deaths of all persons in West Virginia who die as a result of unintentional prescription or pharmaceutical drug overdoses;

     (2) The deaths of children under the age of eighteen years;

     (3) The deaths resulting from suspected domestic violence; and

     (4) The deaths of all infants and all women who die during pregnancy, at the time of birth or within one year of the birth of a child.

     (b) The Fatality and Mortality Review Team shall consist of the following members:

     (1) The Chief Medical Examiner in the Bureau for Public Health or his or her designee, who is to serve as the chairperson and who is responsible for calling and coordinating meetings of the Fatality and Mortality Review Team and meetings of any advisory panel created by the Fatality and Mortality Review Team;

     (2) The Commissioner of the Bureau for Public Health or his or her designee;

     (3) The Superintendent of the West Virginia State Police or his or her designee; and

     (4) A prosecuting attorney, as appointed by the Governor, who shall serve for a term of three years unless otherwise reappointed to a second or subsequent term. A prosecuting attorney appointed to the team shall continue to serve until his or her term expires or until his or her successor has been appointed.

     (c) Each member shall serve without additional compensation and may not be reimbursed for any expenses incurred in the discharge of his or her duties under the provisions of this article.
WVC 61 - 12 A- 2 §61-12A-2. Responsibilities of the Fatality and Mortality Review Team and Advisory Panels.

     (a) The Fatality and Mortality Review Team shall establish the following advisory panels to carry out the purposes of this article including:

     (1) An unintentional pharmaceutical drug overdose fatality review panel to examine, analyze and review deaths resulting from unintentional prescription or pharmaceutical drug overdose;

     (2) A child fatality review panel to examine, analyze and review deaths of children under the age of eighteen years;

     (3) A domestic violence fatality review panel to examine, analyze and review deaths resulting from suspected domestic violence;

     (4) An infant and maternal mortality review panel to examine, analyze and review the deaths of infants and women who die during pregnancy, at the time of birth or within one year of the birth of a child.

     (b) The members of the Fatality and Mortality Review Team shall serve as members of each of the advisory panels established pursuant to this article.

     (c) The Commissioner of the Bureau for Public Health, in consultation with the Fatality and Mortality Review Team, shall propose rules for legislative approval in accordance with article three, chapter twenty-nine-a of this code that the advisory panels shall follow. Those rules shall include, at a minimum:

     (1) The representatives that shall be included on each advisory panel;

     (2) The responsibilities of each of the advisory panels, including but not limited to, each advisory panel's responsibility to:

     (A) Review and analyze all deaths as required by this article;

     (B) Ascertain and document the trends, patterns and risk factors; and

     (C) Provide statistical information and analysis regarding the causes of certain fatalities;

     (3) The standard procedures for the conduct of the advisory panels;

     (4) The processes and protocols for the review and analysis of fatalities and mortalities of those who were not suffering from mortal diseases shortly before death;

     (5) The processes and protocols to ensure confidentiality of records obtained by the advisory panel;

     (6) That the advisory panels must submit a report to the Fatality and Mortality Review Team annually, the date the annual report must be submitted and the contents of the annual report;

     (7) That the advisory panel may include any additional persons with expertise or knowledge in a particular field that it determines are needed in the review and consideration of a particular case as a result of a death in subsection (a), section one of this article;

     (8) That the advisory panel may provide training for state agencies and local multidisciplinary teams on the matters examined, reviewed and analyzed by the advisory panel;

     (9) The advisory panel's responsibility to promote public awareness on the matters examined, reviewed and analyzed by the advisory panel;

     (10) Actions the advisory panel may not take or engage in including:

     (A) Call witnesses or take testimony from individuals involved in the investigation of a fatality;

     (B) Contact a family member of the deceased;

     (C) Enforce any public health standard or criminal law or otherwise participate in any legal proceeding; or

     (D) Otherwise take any action which, in the determination of a prosecuting attorney or his or her assistants, impairs the ability of the prosecuting attorney, his or her assistants or any law-enforcement officer to perform his or her statutory duties; and

     (11) Other rules as may be deemed necessary to effectuate the purposes of this article.

     (d) The Fatality and Mortality Review Team shall submit an annual report to the Governor and to the Legislative Oversight Commission on Health and Human Resources Accountability concerning its activities within the state and the activities of the advisory panels. The report is due annually on December 1. The report is to include statistical information concerning cases reviewed during the year, trends and patterns concerning these cases and the team's recommendations to reduce the number of fatalities and mortalities that occur in the state.
WVC 61 - 12 A- 3 §61-12A-3. Access to information; other agencies of government required to cooperate.

     (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this code to the contrary, the Fatality and Mortality Review Team and the advisory panels established by the team pursuant to this article may request information and records as necessary to carry out its responsibilities. Records and information that may be requested under this section include:

     (1) Medical, dental and mental health records;

     (2) Substance abuse records to the extent allowed by federal law; and

     (3) Information and records maintained by any state, county and local government agency, except as provided in subsection (c), section two of this article.

     (b) State, county and local government agencies shall provide the Fatality and Mortality Review Team and the advisory panels established by the team with any information requested in writing by the team or by an advisory panel.
WVC 61 - 12 A- 4 §61-12A-4. Confidentiality.

     (a) Proceedings, records and opinions of the Fatality and Mortality Review Team and the advisory panels established by the team pursuant to this article are confidential and are not subject to discovery, subpoena or introduction into evidence in any civil or criminal proceeding. This section does not limit or restrict the right to discover or use in any civil or criminal proceeding anything that is available from another credible source and entirely independent of the proceedings of the team or advisory panels.

     (b) Members of the Fatality and Mortality Review Team and members of the advisory panels established by the team may not be questioned in any civil or criminal proceeding regarding information presented in or opinions formed as a result of a meeting of the team. This subsection does not prevent a member of the team or an advisory panel from testifying to information obtained independently of the team or advisory panel which is public information.

     (c) Proceedings, records and opinions of the Fatality and Mortality Review Team and the advisory panels established by the team are exempt from disclosure under the Freedom of Information Act as provided in chapter twenty-nine-b of this code.
ARTICLE 13 - ANTI-ORGANIZED CRIMINAL ENTERPRISE ACT ARTICLE 13. ANTI-ORGANIZED CRIMINAL ENTERPRISE ACT.

WVC 61 - 13 - 1 §61-13-1. Findings.
(a) The Legislature hereby finds that there is evidence of an increasing incidence of larger scale organized criminal activity in various parts of this State and that new statutes are necessary to protect the lives and property of the overwhelming majority of West Virginians who are law-abiding citizens. The evidence presented to the Legislature reflects that persons engaged in larger scale ongoing criminal enterprises are of all ages, multiple racial and ethnic origin and all pose a rising threat.

(b) The Legislature further finds that there is a tendency among certain of these enterprises to actively recruit, sometimes coercively, people into joining such organizations as well as organized efforts to intimidate witnesses who may be in a position to offer testimony regarding the organized criminal enterprises and that such behavior cannot be tolerated.

(c) The Legislature further finds that lawful use of public nuisance and forfeiture laws can substantially aid in a reduction of larger scale organized criminal enterprises.

(d) The Legislature further finds that criminal statutes tailored to the particular problems represented by such organized criminal enterprises combined with community education and existing alternative sentencing laws can aid in reducing this new threat.


WVC 61 - 13 - 2 §61-13-2. Definitions.
As used in this article:

"Organized criminal enterprise" means a combination of five or more persons engaging over a period of not less than six months in one or more of the qualifying offenses set forth in this section.

"Qualifying offense" means a violation of the felony provisions of section eleven, article forty-one, chapter thirty-three of this code; the felony provisions of chapter sixty-a of this code; the felony provisions of article two of this chapter; the provisions of sections one, two, three, four, five, eleven, twelve, thirteen, fourteen, eighteen, nineteen, twenty-four, twenty-four-a, twenty-four-b and twenty-four-d, article three of this chapter; the felony provisions of sections article three-c of this chapter; the felony provisions of article three-e of this chapter; the felony provisions of article four of this chapter; the provisions of section eight, article eight of this chapter; the felony provisions of article eight-a of this chapter and the felony provisions of article eight-c of this chapter.


WVC 61 - 13 - 3 §61-13-3. Offenses.
(a) Any person who knowingly and willfully becomes a member of an organized criminal enterprise and who knowingly promotes, furthers or assists in the commission of any qualifying offense himself or herself or in combination with another member of an organized criminal enterprise shall be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction, shall be confined in a state correctional facility for not more than ten years or fined not more than $25,000, or both. The offense set forth in this subsection is separate and distinct from that of any qualifying offense and may be punished separately.

(b) Any person who knowingly solicits, invites, recruits, encourages or causes another to become a member of an organized criminal enterprise or to assist members of an organized criminal enterprise to aid or assist in the commission of a qualifying offense by one or more members of an organized criminal enterprise shall be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction, shall be confined in a state correctional facility for not more than five years or fined not more than $10,000, or both.

(c) Any person who shall, by threats, menaces, or otherwise, intimidate, or attempt to intimidate, a witness for the state in any prosecution under the provisions of this article, for the purpose of preventing the attendance of such witness at the trial of such case or to change testimony, or shall in any way or manner prevent, or attempt to prevent, the attendance of any such witness at such trial, shall be guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction, shall be confined not more than ten years.


WVC 61 - 13 - 4 §61-13-4. Premises used by organized criminal enterprises; nuisances; actions for injunction, abatement and damages; other remedies for unlawful use; exceptions.
(a) Every private building or place used by members of an organized criminal enterprise for the commission of qualifying offenses is a nuisance and may be the subject of an injunction or cause of action for damages or for abatement of the nuisance as provided for in article nine of this chapter.

(b) Any person may file a petition for injunctive relief with the appropriate court seeking eviction from or closure of any premises used for the operation of an organized criminal enterprise. Upon proof by the plaintiff that the premises are being used by members of an organized criminal enterprise for the commission of a qualifying offense or offenses, the court may order the owner of record or the lessee of the premises to remove or evict the persons from the premises and order the premises sealed, prohibit further use of the premises, or enter such order as may be necessary to prohibit the premises from being used for the commission of a pattern of criminal gang activity and to abate the nuisance.


WVC 61 - 13 - 5 §61-13-5. Forfeiture.
(a) The following are declared to be contraband and no

person shall have a property interest in them:

(1) All property which is directly or indirectly used or intended for use in any manner to facilitate a violation of this article; and

(2) Any property constituting or derived from gross profits or other proceeds obtained from a violation of this article.

(b) In any action under this section, the court may enter such restraining orders or take other appropriate action, including acceptance of performance bonds, in connection with any interest that is subject to forfeiture.

(c) Forfeiture actions under this section shall use the procedures set forth in article seven, chapter sixty-a of this code.


WVC 61 - 13 - 6 §61-13-6. Exempted activities; limitations on scope.
Nothing in this section shall be construed to prevent lawful assembly and petition for the lawful redress of grievances, including, but not limited to, any labor or employment relations issue; demonstration at the seat of federal, state, county, or municipal government; or activities protected by the West Virginia Constitution or the United States Constitution or any statute of this state or the United States.


Note: WV Code updated with legislation passed through the 2014 1st Special Session
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