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WEST VIRGINIA CODE
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WVC 48- CHAPTER 48. DOMESTIC RELATIONS.

WVC 48 - 1 - ARTICLE 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS; DEFINITIONS.


WVC 48 - 1 - 101 PART 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS.
§48-1-101. Short title; intent of recodification.
(a) This chapter sets forth the "West Virginia Domestic Relations Act."

(b) The recodification of this chapter during the regular session of the Legislature in the year 2001 is intended to embrace in a revised, consolidated, and codified form and arrangement the laws of the state of West Virginia relating to domestic relations at the time of that enactment.


WVC 48 - 1 - 102 §48-1-102. Legislative intent; continuation of existing statutory provisions.
In recodifying the domestic relations law of this state during the regular session of the Legislature in the year 2001 through the passage of House Bill 2199 it is intended by the Legislature that each specific reenactment of a substantively similar prior statutory provision will be construed as continuing the intended meaning of the corresponding prior statutory provision and any existing judicial interpretation of the prior statutory provision. It is not the intent of the Legislature, by recodifying the domestic relations law of this state during the regular session of the Legislature in the year 2001 through the passage of House Bill 2199 to alter the substantive law of this state as it relates to domestic relations.


WVC 48 - 1 - 103 §48-1-103. Operative date of enactment; effect on existing law.
The amendment and reenactment of chapter forty-eight of this code and the repeal of chapters forty-eight-a, forty-eight-b and forty-eight-c of this code pursuant to the provisions of Enrolled Committee Substitute for House Bill No. 2199, as enacted by the Legislature during the regular session, 2001, are operative on the first day of September, two thousand one. The prior enactments of chapters forty-eight, forty-eight-a, forty-eight-b and forty-eight-c of this code, whether amended and reenacted or repealed by the passage of Enrolled Committee Substitute for House Bill No. 2199 have full force and effect until the provisions of Enrolled Committee Substitute for House Bill No. 2199 are operative on the first day of September, two thousand one, unless after the effective date of Enrolled Committee Substitute for House Bill No. 2199 and prior to the operative date of the first day of September, two thousand one, the provisions of Enrolled Committee Substitute for House Bill No. 2199 are otherwise repealed or amended and reenacted.


WVC 48 - 1 - 104 §48-1-104. West Virginia code replacement.
The department of health and human resources is not required to change any form or letter that contains a citation to this code that is changed or otherwise affected by the recodification of this chapter during the regular session of the Legislature in the year 2001 through the passage of Committee Substitute for House Bill 2199, unless specifically required by a provision of this code.


WVC 48 - 1 - 201 PART 2. DEFINITIONS.
§48-1-201. Applicability of definitions.
For the purposes of this chapter the words or terms defined in this article, and any variation of those words or terms required by the context, have the meanings ascribed to them in this article. These definitions are applicable unless a different meaning clearly appears from the context.


WVC 48 - 1 - 202 PART 2. DEFINITIONS.
§48-1-202. Adjusted gross income defined.
(a) "Adjusted gross income" means gross income less the payment of previously ordered child support, spousal support or separate maintenance.

(b) A further deduction from gross income for additional dependents may be allowed by the court if the parent has legal dependents other than those for whom support is being determined. An adjustment may be used in the establishment of a child support order or in a review of a child support order. However, in cases where a modification is sought, the adjustment should not be used to the extent that it results in a support amount lower than the previously existing order for the children who are the subject of the modification. The court may elect to use the following adjustment because it allots equitable shares of support to all of the support obligor's legal dependents. Using the income of the support obligor only, determine the basic child support obligation (from the table of basic child support obligations in section 13-301 of this chapter) for the number of additional legal dependents living with the support obligor. Multiply this figure by 0.75 and subtract this amount from the support obligor's gross income.

(c) As used in this section, the term "legal dependents" means:

(1) Minor natural or adopted children who live with the parent; and

(2) Natural or adopted adult children who are totally incapacitated because of physical or emotional disabilities and for whom the parent owes a duty of support.


WVC 48 - 1 - 203 §48-1-203. Antenuptial or prenuptial agreement defined.
"Antenuptial agreement" or "prenuptial agreement" means an agreement between a man and woman before marriage, but in contemplation and generally in consideration of marriage, by which the property rights and interests of the prospective husband and wife, or both of them, are determined, or where property is secured to either or both of them, to their separate estate, or to their children or other persons. An antenuptial agreement may include provisions that define the respective property rights of the parties during the marriage, or upon the death of either or both of the parties. The agreement may provide for the disposition of marital property upon an annulment of the marriage or a divorce or separation of the parties. A prenuptial agreement is void if at the time it is made either of the parties is a minor.


WVC 48 - 1 - 204 §48-1-204. Arrearages or past due support defined.
     "Arrearages" or "past due support" means the total of any matured, unpaid installments of child support required to be paid by an order entered or modified by a court of competent jurisdiction, or by the order of a magistrate court of this state, and shall stand, by operation of law, as a decretal judgment against the obligor owing such support. The amount of unpaid support shall bear interest from the date it accrued, at a rate of five percent per annum, and proportionately for a greater or lesser sum, or for a longer or shorter time. Except as provided in rule 23 of rules of practice and procedure for family law and as provided in section 1-302, a child support order may not be retroactively modified so as to cancel or alter accrued installments of support.
WVC 48 - 1 - 205 §48-1-205. Attributed income defined.
(a) "Attributed income" means income not actually earned by a parent but which may be attributed to the parent because he or she is unemployed, is not working full time or is working below full earning capacity or has nonperforming or underperforming assets. Income may be attributed to a parent if the court evaluates the parent's earning capacity in the local economy (giving consideration to relevant evidence that pertains to the parent's work history, qualifications, education and physical or mental condition) and determines that the parent is unemployed, is not working full time or is working below full earning capacity. Income may also be attributed to a parent if the court finds that the obligor has nonperforming or underperforming assets.

(b) If an obligor: (1) Voluntarily leaves employment or voluntarily alters his or her pattern of employment so as to be unemployed, underemployed or employed below full earning capacity; (2) is able to work and is available for full-time work for which he or she is fitted by prior training or experience; and (3) is not seeking employment in the manner that a reasonably prudent person in his or her circumstances would do, then an alternative method for the court to determine gross income is to attribute to the person an earning capacity based on his or her previous income. If the obligor's work history, qualifications, education or physical or mental condition cannot be determined, or if there is an inadequate record of the obligor's previous income, the court may, as a minimum, base attributed income on full-time employment (at forty hours per week) at the federal minimum wage in effect at the time the support obligation is established. In order for the court to consider attribution of income, it is not necessary for the court to find that the obligor's termination or alteration of employment was for the purpose of evading a support obligation.

(c) Income shall not be attributed to an obligor who is unemployed or underemployed or is otherwise working below full earning capacity if any of the following conditions exist:

(1) The parent is providing care required by the children to whom both of the parties owe a legal responsibility for support and such children are of preschool age or are handicapped or otherwise in a situation requiring particular care by the parent;

(2) The parent is pursing a plan of economic self-improvement which will result, within a reasonable time, in an economic benefit to the children to whom the support obligation is owed, including, but not limited to, self-employment or education: Provided, That if the parent is involved in an educational program, the court shall ascertain that the person is making substantial progress toward completion of the program;

(3) The parent is, for valid medical reasons, earning an income in an amount less than previously earned; or

(4) The court makes a written finding that other circumstances exist which would make the attribution of income inequitable: Provided, That in such case the court may decrease the amount of attributed income to an extent required to remove such inequity.

(d) The court may attribute income to a parent's nonperforming or underperforming assets, other than the parent's primary residence. Assets may be considered to be nonperforming or underperforming to the extent that they do not produce income at a rate equivalent to the current six-month certificate of deposit rate or such other rate that the court determines is reasonable.


WVC 48 - 1 - 206 §48-1-206. Automatic data processing and retrieval system defined.
"Automatic data processing and retrieval system" means a computerized data processing system designed to do the following:

(1) To control, account for and monitor all of the factors in the support enforcement collection and paternity determination process, including, but not limited to:

(A) Identifiable correlation factors (such as social security numbers, names, dates of birth, home addresses and mailing addresses of any individual with respect to whom support obligations are sought to be established or enforced and with respect to any person to whom such support obligations are owing) to assure sufficient compatibility among the systems of different jurisdictions to permit periodic screening to determine whether such individual is paying or is obligated to pay support in more than one jurisdiction;

(B) Checking of records of such individuals on a periodic basis with federal, interstate, intrastate and local agencies;

(C) Maintaining the data necessary to meet applicable federal reporting requirements on a timely basis; and

(D) Delinquency and enforcement activities;

(2) To control, account for and monitor the collection and distribution of support payments (both interstate and intrastate) the determination, collection and distribution of incentive payments (both interstate and intrastate), and the maintenance of accounts receivable on all amounts owed, collected and distributed;

(3) To control, account for and monitor the costs of all services rendered, either directly or by exchanging information with state agencies responsible for maintaining financial management and expenditure information;

(4) To provide access to the records of the department of health and human resources in order to determine if a collection of a support payment causes a change affecting eligibility for or the amount of aid under such program;

(5) To provide for security against unauthorized access to, or use of, the data in such system;

(6) To facilitate the development and improvement of the income withholding and other procedures designed to improve the effectiveness of support enforcement through the monitoring of support payments, the maintenance of accurate records regarding the payment of support and the prompt provision of notice to appropriate officials with respect to any arrearage in support payments which may occur; and

(7) To provide management information on all cases from initial referral or application through collection and enforcement.


WVC 48 - 1 - 207 §48-1-207. Basic child support obligation defined.
"Basic child support obligation" means the base amount of child support due by both parents as determined by the table of basic child support obligations set forth in section 13-301 of this chapter, based upon the combined adjusted gross income of the parents and the number of children to whom support is due.


WVC 48 - 1 - 208 §48-1-208. Bureau for child support enforcement defined.
"Bureau for child support enforcement" means the agency created under the provisions of article eighteen of this chapter, or any public or private entity or agency contracting to provide a service. The "bureau for child support enforcement" is that agency intended by the Legislature to be the single and separate organizational unit of state government administering programs of child and spousal support enforcement and meeting the staffing and organizational requirements of the secretary of the federal department of health and human services. A reference in this chapter and elsewhere in this code to the "child advocate office" or the child support enforcement division shall be interpreted to refer to the bureau for child support enforcement.


WVC 48 - 1 - 209 §48-1-209. Bureau for child support enforcement attorney defined.
"Bureau for child support enforcement attorney" means those persons or agencies or entities providing services under the direction of or pursuant to a contract with the bureau for child support enforcement as provided in article eighteen of this chapter.


WVC 48 - 1 - 210 §48-1-210. Caretaker and caretaking functions defined.
(a) "Caretaker" means a person who performs one or more caretaking functions for a child. The term "caretaking functions" means activities that involve interaction with a child and the care of a child. Caretaking functions also include the supervision and direction of interaction and care provided by other persons.

(b) Caretaking functions include the following:

(1) Performing functions that meet the daily physical needs of the child. These functions include, but are not limited to, the following:

(A) Feeding;

(B) Dressing;

(C) Bedtime and wake-up routines;

(D) Caring for the child when sick or hurt;

(E) Bathing and grooming;

(F) Recreation and play;

(G) Physical safety; and

(H) Transportation.

(2) Direction of the child's various developmental needs, including the acquisition of motor and language skills, toilet training, self-confidence and maturation;

(3) Discipline, instruction in manners, assignment and supervision of chores and other tasks that attend to the child's needs for behavioral control and self-restraint;

(4) Arrangements for the child's education, including remedial or special services appropriate to the child's needs and interests, communication with teachers and counselors and supervision of homework;

(5) The development and maintenance of appropriate interpersonal relationships with peers, siblings and adults;

(6) Arrangements for health care, which includes making medical appointments, communicating with health care providers and providing medical follow-up and home health care;

(7) Moral guidance; and

(8) Arrangement of alternative care by a family member, baby-sitter or other child care provider or facility, including investigation of alternatives, communication with providers and supervision.


WVC 48 - 1 - 211 §48-1-211. Chief judge defined.
"Chief judge" means the circuit judge of the circuit court in a judicial circuit that has only one circuit judge, or the chief judge of the circuit court in a judicial circuit that has two or more circuit judges.


WVC 48 - 1 - 212 §48-1-212. Clergy defined.
"Clergy" includes a minister, priest, rabbi or other clergy who has qualified as such before the county commission or the clerk of the county commission as provided for in section 2-402 of this chapter.


WVC 48 - 1 - 213 §48-1-213. Combined adjusted gross income defined.
"Combined adjusted gross income" means the combined monthly adjusted gross incomes of both parents.


WVC 48 - 1 - 214 §48-1-214. Commissioner defined.
" Commissioner" means any person appointed pursuant to section 18-102, who directs all child support establishment and enforcement services for the bureau for child support enforcement.


WVC 48 - 1 - 215 §48-1-215. Contingent fee agreement defined.
(a) "Contingent fee agreement" means a contract under which an attorney may be compensated for work in progress, dependent on the occurrence of some future event which is not certain and absolute. As such, a contingent fee agreement is not an asset, but is potential income or income capacity. This potential income may have current value, and a portion of that current value, if any, may be considered to be a marital asset. In the event a party seeks to quantify the current value of a particular contingent fee agreement for the purpose of establishing the value of the agreement as marital property, the court must find that the party has proved such value by a preponderance of the evidence. Factors to be considered by the court include, but are not limited to, the following:

(1) The nature of the particular case or claim which underlies the agreement;

(2) The jurisdiction or venue of any projected trial or proceeding;

(3) Any historical data relevant to verdicts or settlements within the jurisdiction where the case or claim is pending or may be brought;

(4) The terms and particulars of the agreement;

(5) The status of the case or claim at valuation date;

(6) The amount of time spent working on the case or claim prior to the valuation date, and an analysis of the nature of how that time was spent, including, but not limited to, such activities such as investigation, research, discovery, trial or appellate practice;

(7) The extent of the person's active role in the work in process, whether as an actual participant or as an indirect participant such as a partner, local counsel or other ancillary role;

(8) The age of the case or claim;

(9) The expenses accrued or projected to bring the case or claim to resolution, including any office overhead attributable to case or claim; and

(10) The probable tax consequences attendant to a successful resolution of the case or claim.

(b) The provisions of this section as enacted during the regular session of the Legislature, one thousand nine hundred ninety-six, are to be applied prospectively and shall have no application to any action for annulment, divorce or separate maintenance that was commenced on or before June 7, 1996.


WVC 48 - 1 - 216 §48-1-216. Court defined.
"Court" means a family court of this state unless the context in which such term is used clearly indicates that reference to some other court is intended.


WVC 48 - 1 - 217 §48-1-217. Court of competent jurisdiction defined.
"Court of competent jurisdiction" means a circuit court or family court within this state or a court or administrative agency of another state having jurisdiction and due legal authority to deal with the subject matter of the establishment and enforcement of support obligations. Whenever in this chapter reference is made to an order of a court of competent jurisdiction, or similar wording, such language shall be interpreted so as to include orders of an administrative agency entered in a state where enforceable orders may by law be properly made and entered by such administrative agency.


WVC 48 - 1 - 218 §48-1-218. Custodial parent defined.
"Custodial parent" or "custodial parent of a child" means a parent who has been granted custody of a child by a court of competent jurisdiction. "Noncustodial parent" means a parent of a child with respect to whom custody has been adjudicated with the result that such parent has not been granted custody of the child.


WVC 48 - 1 - 219 §48-1-219. Custodial responsibility defined.
"Custodial responsibility" refers to physical custodianship and supervision of a child. It usually includes, but does not necessarily require, the exercise of residential or overnight responsibility.


WVC 48 - 1 - 220 §48-1-220. Decision-making responsibility defined.
"Decision-making responsibility" refers to authority for making significant life decisions on behalf of a child, including, but not limited to, the child's education, spiritual guidance and health care.


WVC 48 - 1 - 221 §48-1-221. Divorce defined.
"Divorce" means the judicial termination of a marriage contract. The termination of a marriage contract must be based on misconduct or other statutory cause arising after the marriage. A divorce is established by the order of a family court or circuit court that changes the status of a husband and wife from a state of marriage to that of single persons.


WVC 48 - 1 - 222 PART 2. DEFINITIONS.
§48-1-222. Domestic relations action defined.
"Domestic relations action" means an action:

(1) To obtain a divorce;

(2) To have a marriage annulled;

(3) To be granted separate maintenance;

(4) To establish paternity;

(5) To establish and enforce child or spousal support, including actions brought under the provisions of the uniform interstate family support act; and

(6) To allocate custodial responsibility and determine decision-making responsibility, or to otherwise determine child custody, as in an action petitioning for a writ of habeas corpus wherein the issue is child custody.


WVC 48 - 1 - 223 §48-1-223. Earnings defined.
"Earnings" means compensation paid or payable for personal services, whether denominated as wages, salary, commission, bonus, or otherwise, and includes periodic payments pursuant to a pension or retirement program. "Disposable earnings" means that part of the earnings of any individual remaining after the deduction from those earnings of any amounts required by law to be withheld.


WVC 48 - 1 - 224 §48-1-224. Employer defined.
"Employer" means any individual, sole proprietorship, partnership, association, public or private corporation, the United States or any federal agency, this state or any political subdivision of this state, any other state or a political subdivision of another state and any other legal entity which hires and pays an individual for his services.


WVC 48 - 1 - 225 §48-1-225. Extraordinary medical expenses defined.
"Extraordinary medical expenses" means uninsured medical expenses in excess of two hundred fifty dollars per year per child which are recurring and can reasonably be predicted by the court at the time of establishment or modification of a child support order. Such expenses shall include, but not be limited to, insurance copayments and deductibles, reasonable costs for necessary orthodontia, dental treatment, asthma treatments, physical therapy, prescription pharmaceuticals, vision therapy and eye care and any uninsured chronic health problem.


WVC 48 - 1 - 226 §48-1-226. Family court judge defined.
"Family court judge" means a family court judge appointed or elected and authorized to hear certain domestic relations actions as provided in article two-a, chapter fifty-one of this code.


WVC 48 - 1 - 227 §48-1-227. Final divorce or final annulment order defined.
"Final divorce order" or "final annulment order" means an order that grants or denies the judicial termination of a marriage contract.


WVC 48 - 1 - 228 §48-1-228. Gross income defined.
(a) "Gross income" means all earned and unearned income. The word "income" means gross income unless the word is otherwise qualified or unless a different meaning clearly appears from the context. When determining whether an income source should be included in the child support calculation, the court shall consider the income source if it would have been available to pay child-rearing expenses had the family remained intact or, in cases involving a nonmarital birth, if a household had been formed.

(b) "Gross income" includes, but is not limited to, the following:

(1) Earnings in the form of salaries, wages, commissions, fees, bonuses, profit sharing, tips and other income;

(2) Any payment from a pension plan, an insurance contract, an annuity, social security benefits, unemployment compensation, supplemental employment benefits, workers' compensation benefits and state lottery winnings and prizes;

(3) Interest, dividends or royalties;

(4) In kind payments such as business expense accounts, business credit accounts and tangible property such as automobiles and meals, to the extent that they provide the parent with property or services he or she would otherwise have to provide: Provided, That reimbursement of actual expenses incurred and documented shall not be included as gross income;

(5) Attributed income of the parent, calculated in accordance with the provisions of section 1-205;

(6) An amount equal to fifty percent of the average compensation paid for personal services as overtime compensation during the preceding thirty-six months: Provided, That overtime compensation may be excluded from gross income if the parent with the overtime income demonstrates to the court that the overtime work is voluntarily performed and that he or she did not have a previous pattern of working overtime hours prior to separation or the birth of a nonmarital child;

(7) Income from self-employment or the operation of a business, minus ordinary and necessary expenses which are not reimbursable, and which are lawfully deductible in computing taxable income under applicable income tax laws, and minus FICA and medicare contributions made in excess of the amount that would be paid on an equal amount of income if the parent was not self-employed: Provided, That the amount of monthly income to be included in gross income shall be determined by averaging the income from such employment during the previous thirty-six-month period or during a period beginning with the month in which the parent first received such income, whichever period is shorter;

(8) Income from seasonal employment or other sporadic sources: Provided, That the amount of monthly income to be included in gross income shall be determined by averaging the income from seasonal employment or other sporadic sources received during the previous thirty-six-month period or during a period beginning with the month in which the parent first received such compensation, whichever period is shorter; and

(9) Spousal support and separate maintenance receipts.

(c) Depending on the circumstances of the particular case, the court may also include severance pay, capital gains and net gambling, gifts or prizes as gross income.

(d) "Gross income" does not include:

(1) Income received by other household members such as a new spouse;

(2) Child support received for the children of another relationship;

(3) Means-tested assistance such as temporary assistance for needy families, supplemental security income and food stamps; and

(4) A child's income unless the court determines that the child's income substantially reduces the family's living expenses.


WVC 48 - 1 - 229 §48-1-229. Guardian of the property of a child defined.
"Guardian of the property of a child" means a person lawfully invested with the power, and charged with the duty, of managing and controlling the estate of a child.


WVC 48 - 1 - 230 §48-1-230. Income defined.
"Income" includes, but is not limited to, the following:

(1) Commissions, earnings, salaries, wages and other income due or to be due in the future to an individual from his or her employer and successor employers;

(2) Any payment due or to be due in the future to an individual from a profit-sharing plan, a pension plan, an insurance contract, an annuity, Social Security, unemployment compensation, supplemental employment benefits, workers' compensation benefits, state lottery winnings and prizes and overtime pay;

(3) Any amount of money which is owing to an individual as a debt from an individual, partnership, association, public or private corporation, the United States or any federal agency, this state or any political subdivision of this state, any other state or a political subdivision of another state or any other legal entity which is indebted to the obligor;

(4) Any amount of money which is held by the Regional Jail Authority for an inmate in an inmate's concession account.


WVC 48 - 1 - 231 §48-1-231. Individual entitled to support enforcement services under the provisions of this chapter and the provisions of Title IV-D of the federal Social Security Act defined.
(a) "Individual entitled to support enforcement services under the provisions of this chapter and the provisions of Title IV-D of the federal Social Security Act" means:

(1) An individual who has applied for or is receiving services from the bureau for child support enforcement and who is the parent of a child, or the caretaker of a child, or the guardian of the property of a child when:

(A) The child has a parent and child relationship with an obligor who is not a custodial parent, a caretaker or a guardian; and

(B) The obligor with whom the child has a parent and child relationship is not meeting an obligation to support the child, or has not met such obligation in the past; or

(2) An individual who has applied for or is receiving services from the bureau for child support enforcement and who is an adult or an emancipated minor whose spouse or former spouse has been ordered by a court of competent jurisdiction to pay spousal support to the individual, whether such support is denominated spousal support or separate maintenance, or is identified by some other terminology, thus establishing a support obligation with respect to such spouse, when the obligor required to pay such spousal support is not meeting the obligation, or has not met such obligation in the past; or

(3) Any individual who is an obligee in a support order, entered by a court of competent jurisdiction after the thirty-first day of December, one thousand nine hundred ninety-three.

(b) The filing of an action wherein the establishment or enforcement of child support is an issue constitutes an application to receive services from the bureau for child support enforcement, if the individual filing the action is otherwise eligible for such services: Provided, That any such individual has the option to decline the receipt of such services.


WVC 48 - 1 - 232 §48-1-232. Legal parent defined.
"Legal parent" means an individual defined as a parent, by law, on the basis of biological relationship, presumed biological relationship, legal adoption or other recognized grounds.


WVC 48 - 1 - 233 §48-1-233. Marital property defined.
"Marital property" means:

(1) All property and earnings acquired by either spouse during a marriage, including every valuable right and interest, corporeal or incorporeal, tangible or intangible, real or personal, regardless of the form of ownership, whether legal or beneficial, whether individually held, held in trust by a third party, or whether held by the parties to the marriage in some form of co-ownership such as joint tenancy or tenancy in common, joint tenancy with the right of survivorship, or any other form of shared ownership recognized in other jurisdictions without this state, except that marital property does not include separate property as defined in section 1-238; and

(2) The amount of any increase in value in the separate property of either of the parties to a marriage, which increase results from: (A) An expenditure of funds which are marital property, including an expenditure of such funds which reduces indebtedness against separate property, extinguishes liens, or otherwise increases the net value of separate property; or (B) work performed by either or both of the parties during the marriage.

The definition of "marital property" contained in this section has no application outside of the provisions of this article, and the common law as to the ownership of the respective property and earnings of a husband and wife, as altered by the provisions of article 29 of this chapter and other provisions of this code, are not abrogated by implication or otherwise, except as expressly provided for by the provisions of this article as such provisions are applied in actions brought under this article or for the enforcement of rights under this article.


WVC 48 - 1 - 234 §48-1-234. Obligee defined.
"Obligee" means:

(1) An individual to whom a duty of support is or is alleged to be owed or in whose favor a support order has been issued or a judgment determining parentage has been rendered;

(2) A state or political subdivision to which the rights under a duty of support or support order have been assigned or which has independent claims based on financial assistance provided to an individual obligee; or

(3) An individual seeking a judgment determining parentage of the individual's child.


WVC 48 - 1 - 235 §48-1-235. Obligor defined.
"Obligor" means an individual or the estate of a decedent:

(1) Who owes or is alleged to owe a duty of support;

(2) Who is alleged, but has not been adjudicated, to be a parent of a child; or

(3) Who is liable under a support order.


WVC 48 - 1 - 236 §48-1-236. Secretary defined.
"Secretary" means the secretary of the department of health and human resources.


WVC 48 - 1 - 237 §48-1-237. Separate property defined.
"Separate property" means:

(1) Property acquired by a person before marriage;

(2) Property acquired by a person during marriage in exchange for separate property which was acquired before the marriage;

(3) Property acquired by a person during marriage, but excluded from treatment as marital property by a valid agreement of the parties entered into before or during the marriage;

(4) Property acquired by a party during marriage by gift, bequest, devise, descent or distribution;

(5) Property acquired by a party during a marriage but after the separation of the parties and before ordering an annulment, divorce or separate maintenance; or

(6) Any increase in the value of separate property as defined in subdivision (1), (2), (3), (4) or (5) of this section which is due to inflation or to a change in market value resulting from conditions outside the control of the parties.


WVC 48 - 1 - 238 §48-1-238. Separation defined.
"Separation" or "separation of the parties" means the uninterrupted separation of a husband and wife for some continuous period of time during which they do not cohabit or otherwise live together as husband and wife. When a separation is required as a predicate for filing an action under this article, the separation must continue through the date of filing.


WVC 48 - 1 - 239 §48-1-239. Shared parenting defined.
(a) "Shared parenting" means either basic shared parenting or extended shared parenting.

(b) "Basic shared parenting" means an arrangement under which one parent keeps a child or children overnight for less than thirty-five percent of the year and under which both parents contribute to the expenses of the child or children in addition to the payment of child support.

(c) "Extended shared parenting" means an arrangement under which each parent keeps a child or children overnight for more than thirty-five percent of the year and under which both parents contribute to the expenses of the child or children in addition to the payment of child support.


WVC 48 - 1 - 240 §48-1-240. Source of income defined.
"Source of income" means an employer or successor employer or any other person who owes or will owe income to an obligor.


WVC 48 - 1 - 241 §48-1-241. Split physical custody defined.
"Split physical custody" means a situation where there is more than one child and where each parent has physical custody of at least one child.


WVC 48 - 1 - 242 §48-1-242. Spousal support defined.
"Spousal support" means an allowance that a person may be ordered to pay for the support and maintenance of a spouse or a former spouse, while they are living separate and apart or after an order for divorce, annulment or separate maintenance.


WVC 48 - 1 - 243 §48-1-243. Spousal support in gross defined.
"Spousal support in gross" means spousal support payable either in a lump sum, or in periodic payments of a definite amount over a specific period of time. A spousal support award is "spousal support in gross" only if the award grants spousal support in such terms that a determination can be made of the total amount to be paid as well as the time such payments will cease.


WVC 48 - 1 - 244 §48-1-244. Support defined.
     "Support" means the payment of money, including interest:

     (1) For a child or spouse, ordered by a court of competent jurisdiction, whether the payment is ordered in an emergency, temporary, permanent or modified order, the amount of unpaid support shall bear simple interest from the date it accrued, at a rate of five percent per annum, and proportionately for a greater or lesser sum, or for a longer or shorter time;

     (2) To third parties on behalf of a child or spouse, including, but not limited to, payments to medical, dental or educational providers, payments to insurers for health and hospitalization insurance, payments of residential rent or mortgage payments, payments on an automobile or payments for day care; or

     (3) For a mother, ordered by a court of competent jurisdiction, for the necessary expenses incurred by or for the mother in connection with her confinement or of other expenses in connection with the pregnancy of the mother.
WVC 48 - 1 - 245 §48-1-245. Support order defined.
(a) For cases being enforced pursuant to Title IV-D of the Social Security Act, "support order" means a judgment, decree or order, whether temporary, final, or subject to modification, issued by a court or an administrative agency of competent jurisdiction, for the support and maintenance of a child, including a child who has attained the age of majority under the law of the issuing state, or a child and the parent with whom the child is living, which provides for monetary support, health care, arrearage or reimbursements, and which may include related costs and fees, interest and penalties, income withholding, attorneys' fees and other relief.

(b) For all other cases, "support order" means an order as defined in subsection (a) of this section and, in addition, an order for the support and maintenance of a spouse or former spouse.


WVC 48 - 1 - 246 §48-1-246. Unreimbursed health care expenses defined.
"Unreimbursed health care expenses" means the child's portion of health insurance premiums and extraordinary medical expenses.


WVC 48 - 1 - 247 §48-1-247. Work-related child care costs defined.
"Work-related child care costs" shall mean the cost of child care the parent incurs due to employment or the search for employment.


WVC 48 - 1 - 301 PART III. MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS
RELATING TO DOMESTIC RELATIONS.
§48-1-301. Communications between clergy and party.
(a) A party to a domestic relations action cannot compel a member of the clergy to testify regarding any communications or statements made to the member of the clergy in his or her capacity as spiritual counselor or spiritual adviser by a party to the action, if the following conditions exist:

(1) Both the clergy and the party making such communications or statements claim that the communications or statements were made to the clergy in his capacity as a clergy and spiritual counselor or spiritual adviser to such party;

(2) No person, other than a member of the clergy, a party and the spouse of the party, was present when such communications or statements were made; and

(3) The party making such communications or statements does not either consent to their disclosure or otherwise waive the privilege granted by this section.

(b) The privilege granted by this section shall be in addition to and not in derogation of any other privileges recognized by law.


WVC 48 - 1 - 302 §48-1-302. Calculation of interest.
     (a) Notwithstanding any other provisions of the code, if an obligation to pay interest arises under this chapter, the rate of interest is five percent per annum and proportionate thereto for a greater or lesser sum, or for a longer or shorter time. Interest awarded shall only be simple interest and nothing in this section may be construed to permit awarding of compound interest. Interest accrues only upon the outstanding principal of such obligation.

     (b) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, no court may award or approve prejudgment interest in a domestic relations action against a party unless the court finds, in writing, that the party engaged in conduct that would violate subsection (b), Rule 11 of the West Virginia Rules of Civil Procedure. If prejudgment interest is awarded, the court shall calculate prejudgment interest from the date the offending representation was presented to the court pursuant to subsection (a) of this section.

     (c) Upon written agreement by both parties, an obligor may petition the court to enter an order conditionally suspending the collection of all or part of the interest that has accrued on past- due child support prior to the date of the agreement: Provided, That said agreement shall also establish a reasonable payment plan which is calculated to fully discharge all arrearages within sixty months. Upon successful completion of the payment plan, the court shall enter an order which permanently relieves the obligor of the obligation to pay the accrued interest. If the obligor fails to comply with the terms of the written agreement, then the court shall enter an order which reinstates the accrued interest.

     (d) Amendments to this section enacted by the Legislature during the 2006 regular session shall become effective January 1, 2007.
WVC 48 - 1 - 303 PART 3. MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS RELATING TO DOMESTIC RELATIONS.

§48-1-303. Confidentiality of domestic relations court files.

(a) All orders in domestic relations actions entered in the civil order books by circuit clerks are public records.

(b) Upon the filing of a domestic relations action, all pleadings, exhibits or other documents, other than orders, that are contained in the court file are confidential and not open for public inspection either during the pendency of the case or after the case is closed.

(c) When sensitive information has been disclosed during a hearing or in pleadings, evidence or documents filed in the record, the court may, sua sponte or upon motion of a party, order such information sealed in the court file. Sealed documents or court files can only be opened by order of a circuit or family court judge.

(d) The parties, their designees, their attorneys, a duly appointed guardian ad litem or any other person who has standing to seek modification or enforcement of a support order has the right to examine and copy any document in a confidential court file that has not been sealed by court order. Upon motion and for good cause shown, the court may permit a person who is not a party to the action to examine and copy any documents that are necessary to further the interests of justice.

(e) The clerk of the circuit court shall keep a written log of all persons who examine confidential documents as provided for in this section. Every person who examines confidential documents shall first sign the clerk's written log, except for a circuit judge or family court judge before whom the case is pending, or court personnel acting within the scope of their duties. The clerk shall record the time and date of every examination of confidential documents. The log must be retained by the clerk and must be available upon request for inspection by the circuit judge or the family court judge.


WVC 48 - 1 - 304 §48-1-304. Proceedings in contempt.
(a) Upon a verified petition for contempt, notice of hearing and hearing, if the petition alleges criminal contempt or the court informs the parties that the matter will be treated and tried as a criminal contempt, the matter shall be tried in the circuit court before a jury, unless the party charged with contempt shall knowingly and intelligently waive the right to a jury trial with the consent of the court and the other party. If the jury, or the circuit court sitting without a jury, shall find the defendant in contempt for willfully failing to comply with an order of the court made pursuant to the provisions of article three, four, five, eight, nine, eleven, twelve, fourteen or fifteen of this chapter, as charged in the petition, the court may find the person to be in criminal contempt and may commit such person to the county jail for a determinate period not to exceed six months.

(b) If trial is had under the provisions of subsection (a) of this section and the court elects to treat a finding of criminal contempt as a civil contempt and the matter is not tried before a jury and the court finds the defendant in contempt for willfully failing to comply with an order of the court made pursuant to the provisions of article three, four, five, eight, nine, eleven, twelve, fourteen or fifteen of this chapter, and if the court further finds the person has the ability to purge himself of contempt, the court shall afford the contemnor a reasonable time and method whereby he may purge himself of contempt. If the contemnor fails or refuses to purge himself of contempt, the court may confine the contemnor to the county jail for an indeterminate period not to exceed six months or until such time as the contemnor has purged himself, whichever shall first occur. If the petition alleges civil contempt, the matter shall be heard by the family court. The family court has the same power and authority as the circuit court under the provisions of this section for criminal contempt proceedings which the circuit court elects to treat as civil contempt.

(c) In the case of a charge of contempt based upon the failure of the defendant to pay alimony, child support or separate maintenance, if the court or jury finds that the defendant did not pay because he was financially unable to pay, the defendant may not be imprisoned on charges of contempt of court.

(d) Regardless of whether the court or jury finds the defendant to be in contempt, if the court shall find that a party is in arrears in the payment of alimony, child support or separate maintenance ordered to be paid under the provisions of this chapter, the court shall enter judgment for such arrearage and award interest on such arrearage from the due date of each unpaid installment. Following any hearing wherein the court finds that a party is in arrears in the payment of alimony, child support or separate maintenance, the court may, if sufficient assets exist, require security to ensure the timely payment of future installments.

(e) At any time during a contempt proceeding the court may enter an order to attach forthwith the body of, and take into custody, any person who refuses or fails to respond to the lawful process of the court or to comply with an order of the court. Such order of attachment shall require the person to be brought forthwith before the court or the judge thereof in any county in which the court may then be sitting.


WVC 48 - 1 - 305 §48-1-305. Suit money, counsel fees and costs.
(a) Costs may be awarded to either party as justice requires and in all cases the court, in its discretion, may require payment of costs at any time and may suspend or withhold any order until the costs are paid.

(b) The court may compel either party to pay attorney's fees and court costs reasonably necessary to enable the other party to prosecute or defend the action. An order for temporary relief awarding attorney's fees and court costs may be modified at any time during the pendency of the action, as the exigencies of the case or equity and justice may require, including, but not limited to, a modification which would require full or partial repayment of fees and costs by a party to the action to whom or on whose behalf payment of such fees and costs was previously ordered. If an appeal is taken or an intention to appeal is stated, the court may further order either party to pay attorney's fees and costs on appeal.

(c) When it appears to the court that a party has incurred attorney fees and costs unnecessarily because the opposing party has asserted unfounded claims or defenses for vexatious, wanton or oppressive purposes, thereby delaying or diverting attention from valid claims or defenses asserted in good faith, the court may order the offending party, or his or her attorney, or both, to pay reasonable attorney fees and costs to the other party.


WVC 48 - 1 - 306 §48-1-306. Proceeding for release of support lien.
If any person deem that his or her interest, or that of any person for whom he or she may act in a fiduciary or representative capacity, will be promoted by a release, in full or in part, of a lien created upon his or her real or personal property for the support or maintenance of another person or persons, or for spousal or child support, he or she may apply by petition, in a summary way, to the court that entered the order or decree creating such lien for relief from said order. The petition shall be verified and shall describe said lien, the circumstances of the petitioner or the person for whom he is acting, the name or names of the person or persons holding such lien, and the circumstances calculated to show the propriety of the release requested. All persons interested shall be made defendants and shall be given ten days' notice before hearing upon the petition. If authorized by the court, the release may be so conditioned as to promote substantial justice, but the release may only be prospective in effect, and may not operate to deprive the person secured by the lien of the right to receive spousal or child support payments accrued to the date of the hearing.


WVC 48 - 1 - 307 §48-1-307. Collection of child or spousal support by collection agencies.
(a) Any person attempting to collect a child or spousal support obligation or arrearage on behalf of a resident or from a resident of this state is subject to the provisions of article sixteen, chapter forty-seven of this code and the provisions of this section and is otherwise subject to the jurisdiction of this state.

(b) The amount of delinquent child or spousal support or arrearage established by order of a court of competent jurisdiction in this state is not subject to waiver or compromise, either by agreement of the parties or by a collection agency acting on behalf of a party and may only be modified by an order of a court of competent jurisdiction.

(c) No child or spousal support or arrearage of child or spousal support collected by the state IV-D agency may be redirected to any collection agency.

(d) No collection agency attempting to collect a child or spousal support obligation or arrearage on behalf of a resident or from a resident of this state may include any funds collected by a IV-D agency in the amount from which their fee is determined or collected.

(e) No collection agency, other than an attorney licensed to practice law in this state, attempting to collect a child support or spousal support obligation or arrearage may engage in conduct which is considered the practice of law, including, but not limited to:

(1) The performance of legal services, the offering of legal advice or the making of a false representation, directly or by implication, that a person is an attorney;

(2) Any communication with persons in the name of an attorney or upon stationery or other written matter bearing an attorney's name; and

(3) Any demand for or payment of money constituting a share of compensation for services performed or to be performed by an attorney in collecting a claim.

(f) No collection agency may collect or attempt to collect any money alleged to be due and owing by any threat, coercion or attempt to coerce, including, but not limited to:

(1) The use, or the express or implicit threat of use, of violence or other criminal means, to cause harm to the person, reputation or property of any person;

(2) The accusation or threat to accuse any person of fraud, of any crime, or of any conduct which, if true, would tend to disgrace the other person or in any way subject them to ridicule or contempt of society;

(3) False accusations made to another person, including any credit reporting agency, that a person is willfully refusing to pay a just claim, or the threat to make such false accusations;

(4) The threat that nonpayment of an alleged claim will result in the arrest of any person, or of the taking of any other action requiring judicial sanction, without informing the person that there must be in effect a court order permitting the action before it can be taken; and

(5) The threat to take any action prohibited by this section or other law regulating the conduct of a collection agency.

(g) No collection agency may unreasonably oppress or abuse any person in connection with the collection of or attempt to collect any child or spousal support obligation or arrearage, including, but not limited to:

(1) The use of profane or obscene language or language that is intended to unreasonably abuse the listener or reader;

(2) The placement of telephone calls without disclosure of the caller's identity and with the intent to annoy, harass or threaten any person at the called number;

(3) Causing expense to any person in the form of long distance telephone tolls, telegram fees or other charges incurred by a medium of communication by concealment of the true purpose of the communication; and

(4) Causing a telephone to ring or engaging any person in telephone conversation repeatedly or continuously, or at unusual times or at times known to be inconvenient, with intent to annoy, abuse, oppress or threaten any person at the called number.

(h) No collection agency may unreasonably publicize information relating to any alleged child or spousal support obligation or arrearage, including, but not limited to:

(1) The communication to any employer or his or her agent of any information relating to an employee's indebtedness other than through proper legal action, process or proceeding;

(2) The disclosure, publication or communication of information relating to a child or spousal support obligation or arrearage to any relative or family member of the obligor, except through proper legal action or process or at the express and unsolicited request of the obligor;

(3) The disclosure, publication or communication of any information relating to an obligor's child or spousal support obligation or arrearage to any other person other than a credit reporting agency, by publishing or posting any list of persons, commonly known as "deadbeat lists", or in any manner other than through proper legal action, process or proceeding; and

(4) The use of any form of communication to the obligor, which ordinarily may be seen by any other person, that displays or conveys any information about the alleged claim other than the name, address and telephone number of the collection agency.

(i) No collection agency may use any fraudulent, deceptive or misleading representation or means to collect or attempt to collect claims or to obtain information concerning support obligors, including, but not limited to:

(1) The use of any business, company or organization name while engaged in the collection of claims, other than the true name of the collection agency's business, company or organization;

(2) Any false representation that the collection agency has in its possession information or something of value for the obligor with the underlying purpose of soliciting or discovering information about the person;

(3) The failure to clearly disclose the name of the person to whom the claim is owed, at the time of making any demand for money;

(4) Any false representation or implication of the character, extent or amount of a claim against an obligor or of the status of any legal proceeding;

(5) Any false representation or false implication that any collection agency is vouched for, bonded by, affiliated with an agency, instrumentality, agent or official of this state or of the federal or local government;

(6) The use, distribution or sale of any written communication which simulates or is falsely represented to be a document authorized, issued or approved by a court, an official or any other legally constituted or authorized authority, or which creates a false impression about its source, authorization or approval;

(7) Any representation that an existing obligation of the obligor may be increased by the addition of attorney's fees, investigation fees, service fees or any other fees or charges when in fact the fees or charges may not legally be added to the existing obligation; and

(8) Any false representation or false impression about the status or true nature of the services rendered by the collection agency.

(j) No collection agency may use unfair or unconscionable means to collect or attempt to collect any claim, including, but not limited to:

(1) The collection of or the attempt to collect any interest in excess of that interest authorized by the provisions of this chapter, or other charge, fee or expense incidental to the principal obligation that exceeds ten percent of the principal amount from an obligor or obligee; and

(2) Any communication with an obligor whenever it appears the obligor is represented by an attorney and the attorney's name and address are known, or could be easily ascertained, unless the attorney fails to answer correspondence, return telephone calls or discuss the obligation in question, or unless the attorney and the obligor consent to direct communication.

(k) No collection agency may use, distribute, sell or prepare for use any written communication which violates or fails to conform to United States postal laws and regulations.

(l) No collection agency may place a telephone call or otherwise communicate by telephone with an obligor at any place, including a place of employment, falsely stating that the call is "urgent" or an "emergency".

(m) No collection agency may attempt to collect any portion of a fee from any money collected by any other entity or authority. The collection agency may only collect a fee from funds procured solely through its collection activities.

(n) A collection agency must provide the state IV-D agency with an accounting of any money collected and forwarded to the obligee as child support, spousal support or arrearages every sixty days until the collection agency ceases all collection activity.

(o) Any resident of this state who contracts for services with a collection agency to collect current or past-due child support or spousal support may, upon thirty days' written notice, cancel the contract for collection. The notice must be mailed to the collection agency by first-class mail. All contracts signed by residents of this state must include written notification of this right of cancellation.

(p) Any person who violates the provisions of this section is subject to the penalties set forth in section 47-16-5 and section 11-12-9 of this code.

(q) Any person who violates the provisions of this section is liable to the injured party in a civil action. Additionally, any person who violates the provisions of this section is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than one thousand dollars nor more than five thousand dollars for each separate incident.

(r) For any action filed pursuant to this section alleging illegal, fraudulent or unconscionable conduct or any prohibited debt collection practice, the court, in its discretion, may award all or a portion of the costs of litigation, including reasonable attorney fees, court costs and fees, to the injured party. Upon a finding by the court that an action filed pursuant to this section on the grounds of illegal, fraudulent or unconscionable conduct or any prohibited debt collection practice was brought in bad faith and for the purposes of harassment, the court may award the defendant reasonable attorney fees.


WVC 48 - 1 -2331 §48-1-233.1. Mediation defined.
"Mediation" means a method of alternative dispute resolution in which a neutral third person helps resolve a dispute. Mediation is an informal, non-adversarial process whereby the neutral third person, the mediator, assists parties to a dispute to resolve, by agreement, some or all of the differences between them. The mediator has no authority to render a judgment on any issue of the dispute.


WVC 48 - 1 -2332 §48-1-233.2. Mediator defined.
"Mediator" means a neutral third person who interposes between two contending parties, with their consent, for the purpose of assisting them in settling their differences.


WVC 48 - 1 -2333 §48-1-233.3. Military parent defined.
"Military parent" means a natural parent or adoptive parent of a child under the age of eighteen whose parental rights have not been terminated by a court of competent jurisdiction.


WVC 48 - 1 -2334 §48-1-233.4. Military service or service defined.
(a) In the case of a parent who is a member of the Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, Coast Guard, or a Reserve component of these services, "military service or service" means a deployment for combat operations, a contingency operation, or a natural disaster based on orders that do not permit a family member to accompany the member on the deployment.

(b) In the case of a parent who is a member of the National Guard, "military service or service" means service under a call to active service authorized by the President of the United States or the Secretary of Defense for a period of more than thirty consecutive days pursuant to 32 U.S.C. 502(f) for purposes of responding to a national emergency declared by the President and supported by federal funds.

(c) "Military service or service" includes a period during which a military parent remains subject to deployment orders and remains deployed on account of sickness, wounds, leave or other lawful cause.


WVC 48 - 1 -2351 §48-1-235.1. Parent defined.
"Parent" means a legal parent as defined in section 1-232 unless otherwise specified.


WVC 48 - 1 -2352 §48-1-235.2. Parenting functions defined.
"Parenting functions" means tasks that serve the needs of the child or the child's residential family. Parenting functions include caretaking functions, as defined in section 1-210. Parenting functions also include functions that are not caretaking functions, including:

(A) Provision of economic support;

(B) Participation in decision-making regarding the child's welfare;

(C) Maintenance or improvement of the family residence, home or furniture repair, home-improvement projects, yard work and house cleaning;

(D) Financial planning and organization, car repair and maintenance, food and clothing purchasing, cleaning and maintenance of clothing, and other tasks supporting the consumption and savings needs of the family; and

(E) Other functions usually performed by a parent or guardian that are important to the child's welfare and development.


WVC 48 - 1 -2353 §48-1-235.3. Parenting plan defined.
"Parenting plan" means a temporary parenting plan as defined in subdivision (22) of this section or a permanent parenting plan as defined in subdivision (17) of this section.


WVC 48 - 1 -2354 §48-1-235.4. Permanent parenting plan defined.
"Permanent parenting plan" means a plan for parenting a child that is incorporated into a final order or subsequent modification order in a domestic relations action. The plan principally establishes, but is not limited to, the allocation of custodial responsibility and significant decision-making responsibility and provisions for resolution of subsequent disputes between the parents.


WVC 48 - 1 -2355 §48-1-235.5. Rehabilitative spousal support defined.
"Rehabilitative spousal support" means spousal support payable for a specific and determinable period of time, designed to cease when the payee is, after the exercise of reasonable efforts, in a position of self-support.


WVC 48 - 2 - ARTICLE 2. MARRIAGES.


WVC 48 - 2 - 101 PART 1. APPLICATION FOR MARRIAGE LICENSE.
§48-2-101. Necessity of marriage license.
Every marriage in this state must be solemnized under a marriage license issued by a clerk of the county commission in accordance with the provisions of this article. If a ceremony of marriage is performed without a license, the attempted marriage is void, and the parties do not attain the legal status of husband and wife.


WVC 48 - 2 - 102 §48-2-102. Where an application for a marriage license may be made; when an application may be received and a license issued; application by mail.
(a) If one or both of the applicants are residents of this state, they may apply for a marriage license to be issued by the clerk of the county commission of the county in which a resident applicant usually resides. If both parties are nonresidents of this state, they may apply for a license to be issued by the clerk of the county commission in any county in this state.

(b) Applications for licenses may be received and licenses may be issued by the clerk of the county commission when the office of the clerk is officially open for the conduct of business.


WVC 48 - 2 - 103 §48-2-103. Waiting period before issuance of marriage license; issuance of license in case of emergency or extraordinary circumstances.
(a) Except as otherwise provided in subsection(b) of this section, if either or both of the applicants for a marriage license is under eighteen years of age, the clerk of the county commission may not issue a marriage license until two full days elapse after the day the license application is filed.

(b) In case of an emergency or extraordinary circumstances, as shown by affidavit or other proof, a circuit judge of the county in which an application for a marriage license will be filed may order the clerk of the county commission to issue a license at any time before the expiration of the waiting period prescribed in subsection (a) of this section. The clerk of the county commission shall attach a certified copy of the judge's order to the application and issue the marriage license in accordance with the order. If the judge or judges of the county in which the application will be filed are absent or incapacitated, the order may be made and directed to the clerk of the county commission of the county by a circuit judge in any adjoining judicial circuit, or a special judge appointed by the supreme court of appeals.


WVC 48 - 2 - 104

PART I. APPLICATION FOR MARRIAGE LICENSE

§48-2-104. Contents of the application for a marriage license.

     (a) The application for a marriage license must contain a statement of the full names of both the female and the male parties, their social security account numbers, dates of birth, places of birth and residence addresses. The application must state whether or not the persons seeking the license have completed premarital education pursuant to section seven hundred one, article two, chapter forty-eight of this code. If the application states that the applicants seeking issuance of the license have completed premarital education, then the applicants must submit a signed and dated certificate of completion issued by the premarital education provider.

     (b) If either of the parties is a legal alien in the United States of America and has no social security account number, a tourist or visitor visa number or number equivalent to a United States social security account number must be provided.

     (c) Every application for a marriage license must contain the following statement: "Marriage is designed to be a loving and lifelong union between a woman and a man.

     The laws of this state affirm your right to enter into this marriage and to live within the marriage free from violence and abuse. Neither of you is the property of the other. Physical abuse, sexual abuse, battery and assault of a spouse or other family member, and other provisions of the criminal laws of this state are applicable to spouses and other family members, and these violations are punishable by law.


WVC 48 - 2 - 105 §48-2-105. Execution of the application for a marriage license.

     Both female and male parties to a contemplated marriage are required to sign the application for a marriage license, under oath. The application must be signed before the clerk of the county commission or another person authorized to administer oaths under the laws of this state.


WVC 48 - 2 - 106 §48-2-106. Proof of age.
(a) At the time of the execution of the application, the clerk or the person administering the oath to the applicants shall require evidence of the age of each of the applicants. Evidence of age may be as follows:

(1) A certified copy of a birth certificate or a duplicate certificate produced by any means that accurately reproduces the original;

(2) A voter's registration certificate;

(3) An operator's or chauffeur's license;

(4) The affidavit of both parents or the legal guardian of the applicant; or

(5) Other good and sufficient evidence.

(b) If an affidavit is relied upon as evidence of the age of an applicant, and if one parent is dead, the affidavit of the surviving parent or of the guardian of the applicant is sufficient. If both parents are dead, the affidavit of the guardian of the applicant is sufficient. If the parents of the applicant live separate and apart, the affidavit of the parent having custody of the applicant is sufficient.


WVC 48 - 2 - 107 §48-2-107. Recording an application for a marriage license.
The clerk of the county commission shall record the application for a marriage license in the register of marriages provided for in section 2-203. The clerk shall note the date of the filing of the application in the register. The clerk's notation, or a certified copy thereof, is legal evidence of the facts contained in the license.


WVC 48 - 2 - 201 PART 2. MARRIAGE LICENSE.
§48-2-201. Form of marriage license.
The marriage license shall be in form substantially as follows:

Marriage License.
State of West Virginia, County of __________________, to wit:

To any person authorized to celebrate marriages:

You are hereby authorized to join together in matrimony ______________________________ and ______________________________

Given under my hand, as clerk of the county commission of the county of _____________, this _____ day of ______________, 2______.

__________________________

Clerk as aforesaid.


WVC 48 - 2 - 202 §48-2-202. Endorsement and return of licenses by persons solemnizing marriage; duties of clerk pertaining thereto.
(a) The person solemnizing a marriage shall retain the marriage license and place an endorsement on it establishing the fact of the marriage and the time and place it was celebrated.

(b) Before the sixth day of the month after the month in which the marriage was celebrated, the person who solemnized the marriage shall forward the original of the marriage license to the clerk who issued the license.

(c) In the event that the marriage authorized by the license is not solemnized within sixty days from the date of its issuance, then the license is null and void. If the county clerk has not received the original license within sixty days after the expiration date on the license, the clerk shall notify each of the applicants of that fact, by certified mail, return receipt requested.


WVC 48 - 2 - 203 §48-2-203. Register of marriages.
(a) The clerk of the county commission is required to maintain a suitable book to be used as a register of marriages. The clerk shall keep a complete record of the following information:

(1) Factual information that relates to the eligibility of a person to obtain a marriage license: Provided, That if the license is issued because the female is pregnant, the pregnancy will not be noted by the clerk in the register of marriages;

(2) Each marriage license issued by the clerk; and

(3) An endorsement by a minister, priest, rabbi, or judge certifying that the marriage was solemnized.

(b) The clerk shall index the register of marriages in the names of both parties to the marriage.


WVC 48 - 2 - 204 §48-2-204. Record of marriage celebrated outside of state.
If at the time of celebrating any marriage out of this state, either or both of the parties thereto is a resident of this state, a certificate or statement of that fact, verified by the affidavit of any person present at such celebration, or a transcript of the marriage record, certified by the custodian of such records, from the state where the marriage was celebrated, may be returned to the clerk of the county commission of the county in which the husband resides, if he is a resident, or otherwise to the clerk of the county in which the wife resides, and an abstract thereof shall be recorded by the clerk in the register of marriages and indexed in the name of both parties.


WVC 48 - 2 - 301 PART 3. CAPACITY TO MARRY.
§48-2-301. Age of consent for marriage; exception.
(a) The age of consent for marriage for both the male and the female is eighteen years of age. A person under the age of eighteen lacks the capacity to contract a marriage without the consent required by this section.

(b) The clerk of the county commission may issue a marriage license to an applicant who is under the age of eighteen but sixteen years of age or older if the clerk obtains a valid written consent from the applicant's parents or legal guardian.

(c) Upon order of a circuit judge, the clerk of the county commission may issue a marriage license to an applicant who is under the age of sixteen, if the clerk obtains a valid written consent from the applicant's parents or legal guardian. A circuit judge of the county in which the application for a marriage license is filed may order the clerk of the county commission to issue a license to an applicant under the age of sixteen if, in the court's discretion, the issuance of a license is in the best interest of the applicant and if consent is given by the parents or guardian.

(d) A consent to marry must be duly acknowledged before an officer authorized to acknowledge a deed. If the parents are living together at the time the application for a marriage license is made and the consent is given, the signatures of both parents or the applicant's legal guardian is required. If one parent is dead, the signature of the surviving parent or the applicant's legal guardian is required. If both parents are dead, the signature of the applicant's legal guardian is required. If the parents of the applicant are living separate and apart, the signature of the parent having custody of the applicant or the applicant's legal guardian is required.

(e) If a person under the age of consent is married in violation of this section, the marriage is not void for this reason, and such marriage is valid until it is actually annulled.

(f) A marriage by an underage person without a valid consent as required by this section, though voidable at the time it is entered into, may be ratified and become completely valid and binding when the underage party reaches the age of consent. Validation of a marriage by ratification is established by some unequivocal and voluntary act, statement, or course of conduct after reaching the age of consent. Ratification includes, but is not limited to, continued cohabitation as husband and wife after the age of consent is attained.


WVC 48 - 2 - 302 §48-2-302. Prohibition against marriage of persons related within certain degrees.
(a) A man is prohibited from marrying his mother, grandmother, sister, daughter, granddaughter, half sister, aunt, brother's daughter, sister's daughter, first cousin or double cousin. A woman is prohibited from marrying her father, grandfather, brother, son, grandson, half brother, uncle, brother's son, sister's son, first cousin or double cousin.

(b) The prohibitions described in subsection (a) of this section are applicable to consanguineous relationships where persons are blood related by virtue of having a common ancestor.

(c) The prohibitions described in subsection (a) of this section are applicable to persons related by affinity, where the relationship is founded on a marriage, and the prohibition continues in force even though the marriage is terminated by death or divorce, unless the divorce was ordered for a cause which made the marriage, originally, unlawful or void.


WVC 48 - 2 - 303 §48-2-303. Prohibition against marriage not to include persons related by adoption.
For the purpose of section 2-302, cousin or double cousin does not include persons whose relationship is created solely by adoption. If it necessary to open and examine the record of any adoption proceeding in the state to ascertain that a relationship of cousin or double cousin is created solely by adoption, then an application may be made to the circuit court that held the adoption proceeding, by the clerk of the county commission seeking to issue the marriage license, or either party applying for the license, to open the record and cause it to be examined. Upon such application, the judge shall examine the record confidentially and report to the clerk whether the record discloses any consanguinity prohibited by this section and may grant such other relief prayed for which may be proper under article 22 of this chapter.


WVC 48 - 2 - 401 PART 4. MARRIAGE CEREMONY.
§48-2-401. Persons authorized to perform marriages.
A religious representative who has complied with the provisions of section 2-402, a family court judge, a circuit judge or a justice of the supreme court of appeals, is authorized to celebrate the rites of marriage in any county of this state. Celebration or solemnization of a marriage means the performance of the formal act or ceremony by which a man and woman contract marriage and assume the status of husband and wife.

For purposes of this chapter, the term "religious representative" means a minister, priest or rabbi and includes, without being limited to, a leader or representative of a generally recognized spiritual assembly, church or religious organization which does not formally designate or recognize persons as ministers, priests or rabbis.


WVC 48 - 2 - 402 §48-2-402. Qualifications of religious representative for celebrating marriages; registry of persons authorized to perform marriage ceremonies; special revenue fund.
(a) Beginning the first day of September, two thousand one, the Secretary of State shall, upon payment of the registration fee established by the Secretary of State pursuant to subsection (d) of this section, make an order authorizing a person who is a religious representative to celebrate the rites of marriage in all the counties of the state, upon proof that the person:

(1) Is eighteen years of age or older;

(2) Is duly authorized to perform marriages by his or her church, synagogue, spiritual assembly or religious organization; and

(3) Is in regular communion with the church, synagogue, spiritual assembly or religious organization of which he or she is a member.

(b) The Secretary of State shall establish a central registry of persons authorized to celebrate marriages in this state. Every person authorized under the provisions of subsection (a) of this section to celebrate marriages shall be listed in this registry. Every county clerk shall, prior to the first day of October, two thousand one, transmit to the Secretary of State the name of every person authorized to celebrate marriages by order issued in his or her county since one thousand nine hundred sixty and the Secretary of State shall include these names in the registry. The completed registry and periodic updates shall be transmitted to every county clerk.

(c)(1) Upon written request from the registrant, the Secretary of State shall designate the registrant as inactive on the registry.

(2) Upon written notice from the governing body of the registrant's authorizing body that the registrant has died or that the registrant's authority to perform marriages has been revoked, the Secretary of State shall attempt to notify the registrant of the change in the registrant's status by United States mail addressed to the registrant's last known address. If the registrant fails to provide the Secretary of State with proof of good standing with his or her authorizing body within thirty days, the registrant shall be designated on the registry as inactive.

(d) A fee not to exceed twenty-five dollars may be charged by the Secretary of State for each registration or reactivation of an individual designated as inactive on the registry received on or after the first day of September, two thousand one, and all money received shall be deposited in a special revenue revolving fund designated the Marriage Celebrants Registration Fee Administration Fund in the State Treasury to be administered by the Secretary of State. Expenses incurred by the secretary in the implementation and operation of the registry program shall be paid from the fund.

(e) No marriage performed by a person authorized by law to celebrate marriages may be invalidated solely because the person was not listed in the registry provided for in this section.

(f) The Secretary of State shall promulgate rules to implement the provisions of this section.


WVC 48 - 2 - 403 §48-2-403. Ritual for ceremony of marriage by a religious representative.
A religious representative authorized to celebrate the rites of marriage shall perform the ceremony of marriage according to the rites and ceremonies of his or her religious denomination, church, synagogue, spiritual assembly or religious organization and the laws of the state of West Virginia.


WVC 48 - 2 - 404 §48-2-404. Ritual for ceremony of marriage by a judge or justice.
The ritual for the ceremony of marriages by a family court judge, a circuit judge or a justice of the supreme court of appeals may be as follows: At the time appointed, the persons to be married, being qualified according to the law of the state of West Virginia, standing together facing the judge, the man at the judge's left hand and the woman at the right, the judge shall say:

"We are gathered here, in the presence of these witnesses, to join together this man and this woman in matrimony. It is not to be entered into unadvisedly but discreetly, sincerely and in dedication of life."

(Then shall the judge say to the man, using his christian name:)

"N., wilt thou have this woman to be thy wedded wife, to live together in the bonds of matrimony? Wilt thou love her, comfort her, honor and keep her in sickness and in health?"

(Then the man shall answer:)

"I will."

(Then the judge shall say to the woman, using her christian name:)

"N., wilt thou have this man to be thy wedded husband, to live together in the bonds of matrimony? Wilt thou love him, comfort him, honor and keep him in sickness and health?"

(The woman shall answer:)

"I will."

(Then may the judge say:)

"Who giveth this woman to be married to this man?"

(The father of the woman, or whoever giveth her in marriage, shall answer:)

"I do."

(Then the judge shall ask the man to say after him:)

"I, N., take thee, N., to be my wedded wife, to have and to hold, from this day forward, for better, for worse, for richer, for poorer, in sickness and in health, to love and to cherish, as long as life shall last, and thereto I pledge thee my faith."

(Then the judge shall ask the woman to repeat after him:)

"I, N., take thee, N., to be my wedded husband, to have and to hold, from this day forward, for better, for worse, for richer, for poorer, in sickness and in health, to love and to cherish, as long as life shall last, and thereto I pledge thee my faith."

(Then, if there be a ring, the judge shall say:)

"The wedding ring is an outward and visible sign--signifying unto all, the uniting of this man and this woman in matrimony."

(The judge then shall deliver the ring to the man to put on the third finger of the woman's left hand. The man shall say after the judge:)

"In token and pledge of the vow between us made, with this ring, I thee wed."

(Then, if there be a second ring, the judge shall deliver it to the woman to put upon the third finger of the man's left hand; and the woman shall say after the judge:)

"In token and pledge of the vow between us made, with this ring, I thee wed."

(Then shall the judge say:)

"Forasmuch as N. and N. have consented together in wedlock, and have witnessed the same each to the other and before these witnesses and thereto have pledged their faith each to the other, and have declared the same by giving (and receiving) a ring, by virtue of the authority vested in me as judge of this court, I pronounce that they are husband and wife together."


WVC 48 - 2 - 405 §48-2-405. Record of marriage to be kept by person officiating.
A record of each marriage performed, with the names of the parties, their respective places of residence prior to marriage, and the date of marriage, shall be kept by the officiating religious representative in the permanent record of the church, synagogue, spiritual assembly or religious organization which he or she serves.


WVC 48 - 2 - 501 PART 5. OFFENSES AND PENALTIES.
§48-2-501. Unlawful acts by clerk of the county commission; penalties.

(a) It is unlawful for a clerk of the county commission to do any of the following acts:

(1) To make a false entry as to the date of application for a marriage license;

(2) To issue a marriage license prior to the end of the required three-day period (unless a circuit judge dispenses with this requirement by order pursuant to section 2-103);

(3) To issue a license on any Sunday or a legal holiday; or

(4) To receive an application for a marriage license or issue a marriage license in any place other than the office of the clerk of the county commission.

(b) A clerk of the county commission who violates the provisions of subsection (a) of this section is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be punished by a fine of not less than two hundred dollars nor more than one thousand dollars, or by confinement in the county or regional jail for not less than three months nor more than nine months, or by both such fine and confinement, in the discretion of the court.


WVC 48 - 2 - 502 §48-2-502. Issuing marriage license contrary to law; penalty.
A clerk of the county commission who knowingly issues a marriage license contrary to law is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be punished by a fine not exceeding five hundred dollars, or by confinement in the county or regional jail for not more than one year, or by both such fine and confinement, in the discretion of the court.


WVC 48 - 2 - 503 §48-2-503. Consanguineous marriage; penalty.
(a) If a person marries another who is within the degrees of relationship described in section 2-302, and the relationship is founded on consanguinity, the person is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than five hundred dollars, or be confined in the county or regional jail for not more than six months, or both, in the discretion of the court.

(b) If a person who is a resident of this state marries in another state or country, the person violates subsection (a) of this section if:

(1) The persons married are within the degrees of relationship described in section 2-302 and the relationship is founded on consanguinity;

(2) The person intends to evade the law of this state;

(3) The person intends to return and reside in this state; and

(4) The persons, after marrying, return to this state and cohabit as man and wife.

(c) For purposes of this section, the fact of cohabitation of the persons as man and wife is evidence of their marriage.


WVC 48 - 2 - 504 §48-2-504. Failure to endorse and return license; penalties.
If a person who is authorized to celebrate marriages in this state willfully fails to comply with the provisions of section 2-202, relating to the endorsement and return of a license, his or her authority must be suspended for a period of not less than six months nor more than one year. If the person gave bond under the provisions of section 2-402, the conditions of the bond are deemed to be broken and the bond must be forfeited as otherwise provided by law. The county clerk shall notify the prosecuting attorney of the county of any failure to comply with section 2-202. The prosecuting attorney shall institute proceedings before the circuit court to suspend the person's authority to celebrate marriages. The court shall determine all questions of law and fact.


WVC 48 - 2 - 505 §48-2-505. Unlawful solicitation of a celebration of marriage.
(a) It is unlawful for any religious representative in any manner to solicit the celebration of a marriage ceremony.

(b) It is unlawful for a religious representative to give anything of value, directly or indirectly, as a reward to any person who may accompany, bring, send or direct the holders of a marriage license to the religious representative.

(c) If a person violates the provisions of subsection (a) or (b) of this section, his or her license to celebrate marriages shall be revoked, and no such license shall thereafter be issued to the person. It is the duty of the prosecuting attorney of the county in which the violation occurs to institute proceedings in the circuit court to revoke the license. Reasonable notice of proceedings to revoke a license shall be given to the licensee. The court shall determine all questions of law and fact.


WVC 48 - 2 - 601 PART VI. MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS.
§48-2-601. Belief of parties in lawful marriage validates certain defects.
If a marriage is solemnized by a person professing to be authorized to celebrate marriages when, in fact, the person is not authorized, or if a marriage is solemnized after the license is expired, the marriage is not void and subject to a judgment of nullity based on that fact alone if:

(1) The marriage is lawful in all other respects, and

(2) The marriage is consummated with a full belief on the part of either or both of the persons married that they have been lawfully joined in marriage.


WVC 48 - 2 - 602 §48-2-602. Marriage out of state to evade law.
If a resident of this state marries in another state or country, the marriage is governed by the same law, in all respects, as if it had been solemnized in this state if, at the time of the marriage:

(1) The marriage would have been in violation of section 3-103 if performed in this state;

(2) The person intended to evade the law of this state; and

(3) The person intended to return and reside in this state.


WVC 48 - 2 - 603 §48-2-603. Certain acts, records, and proceedings not to be given effect in this state.
A public act, record or judicial proceeding of any other state, territory, possession or tribe respecting a relationship between persons of the same sex that is treated as a marriage under the laws of the other state, territory, possession, or tribe, or a right or claim arising from such relationship, shall not be given effect by this state.


WVC 48 - 2 - 604 §48-2-604.

     Repealed.

Acts, 2013 Reg. Sess., Ch. 29.
WVC 48 - 2 - 701

Part VII. PREMARITAL EDUCATION.

§48-2-701. Premarital education encouraged; requirements.

     (a) Persons applying for a marriage license may attend a premarital education course of at least four hours during the twelve months immediately preceding the date of the application for the license.

     (b) A premarital education course offers instruction involving marital issues which may include, but not be limited to, the following:

     (1) Conflict management;

     (2) Communication skills;

     (3) Managing finances;

     (4) Child and parenting responsibilities;

     (5) Extended family roles; and

     (6) Key components of a successful marriage.

     (c) Premarital education course instructors must have training in skills-based and research-based marriage preparation curricula.

     (d) Premarital education courses may be performed by the following:

     (1) A professional counselor or marriage and family therapist licensed pursuant to article thirty-one, chapter thirty of this code;

     (2) A social worker licensed pursuant to article thirty, chapter thirty of this code;

     (3) A psychiatrist who is licensed as a physician pursuant to article three, chapter thirty of this code;

     (4) A psychologist who is licensed pursuant to article twenty-one, chapter thirty of this code; or

     (5) An active member of the clergy or his or her designee, including retired clergy, provided that a designee is trained in skills-based and research-based marriage preparation curricula premarital education.

     (e) The premarital education course curricula must meet the requirements of this section and provide a skills-based and research-based curricula of the following:

     (1) The National Healthy Marriage Resource Center;

     (2) A church, spiritual assembly, or religious organization; or

     (3) Other substantially similar resource.

     (f) The Department of Health and Human Resources shall maintain an Internet website on which individuals and organizations described in subsection (c) may electronically register with the department to indicate the skills-based and research-based curriculum in which the registrant is trained.

     (g) The premarital education provider shall furnish each participant, who completes the premarital education required by this section, a certificate of completion.
WVC 48 - 2 - 702 §48-2-702. Marriage education fund.

     (a) There is hereby created a special revenue account within the State Treasury known as the Marriage Education Fund. The account shall be administered by the Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Resources.

     (b) Any balance in the account at the end of each fiscal year shall not revert to the general revenue fund but shall remain in the account and be expended as provided by in this section.

     (c) The account shall consist of all fees collected under the provisions of paragraph (C), subdivision (4), subsection (c), of section ten, article one, chapter fifty-nine of this code, legislative appropriations, and all interest or other returned earned from investment of the fund.

     (d) Expenditures from the account shall be made by the secretary for the purposes set forth in section seven-hundred-one of this article, and are not authorized from collections, but are to be made only in accordance with appropriation by the Legislature and in accordance with the provisions of article three, chapter twelve of this code and upon the fulfillment of the provisions set forth in article two, chapter eleven-b of this code: Provided, That for fiscal year ending June 30, 2013, expenditures are authorized from collections rather than pursuant to an appropriation by the Legislature.
WVC 48 - 3 - ARTICLE 3. PROPERTY, RIGHTS AND LIABILITIES OF MARRIED WOMEN; HUSBAND AND WIFE.


WVC 48 - 3 - 101 §48-3-101. Right to sue to annul or affirm marriage.
(a) Except as otherwise provided in subsection (b) of this section, an action to annul or affirm a marriage is not maintainable unless one of the parties is a resident of this state at the time the action is commenced.

(b) Even if neither party is a resident of this state, an action to annul a marriage that was performed in this state is maintainable if the parties have not established a matrimonial domicile elsewhere.


WVC 48 - 3 - 102 §48-3-102. Venue of actions for annulment or affirmation.
(a) If the respondent to an action for annulling or affirming a marriage is a resident of this state, the petitioner has an option to bring the action in the county in which the parties last cohabited or in the county where the respondent resides.

(b) If the respondent to an action for annulling or affirming a marriage is not a resident of this state, the petitioner has an option to bring the action in the county in which the parties last cohabited or in the county where the petitioner resides.

(c) If neither party is a resident of this state, the action must be brought in the county where the marriage was performed.


WVC 48 - 3 - 103 §48-3-103. Voidable marriages.

          The following marriages are voidable and are void from the time they are so declared by a judgment order of nullity:

          (1) Marriages that are prohibited by law on account of either of the parties having a wife or husband of a prior marriage, when the prior marriage has not been terminated by divorce, annulment or death;

          (2) Marriages that are prohibited by law on account of consanguinity or affinity between the parties;

          (3) Marriages solemnized when either of the parties:

          (A) Was mentally incompetent;

          (B) Was afflicted with a sexually transmitted disease;

          (C) Was incapable, because of natural or incurable impotency of the body, of entering into the marriage state;

          (D) Was under the age of consent; or

          (E) Had been, prior to the marriage and without the knowledge of the other party, convicted of a crime punishable by imprisonment in excess of one year under the applicable law of this state, another state or the United States;

          (4) Marriages solemnized when, at the time of the marriage, the wife, without the knowledge of the husband, was with child by some person other than the husband.
WVC 48 - 3 - 104 §48-3-104. Affirmation or annulment of marriage.
If a marriage is supposed to be void, or voidable, or any doubt exists as to its validity, for any of the causes set forth in section 3-103, or for any other cause recognized in law, either party may, except as provided in section 3-105, institute an action for annulling or affirming the marriage. Upon hearing the proofs and allegations of the parties, the court shall enter a judgment order annulling or affirming the marriage. In every case where the validity of a marriage is called into question, it is presumed that the marriage is valid, unless the contrary is clearly proved. If the court orders that the marriage is valid, the finding of the court is conclusive upon all persons concerned.


WVC 48 - 3 - 105 §48-3-105. What persons may not institute annulment action.

     An action for annulling a marriage may not be instituted:

     (a) Where the cause is the natural or incurable impotency of body of either of the parties to enter the marriage state, by the party who had knowledge of such incapacity at the time of marriage;

     (b) Where the cause is fraud, force or coercion, by the party who was guilty of such fraud, force or coercion, nor by the injured party if, after knowledge of the facts, he or she has by acts or conduct confirmed such marriage;

     (c) Where the cause is affliction with a sexually transmitted disease existing at the time of marriage, by the party who was so afflicted if such party has subsequent to the marriage become cured of such disease, nor by the person who was not so afflicted if he or she after the curing of the afflicted person has by acts or conduct confirmed the marriage;

     (d) Where the cause is the nonage of either of the parties, by the party who was capable of consenting, nor by the party not so capable if he or she has by acts or conduct confirmed the marriage after arriving at the age of consent; or

     (e) Where the cause is lack of consent on the part of either of the parties, by the party consenting or bringing about the marriage;

     (f) Where the cause is that either of the parties has been convicted of a crime punishable by imprisonment in excess of one year under the applicable law of this state, another state or the United States prior to marriage, by the other party if, after knowledge of such fact, he or she has cohabited with the party so convicted; or

     (g) Where the cause is that the wife was at the time of marriage with child by some person other than the husband, by the husband, if after knowledge of the fact he has cohabited with the wife.
WVC 48 - 3 - 106

§48-3-106. Relief ordered in annulment.


In an action for annulment, the court may order all or any portion of the final relief provided for in sections 5-603 through 5-614 and all or any portion of the temporary relief provided for in part 5, article 5 of this chapter.


WVC 48 - 3 - 107

§48-3-107. Modification of order granting annulment.
Upon the petition of either party, the court may revise or alter an order entered in an action for annulment or make further orders, concerning the following matters:

(1) The support and maintenance of either spouse;

(2) The interest of one spouse in the property of the other spouse;

(3) The allocation of responsibility for the children of the parties; and

(4) The support of the children of the parties.


WVC 48 - 4 - ARTICLE 4. SEPARATE MAINTENANCE.


WVC 48 - 4 - 101 §48-4-101. Where an action for separate maintenance may be brought.
An action for separate maintenance may be brought in the family court of any county where an action for divorce between the parties could be brought. An action for separate maintenance may be brought whether or not a divorce is prayed for.


WVC 48 - 4 - 102 §48-4-102. Grounds for separate maintenance.
Separate maintenance may be ordered:

(1) If the party seeking separate maintenance has grounds for divorce; or

(2) If the party from whom separate maintenance is sought, without good and sufficient cause:

(A) Has failed to provide suitable support for the other spouse; or

(B) Has abandoned or deserted the other spouse.


WVC 48 - 4 - 103 §48-4-103. Award of relief in action for separate maintenance.
(a) In an action for separate maintenance, the court may order all or any portion of the temporary or final relief that the court may order in an action for divorce, other than a divorce.

(b) During the pendency of the action, the court has the same powers to make temporary orders as the court would have in actions for divorce, insofar as those powers are applicable, on behalf of either spouse.

(c) Any order entered in the case is effective during the time the court by its order directs, until further order of the court.


WVC 48 - 4 - 104 §48-4-104. Modification of order awarding separate maintenance.
Upon the petition of either party, the court may revise or alter an order entered in an action for separate maintenance, or may make further orders, concerning the following matters:

(1) The support and maintenance of either spouse;

(2) The interest of one spouse in the property of the other spouse;

(3) The allocation of responsibility for the children of the parties; and

(4) The support of the children of the parties.


WVC 48 - 5 - ARTICLE 5. DIVORCE.


WVC 48 - 5 - 101 PART 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS.
§48-5-101. Absolute divorce.
A divorce ordered in this state is an absolute divorce.


WVC 48 - 5 - 102 PART 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS.

§48-5-102. Subject matter jurisdiction.


(a) The Legislature hereby finds and declares that it has the authority to establish, by general law, the jurisdiction of circuit courts and family courts over domestic relations matters.

(b) The circuit courts and family courts of this state, by act of the Legislature, are vested with concurrent jurisdiction over the subject matter of divorce. Generally, a family court has the right and authority to adjudicate actions for divorce and the power to carry its judgment and order into execution. Circuit courts have limited jurisdiction in divorce actions, as provided in section two, article two-a, chapter fifty-one of this code and as otherwise specifically provided in this chapter. Jurisdiction of the subject matter of divorce embraces the power to determine every issue or controverted question in an action for divorce, according to the court's view of the law and the evidence.


WVC 48 - 5 - 103 §48-5-103. Jurisdiction of parties; service of process.
(a) In an action for divorce, it is immaterial where the marriage was celebrated, where the parties were domiciled at the time the grounds for divorce arose or where the marital offense was committed. If one or both of the parties is domiciled in this state at the time the action is commenced, the circuit courts and family courts of this state have jurisdiction to grant a divorce for any grounds fixed by law in this state, without any reference to the law of the place where the marriage occurred or where the marital offense was committed.

(b) A judgment order may be entered upon service of process in the manner specified in the rules of civil procedure for the service of process upon individuals.


WVC 48 - 5 - 104 §48-5-104. Retention of jurisdiction when divorce is denied.
If a divorce is denied, the court shall retain jurisdiction of the case and may order all or any portion of the relief provided for in this article that has been demanded in the pleadings.


WVC 48 - 5 - 105 §48-5-105. Residency requirements for maintaining an action for divorce.
(a) Except as otherwise provided in subsection (b) of this section:

(1) If the marriage was entered into within this state, an action for divorce is maintainable if one of the parties is an actual bona fide resident of this state at the time of commencement of the action, without regard to the length of time residency has continued; or

(2) If the marriage was not entered into within this state, an action for divorce is maintainable if:

(A) One of the parties was an actual bona fide resident of this state at the time the cause of action arose, or has become a resident since that time; and

(B) The residency has continued uninterrupted through the one-year period immediately preceding the filing of the action.

(b) An action for divorce cannot be maintained if the cause for divorce is adultery, whether the cause of action arose in or out of this state, unless one of the parties, at the commencement of the action, is a bona fide resident of this state. In such case, if the respondent is a nonresident of this state and cannot be personally served with process within this state, the action is not maintainable unless the petitioner has been an actual bona fide resident of this state for at least one year next preceding the commencement of the action; or

(c) When a divorce is granted in this state upon constructive service of process and personal jurisdiction is thereafter obtained of the respondent in the case, the court may order all or any portion of the relief that has been demanded in the pleadings.


WVC 48 - 5 - 106 §48-5-106. Venue of actions for divorce.
(a) If the respondent in an action for divorce is a resident of this state, the petitioner has an option to bring the action in the county in which the parties last cohabited or in the county where the respondent resides.

(b) If the respondent in an action for divorce is not a resident of this state, the petitioner has an option to bring the action in the county in which the parties last cohabited or in the county where the petitioner resides.


WVC 48 - 5 - 107 §48-5-107. Parties to a divorce action.
(a) Either or both of the parties to a marriage may initiate an action for divorce.

(b) A spouse who is under the age of majority has standing in a divorce action to sue, answer or plead by a next friend.

(c) An incompetent or insane person shall sue, answer or plead by his or her committee. If a person has not been adjudicated incompetent or insane and has not been divested of the power to act on his or her own behalf, it is presumed that the person has the capacity to bring the action or be made a party respondent. This presumption may be rebutted by evidence which shows that the person cannot reasonably understand the nature and purpose of the action and the effect of his or her acts with reference to the action.

(d) The appointment of a guardian ad litem for a minor, an incompetent or an insane party is not required unless specifically ordered by the judge hearing the action.

(e) Anyone charged as a particeps criminis shall be made a party to a divorce action, upon his or her application to the court, subject to such terms and conditions as the court may prescribe.

(f) In a divorce action where the interests of the minor children of the parties are or may be substantially different from those of either or both of the parents and the best interests of the children may be in conflict with the desires of either or both parents, the court may make the children parties respondent and appoint a guardian ad litem to advocate and protect their rights and welfare.


WVC 48 - 5 - 201 PART 2. GROUNDS FOR DIVORCE.

§48-5-201. Grounds for divorce; irreconcilable differences.


The court may order a divorce if the complaint alleges that irreconcilable differences exist between the parties and an answer is filed admitting that allegation. A complaint alleging irreconcilable differences shall set forth the names of any dependent children of either or both of the parties. A divorce on this ground does not require corroboration of the irreconcilable differences or of the issues of jurisdiction or venue. The court may approve, modify or reject any agreement of the parties and make orders concerning spousal support, custodial responsibility, child support, visitation rights or property interests.


WVC 48 - 5 - 202 §48-5-202. Grounds for divorce; voluntary separation.
(a) A divorce may be ordered when the parties have lived separate and apart in separate places of abode without any cohabitation and without interruption for one year. The separation may occur as a result of the voluntary act of one of the parties or the mutual consent of both parties.

(b) Allegations of res judicata or recrimination with respect to any other alleged grounds for divorce are not a bar to either party obtaining a divorce on the ground of voluntary separation.

(c) When required by the circumstances of a particular case, the court may receive evidence bearing on alleged marital misconduct and may consider issues of fault for the limited purpose of deciding whether spousal support should be awarded. Establishment of fault does not affect the right of either party to obtain a divorce on the ground of voluntary separation.


WVC 48 - 5 - 203 §48-5-203. Grounds for divorce; cruel or inhuman treatment.
(a) A divorce may be ordered for cruel or inhuman treatment by either party against the other. Cruel or inhuman treatment includes, but is not limited to, the following:

(1) Reasonable apprehension of bodily harm;

(2) False accusation of adultery or homosexuality; or

(3) Conduct or treatment which destroys or tends to destroy the mental or physical well-being, happiness and welfare of the other and render continued cohabitation unsafe or unendurable.

(b) It is not necessary to allege or prove acts of physical violence in order to establish cruel and inhuman treatment as a ground for divorce.


WVC 48 - 5 - 204 §48-5-204. Grounds for divorce; adultery.
A divorce may be ordered for adultery. Adultery is the voluntary sexual intercourse of a married man or woman with a person other than the offender's wife or husband. The burden is on the party seeking the divorce to prove the alleged adultery by clear and convincing evidence.


WVC 48 - 5 - 205 §48-5-205. Grounds for divorce; conviction of crime.
A divorce may be ordered when either of the parties subsequent to the marriage has, in or out of this state, been convicted for the commission of a crime that is a felony, and the conviction is final.


WVC 48 - 5 - 206 §48-5-206. Grounds for divorce; permanent and incurable insanity.
(a) A divorce may be ordered for permanent and incurable insanity, only if the person is permanently and incurably insane and has been confined in a mental hospital or other similar institution for a period of not less than three consecutive years next preceding the filing of the complaint and the court has heard competent medical testimony that such insanity is permanently incurable.

(b) A court granting a divorce on this grounds may in its discretion order support and maintenance for the permanently incurably insane party by the other.

(c) In an action for divorce or annulment, where the petitioner is permanently incurably insane, the respondent shall not enter a plea of recrimination based upon the insanity of the petitioner.


WVC 48 - 5 - 207 §48-5-207. Grounds for divorce; habitual drunkenness or drug addiction.
(a) A divorce may be ordered for habitual drunkenness of either party subsequent to the marriage.

(b) A divorce may be ordered for the addiction of either party, subsequent to the marriage, to the habitual use of any narcotic or dangerous drug defined in this code.


WVC 48 - 5 - 208 §48-5-208. Grounds for divorce; desertion.
A divorce may be ordered to the party abandoned, when either party willfully abandons or deserts the other for six months.


WVC 48 - 5 - 209 §48-5-209. Grounds for divorce; abuse or neglect of a child.
(a) A divorce may be ordered for abuse or neglect of a child of the parties or of one of the parties, "abuse" meaning any physical or mental injury inflicted on such child including, but not limited to, sexual molestation; and "neglect" is willful failure to provide, by a party who has legal responsibility for such child, the necessary support, education as required by law, or medical, surgical or other care necessary for the well-being of such child.

(b) A divorce shall not be granted on this ground except upon clear and convincing evidence sufficient to justify permanently depriving the offending party of any allocation of custodial responsibility for the abused or neglected child.


WVC 48 - 5 - 301 PART 3. DEFENSES.
§48-5-301. When a divorce not to be granted.
No divorce for adultery shall be granted on the uncorroborated testimony of a prostitute, or a particeps criminis, or when it appears that the parties voluntarily cohabited after the knowledge of the adultery, or that it occurred more than three years before the institution of the action; nor shall a divorce be granted for any cause when it appears that the offense charged has been condoned, or was committed by the procurement or connivance of the plaintiff, or that the plaintiff has, within three years before the institution of action, been guilty of adultery not condoned, but such exception shall not be applicable to causes of action brought pursuant to sections 5-201 and 5-202 of this chapter. The defense of collusion shall not be pleaded as a bar to a divorce.


WVC 48 - 5 - 401 PART 4. PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE.
§48-5-401. Verification of pleadings.
All pleadings in a divorce action must be verified by the party in whose name they are filed.


WVC 48 - 5 - 402 PART 4. PRACTICE AND PROCEDURES.

§48-5-402. Petition for divorce.


(a) An action for divorce is instituted by a verified petition and the formal style and the caption for all pleadings is "In Re the marriage of ________ and ________". The parties shall be identified in all pleadings as "petitioner" and "respondent".

(b) The petition must set forth the ground or grounds for divorce. It is not necessary to allege the facts constituting a ground relied on and a petition or counter-petition is sufficient if a ground for divorce is alleged in the language of the statute as set forth in this article. The court has the discretionary authority to grant a motion to require a more definite and certain statement, set forth in ordinary and concise language, alleging facts and not conclusions of law.

(c) If the jurisdiction of the court to grant a divorce depends upon the existence of certain facts, including, but not limited to, facts showing domicil or domicil for a certain length of time, the petition must allege those facts. It is not necessary that allegations showing requisite domicil be in the language of the statute, but they should conform substantially thereto so that everything material to the fact of requisite domicil can be ascertained therefrom.

(d) A petition shall not be taken for confessed and whether the respondent answers or not, the case shall be tried and heard independently of the admissions of either party in the pleadings or otherwise. No judgment order shall be granted on the uncorroborated testimony of the parties or either of them, except for a proceeding in which the grounds for divorce are irreconcilable differences.

(e) The supreme court of appeals shall develop and provide forms for petitions filed pursuant to this section and for answers filed pursuant to section 5-403. The forms shall be made available for distribution in the offices of the clerks of the circuit courts and in the offices of the secretary-clerks to the family court judges.


WVC 48 - 5 - 403

§48-5-403. Answer to petition.


(a) The responsive pleading to a petition for divorce is denominated an answer. The form and requisites for an answer to a petition for divorce are governed by the rules of civil procedure.

(b) Except as provided in subsection (c) of this section, an allegedly guilty party who relies upon an affirmative defense must assert such defense by both pleadings and proof. Affirmative defenses include, but are not limited to, condonation, connivance, collusion, recrimination, insanity and lapse of time.

(c) In an action in which a party seeks a divorce based on an allegation that the parties have lived separate and apart in separate places of abode without any cohabitation and without interruption for one year, the affirmative defenses, including, but not limited to, condonation, connivance, collusion, recrimination, insanity and lapse of time, shall not be raised.


WVC 48 - 5 - 404 §48-5-404. Advance filing of divorce petition in actions alleging abandonment or voluntary separation.
(a) At any time after the parties to a marriage have lived separate and apart in separate places of abode without any cohabitation or after a party is abandoned or deserted, either party living separate and apart or the party abandoned may apply for temporary relief in accordance with the provisions of part 5 of this article by instituting an action for divorce alleging that the petitioner reasonably believes that the period of living separate and apart or of abandonment will continue for the periods prescribed by the applicable provisions of sections 5-202 and 5-208.

(b) If the period of abandonment or living separate and apart continues for the period prescribed by the applicable provisions of sections 5-202 and 5-208, the divorce action may proceed to a final hearing without a new petition being filed.

(c) The petitioner shall give the respondent at least twenty days' notice of the time, place and purpose of the final hearing, unless the respondent files a verified waiver of notice of further proceedings. If the notice is required to be served, it must be served in the same manner as original process under rule 4(d) of the rules of civil procedure, regardless of whether the respondent has appeared or answered.


WVC 48 - 5 - 405 §48-5-405. Amendments to pleadings.
Amendments to pleadings in an action for divorce are permitted upon the same general considerations which govern the practice in other proceedings, and are properly allowed for the purpose of making the allegations of the pleading more definite and certain, of asserting an essential allegation which has been omitted, or of including allegations of misconduct committed subsequent to the commencement of the action.


WVC 48 - 5 - 501 PART 5. TEMPORARY RELIEF DURING PENDENCY
OF ACTION FOR DIVORCE.
§48-5-501. Relief that may be included in temporary order of divorce.
At the time of the filing of the complaint or at any time after the commencement of an action for divorce under the provisions of this article and upon motion for temporary relief, notice of hearing and hearing, the court may order all or any portion of the following temporary relief described in this part 5, to govern the marital rights and obligations of the parties during the pendency of the action.


WVC 48 - 5 - 502 §48-5-502. Temporary spousal support.
The court may require either party to pay temporary spousal support in the form of periodic installments, or a lump sum, or both, for the maintenance of the other party.


WVC 48 - 5 - 503 §48-5-503. Temporary parenting order; child support.
(a) The court shall enter a temporary parenting order in accordance with the provisions of sections 9-203 and 9-204 of this chapter that incorporates a temporary parenting plan.

(b) When the action involves a minor child or children, the court shall require either party to pay temporary child support in the form of periodic installments for the maintenance of the minor children of the parties.

(c) When the action involves a minor child or children, the court shall provide for medical support for any minor children.


WVC 48 - 5 - 504 §48-5-504. Attorney's fees and court costs.
(a) The court may compel either party to pay attorney's fees and court costs reasonably necessary to enable the other party to prosecute or defend the action. The question of whether or not a party is entitled to temporary spousal support is not decisive of that party's right to a reasonable allowance of attorney's fees and court costs.

(b) An order for temporary relief awarding attorney fees and court costs may be modified at any time during the pendency of the action, as the exigencies of the case or equity and justice may require, including, but not limited to, a modification which would require full or partial repayment of fees and costs by a party to the action to whom or on whose behalf payment of fees and costs was previously ordered. If an appeal is taken or an intention to appeal is stated, the court may further order either party to pay attorney fees and costs on appeal.

(c) If it appears to the court that a party has incurred attorney fees and costs unnecessarily because the opposing party has asserted unfounded claims or defenses for vexatious, wanton or oppressive purposes, thereby delaying or diverting attention from valid claims or defenses asserted in good faith, the court may order the offending party, or his or her attorney, or both, to pay reasonable attorney fees and costs to the other party.


WVC 48 - 5 - 505 §48-5-505. Costs of health care and hospitalization.
As an incident to requiring the payment of temporary spousal support, the court may order either party to continue in effect existing policies of insurance covering the costs of health care and hospitalization of the other party. If there is no such existing policy or policies, the court may order that such health care insurance coverage be paid for by a party if the court determines that such health care coverage is available to that party at a reasonable cost. Payments made to an insurer pursuant to this subdivision, either directly or by a deduction from wages, may be deemed to be temporary spousal support.


WVC 48 - 5 - 506 §48-5-506. Use and occupancy of the marital home.
(a) The court may grant the exclusive use and occupancy of the marital home to one of the parties during the pendency of the action, together with all or a portion of the household goods, furniture and furnishings, reasonably necessary for such use and occupancy.

(b) The court may require payments to third parties in the form of home loan installments, land contract payments, rent, payments for utility services, property taxes and insurance coverage. If these third party payments are ordered, the court may specify whether such payments or portions of payments are temporary spousal support, temporary child support, a partial distribution of marital property or an allocation of marital debt.

(c) If the court does not set forth in the temporary order that all or a portion of payments made to third parties pursuant to this section are to be deemed temporary child support, then all the payments made pursuant to this section are deemed to be temporary spousal support. The court may order third party payments to be made without denominating them as either temporary spousal support or temporary child support, reserving such decision until the court determines the interests of the parties in marital property and equitably divides the same. At the time the court determines the interests of the parties in marital property and equitably divides the same, the court may consider the extent to which payments made to third parties under the provisions of this subdivision have affected the rights of the parties in marital property and may treat these payments as a partial distribution of marital property notwithstanding the fact that these payments were denominated temporary spousal support or temporary child support or not so denominated under the provisions of this section.

(d) If the payments are not designated in an order and the parties have waived any right to receive spousal support, the court may designate the payments upon motion by any party.

(e) Nothing contained in this section shall abrogate an existing contract between either of the parties and a third party, or affect the rights and liabilities of either party or a third party under the terms of a contract.


WVC 48 - 5 - 507 §48-5-507. Use and possession of motor vehicles.
(a) As an incident to requiring the payment of temporary alimony, the court may grant the exclusive use and possession of one or more motor vehicles to either of the parties during the pendency of the action.

(b) The court may require payments to third parties in the form of automobile loan installments or insurance coverage, and payments made to third parties pursuant to this section are deemed to be temporary spousal support, subject to any reservation provided for in subsection (c) of this section.

(c) The court may order that third party payments made pursuant to this section be made without denominating them as temporary spousal support, reserving that decision until the court determines the interests of the parties in marital property and equitably divides the same. At the time the court determines the interests of the parties in marital property and equitably divides the same, the court may consider the extent to which payments made to third parties under the provisions of this section have affected the rights of the parties in marital property and may treat such payments as a partial distribution of marital property notwithstanding the fact that such payments have been denominated temporary spousal support or not so denominated under the provisions of this section.

(d) Nothing contained in this section will abrogate an existing contract between either of the parties and a third party or affect the rights and liabilities of either party or a third party under the terms of a contract.


WVC 48 - 5 - 508 §48-5-508. Preservation of the properties of the parties.
(a) If the pleadings include a specific request for specific property or raise issues concerning the equitable division of marital property, the court may enter an order that is reasonably necessary to preserve the estate of either or both of the parties.

(b) The court may impose a constructive trust, so that the property is forthcoming to meet any order that is made in the action, and may compel either party to give security to comply with the order, or may require the property in question to be delivered into the temporary custody of a third party.

(c) The court may order either or both of the parties to pay the costs and expenses of maintaining and preserving the property of the parties during the pendency of the action. At the time the court determines the interests of the parties in marital property and equitably divides the same, the court may consider the extent to which payments made for the maintenance and preservation of property under the provisions of this section have affected the rights of the parties in marital property and may treat such payments as a partial distribution of marital property. The court may release all or any part of such protected property for sale and substitute all or a portion of the proceeds of the sale for such property.


WVC 48 - 5 - 509 §48-5-509. Enjoining abuse, emergency protective order.
(a) The court may enjoin the offending party from molesting or interfering with the other, or otherwise imposing any restraint on the personal liberty of the other, or interfering with the custodial or visitation rights of the other. This order may enjoin the offending party from:

(1) Entering the school, business or place of employment of the other for the purpose of molesting or harassing the other;

(2) Contacting the other, in person or by telephone, for the purpose of harassment or threats; or

(3) Harassing or verbally abusing the other in a public place.

(b) Any order entered by the court to protect a party from abuse may grant any other relief authorized by the provisions of article twenty-seven of this chapter, if the party seeking the relief has established the grounds for that relief as required by the provisions of said article.

(c) The court, in its discretion, may enter a protective order, as provided in article twenty-seven of this chapter, as part of the final relief granted in a divorce action, either as a part of an order for temporary relief or as part of a separate order. Notwithstanding the provisions of section five hundred five of said article, a protective order entered pursuant to the provisions of this subsection shall remain in effect until a final order is entered in the divorce, unless otherwise ordered by the judge.


WVC 48 - 5 - 510 §48-5-510. Consideration of financial factors in ordering temporary relief.
(a) In ordering temporary relief under the provisions of this part 5, the court shall consider the financial needs of the parties, the present income of each party from any source, their income-earning abilities and the respective legal obligations of each party to support himself or herself and to support any other persons.

(b) Except in extraordinary cases supported by specific findings set forth in the order granting relief, payments of temporary spousal support and temporary child support are to be made from a party's income and not from the corpus of a party's separate estate, and an award of such relief shall not be disproportionate to a party's ability to pay as disclosed by the evidence before the court: Provided, That child support shall be established in accordance with the child support guidelines set forth in article 13 of this chapter.


WVC 48 - 5 - 511 §48-5-511. Disclosure of assets.
To facilitate the resolution of issues arising at a hearing for temporary relief, the court may, or upon the motion of either party shall, order the parties to comply with the disclosure requirements set forth in article 7 of this chapter prior to the hearing for temporary relief. The form for this disclosure shall substantially comply with the form promulgated by the supreme court of appeals, pursuant to said section. If either party fails to timely file a complete disclosure as required by this section or as ordered by the court, the court may accept the statement of the other party as accurate.


WVC 48 - 5 - 512 §48-5-512. Ex parte orders granting temporary relief.
An ex parte order granting all or part of the relief provided for in this part 5 may be granted without written or oral notice to the adverse party if:

(1) It appears from specific facts shown by affidavit or by the verified complaint that immediate and irreparable injury, loss or damage will result to the applicant before the adverse party or such party's attorney can be heard in opposition. The potential injury, loss or damage may be anticipated when the following conditions exist: Provided, That the following list of conditions is not exclusive:

(A) There is a real and present threat of physical injury to the applicant at the hands or direction of the adverse party;

(B) The adverse party is preparing to quit the state with a minor child or children of the parties, thus depriving the court of jurisdiction in the matter of child custody;

(C) The adverse party is preparing to remove property from the state or is preparing to transfer, convey, alienate, encumber or otherwise deal with property which could otherwise be subject to the jurisdiction of the court and subject to judicial order under the provisions of this section or part 5-601, et seq.; and

(2) The moving party or his or her attorney certifies in writing any effort that has been made to give the notice and the reasons supporting his or her claim that notice should not be required.


WVC 48 - 5 - 513 §48-5-513. Granting of ex parte relief.
(a) Every ex parte order granted without notice must:

(1) Be endorsed with the date and hour of issuance;

(2) Be filed forthwith in the circuit clerk's office and entered of record; and

(3) Set forth the finding of the court that unless the order is granted without notice there is probable cause to believe that existing conditions will result in immediate and irreparable injury, loss or damage to the moving party before the adverse party or his or her attorney can be heard in opposition.

(b) The order granting ex parte relief must fix a time for a hearing for temporary relief to be held within a reasonable time, not to exceed twenty days, unless before the time fixed for hearing, the hearing is continued for good cause shown or with the consent of the party against whom the ex parte order is directed. The reasons for the continuance must be entered of record. Within the time limits described herein, when an ex parte order is made, a motion for temporary relief must be set down for hearing at the earliest possible time and takes precedence over all matters except older matters of the same character. If the party who obtained the ex parte order fails to proceed with a motion for temporary relief, the court shall set aside the ex parte order.

(c) At any time after ex parte relief is granted, and on two days' notice to the party who obtained the relief or on such shorter notice as the court may direct, the adverse party may appear and move the court to set aside or modify the ex parte order on the grounds that the effects of the order are onerous or otherwise improper. In that event, the court shall proceed to hear and determine such motion as expeditiously as the ends of justice require.


WVC 48 - 5 - 514 §48-5-514. Temporary order not subject to appeal or review.
An order granting temporary relief may not be the subject of an appeal or a petition for review.


WVC 48 - 5 - 601 PART 6. JUDGMENT ORDERING DIVORCE.
§48-5-601. Relief that may be included in final order of divorce.
In ordering a divorce, the court may order additional relief, including, but not limited to, the relief described in the following sections of this part 6.


WVC 48 - 5 - 602 §48-5-602. Court may require payment of spousal support.
The court, in ordering a divorce may require either party to pay spousal support in accordance with the provisions of article 8-101, et seq., of this chapter.


WVC 48 - 5 - 603 §48-5-603. Relief regarding minor child or children.
(a) If the action involves a minor child or children, the court may, if appropriate, order the allocation of custodial responsibility and the allocation of decision-making responsibility in accordance with the provisions of article 9-101, et seq., of this chapter.

(b) If the action involves a minor child or children, the court shall order either or both parties to pay child support in accordance with the provisions of articles 11-101, et seq., and 13-101, et seq., of this chapter.

(c) If the action involves a minor child or children, the court shall order medical support to be provided for the child or children in accordance with the provisions of article 12-101, et seq., of this chapter.


WVC 48 - 5 - 604 PART 6. JUDGMENT ORDERING DIVORCE.
§48-5-604. Use and occupancy of marital home.
(a) The court may award the exclusive use and occupancy of the marital home to a party. An order granting use and occupancy of the marital home shall include the use of any necessary household goods, furniture and furnishings. The order shall establish a definite period for the use and occupancy, ending at a specific time set forth in the order, subject to modification upon the petition of either party.

(b) Generally, an award of the exclusive use and occupancy of the marital home is appropriate when necessary to accommodate rearing minor children of the parties. Otherwise, the court may award exclusive use and occupancy only in extraordinary cases supported by specific findings set forth in the order that grants relief.

(c) An order awarding the exclusive use and occupancy of the marital home may also require payments to third parties for home loan installments, land contract payments, rent, property taxes and insurance coverage. When requiring third-party payments, the court shall reduce them to a fixed monetary amount set forth in the order. The court shall specify whether third-party payments or portions of payments are spousal support, child support, a partial distribution of marital property or an allocation of marital debt. Unless the court identifies third-party payments as child support payments or as installment payments for the distribution of marital property, then such payments are spousal support. If the court does not identify the payments and the parties have waived any right to receive spousal support, the court may identify the payments upon motion by any party.

(d) This section is not intended to abrogate a contract between either party and a third party or affect the rights and liabilities of either party or a third party under the terms of a contract.


WVC 48 - 5 - 605

§48-5-605. Use and possession of motor vehicles.


(a) The court may award the exclusive use and possession of a motor vehicle or vehicles to either of the parties.

(b) The court may require payments to third parties in the form of automobile loan installments or insurance coverage, if coverage is available at reasonable rates. When requiring third-party payments, the court shall reduce them to a fixed monetary amount set forth in the order. The court shall specify whether third-party payments or portions of payments are spousal support or installment payments for the distribution of marital property.

(c) This section is not intended to abrogate a contract between either party and a third party or affect the rights and liabilities of either party or a third party under the terms of a contract.


WVC 48 - 5 - 606 §48-5-606. Relief regarding costs of health care and hospitalization.
As an incident to requiring the payment of spousal support or child support, the court may order either party to provide medical support to the other party. Payments made to an insurer pursuant to this subdivision, either directly or by a deduction from wages, shall be deemed to be spousal support or installment payments for the distribution of marital property, in such proportion as the court shall direct: Provided, That if the court does not set forth in the order that a portion of the payments is to be deemed installment payments for the distribution of marital property, then all payments made pursuant to this section are spousal support. The designation of insurance coverage as spousal support under the provisions of this subdivision shall not, in and of itself, give rise to a subsequent modification of the order to provide for spousal support other than insurance for covering the costs of health care and hospitalization.


WVC 48 - 5 - 607 §48-5-607. Court may order transfer of accounts for recurring expenses.
The court may order either party to take necessary steps to transfer utility accounts and other accounts for recurring expenses from the name of one party into the name of the other party or from the joint names of the parties into the name of one party. This section is not intended to affect the liability of the parties for indebtedness on any account incurred before the transfer of the account.


WVC 48 - 5 - 608 §48-5-608. Injunctive relief or protective orders.
(a) When allegations of abuse have been proved, the court shall enjoin the offending party from molesting or interfering with the other, or otherwise imposing any restraint on the personal liberty of the other or interfering with the custodial or visitation rights of the other. The order may permanently enjoin the offending party from entering the school, business or place of employment of the other for the purpose of molesting or harassing the other or from entering or being present in the immediate environs of the residence of the petitioner or from contacting the other, in person or by telephone, for the purpose of harassment or threats; or from harassing or verbally abusing the other. The relief afforded by the provisions of this subsection may be ordered whether or not there are grounds for relief under subsection (c) of this section and whether or not an order is entered pursuant to such subsection.

(b) Any order entered by the court to protect a party from abuse may grant any other relief authorized to be awarded by the provisions of article twenty-seven of this chapter, if the party seeking the relief has established the grounds for that relief as required by the provisions of said article. The relief afforded by the provisions of this subsection may be ordered whether or not there are grounds for relief under subsection (c) of this section and whether or not an order is entered pursuant to subsection (c) of this section.

(c) The court, in its discretion, may enter a protective order, as provided by the provisions of article twenty-seven of this chapter, as part of the final relief in a divorce action, either as a part of a order for final relief or in a separate written order. A protective order entered pursuant to the provisions of this subsection shall remain in effect for the period of time ordered by the court not to exceed one hundred eighty days: Provided, That the court may extend the protective order for whatever period the court deems necessary to protect the safety of the petitioner and others threatened or at risk, if the court determines:

(A) That a violation of a protective order entered during or extended by the divorce action has occurred; or

(B) Upon a motion for modification, that a violation of a provision of a final order entered pursuant to this section has occurred.


WVC 48 - 5 - 609 §48-5-609. Court may restore to either party his or her property.
Upon ordering a divorce, the court has the power to award to either of the parties whatever of his or her property, real or personal, may be in the possession, or under the control, or in the name, of the other, and to compel a transfer or conveyance.


WVC 48 - 5 - 610 §48-5-610. Court may order just and equitable distribution of property.
(a) When the pleadings include a specific request for specific property or raise issues concerning the equitable division of marital property, the court shall order such relief as may be required to effect a just and equitable distribution of the property and to protect the equitable interests of the parties therein.

(b) In addition to the disclosure requirements set forth in part 7-201, et seq., of this chapter, the court may order accounts to be taken as to all or any part of marital property or the separate estates of the parties and may direct that the accounts be taken as of the date of the marriage, the date upon which the parties separated or any other time in assisting the court in the determination and equitable division of property.


WVC 48 - 5 - 611 §48-5-611. Suit money, counsel fees and costs.
(a) Costs may be awarded to either party as justice requires, and in all cases the court, in its discretion, may require payment of costs at any time and may suspend or withhold any order until the costs are paid.

(b) The court may compel either party to pay attorney's fees and court costs reasonably necessary to enable the other party to prosecute or defend the action. An order for temporary relief awarding attorney's fees and court costs may be modified at any time during the pendency of the action, as the exigencies of the case or equity and justice may require, including, but not limited to, a modification which would require full or partial repayment of fees and costs by a party to the action to whom or on whose behalf payment of such fees and costs was previously ordered. If an appeal be taken or an intention to appeal be stated, the court may further order either party to pay attorney fees and costs on appeal.

(c) When it appears to the court that a party has incurred attorney's fees and costs unnecessarily because the opposing party has asserted unfounded claims or defenses for vexatious, wanton or oppressive purposes, thereby delaying or diverting attention from valid claims or defenses asserted in good faith, the court may order the offending party, or his or her attorney, or both, to pay reasonable attorney's fees and costs to the other party.


WVC 48 - 5 - 612 §48-5-612. Court may order a party to deliver separate property.
Unless a contrary disposition is ordered pursuant to other provisions of this section, then upon the motion of either party, the court may compel the other party to deliver to the moving party any of his or her separate estate which may be in the possession or control of the respondent party and may make such further order as is necessary to prevent either party from interfering with the separate estate of the other.


WVC 48 - 5 - 613 §48-5-613. Former name of party; restoration.
The court, upon ordering a divorce, shall if requested to do so by either party, allow such party to resume the name used prior to his or her first marriage. The court shall, if requested to do so by either party, allow such party to resume the name of a former spouse if such party has any living child or children by marriage to such former spouse.


WVC 48 - 5 - 701 PART 7. MODIFICATION OF FINAL DIVORCE ORDER.
§48-5-701. Revision of order concerning spousal support.
After the entry of a final divorce order, the court may revise the order concerning spousal support or the maintenance of the parties and enter a new order concerning the same, as the circumstances of the parties may require.


WVC 48 - 5 - 702 §48-5-702. Revision of order enjoining abuse.
After entering an order enjoining abuse in accordance with the provisions of section 5-509, the court may, from time to time afterward, upon motion of either of the parties and upon proper service, revise the order and enter a new order concerning the same as the circumstances of the parties and the benefit of children may require.


WVC 48 - 5 - 703 §48-5-703. Revision of order allocating custodial responsibility and decision-making responsibility.
After entering an order allocating custodial responsibility and decision-making responsibility in accordance with the provisions of sections 9-206 and 9-207, the court may also from time to time afterward, upon the motion of either of the parties or other proper person having actual or legal custody of the minor child or children of the parties, revise or alter the order concerning the allocation of custodial responsibility or allocation of decision-making responsibility in accordance with the provisions of article 9 of this chapter, and make a new order concerning the same, issuing it forthwith, as the circumstances of the parents or other proper person or persons and the benefit of the children may require.


WVC 48 - 5 - 704 §48-5-704. Revision of order establishing child support.
(a) After entering an order establishing child support in accordance with the provisions of section 5-603, the court may from time to time afterward, upon the motion of either of the parties or other proper person having actual or legal custody of the minor child or children of the parties, revise or alter the order concerning the support of the children, and make a new order concerning the same, issuing it forthwith, as the circumstances of the parents or other proper person or persons and the benefit of the children may require.

(b) All orders modifying an award of child support must conform to the provisions regarding child support guidelines that are set forth in article 13 of this chapter.

(c) An order providing for child support payments may be revised or altered for the reason, inter alia, that the existing order provides for child support payments in an amount that is less than eighty-five percent or more than one hundred fifteen percent of the amount that would be required to be paid under the provisions of the child support guidelines that are set forth in article 13 of this chapter.


WVC 48 - 5 - 705 §48-5-705. Bureau for child support enforcement may seek revision of order establishing child support.
The bureau for child support enforcement may review a child support order and, if appropriate, file a motion with the court for modification of the child support order.


WVC 48 - 5 - 706 §48-5-706. Revision of order concerning distribution of marital property.
In modifying a final divorce order, the court may, when other means are not conveniently available, alter any prior order of the court with respect to the distribution of marital property, if:

(1) The property is still held by the parties;

(2) The alteration of the prior order as it relates the distribution of marital property is necessary to give effect to a modification of spousal support, child support or child custody; or

(3) The alteration of the prior order as it relates the distribution of marital property is necessary to avoid an inequitable or unjust result which would be caused by the manner in which the modification will affect the prior distribution of marital property.


WVC 48 - 5 - 707 §48-5-707. Reduction or termination of spousal support because of de facto marriage.
(a)(1) In the discretion of the court, an award of spousal support may be reduced or terminated upon specific written findings by the court that since the granting of a divorce and the award of spousal support a de facto marriage has existed between the spousal support payee and another person.

(2) In determining whether an existing award of spousal support should be reduced or terminated because of an alleged de facto marriage between a payee and another person, the court should elicit the nature and extent of the relationship in question. The court should give consideration, without limitation, to circumstances such as the following in determining the relationship of an ex-spouse to another person:

(A) The extent to which the ex-spouse and the other person have held themselves out as a married couple by engaging in conduct such as using the same last name, using a common mailing address, referring to each other in terms such as "my husband" or "my wife", or otherwise conducting themselves in a manner that evidences a stable marriage-like relationship;

(B) The period of time that the ex-spouse has resided with another person not related by consanguinity or affinity in a permanent place of abode;

(C) The duration and circumstances under which the ex-spouse has maintained a continuing conjugal relationship with the other person;

(D) The extent to which the ex-spouse and the other person have pooled their assets or income or otherwise exhibited financial interdependence;

(E) The extent to which the ex-spouse or the other person has supported the other, in whole or in part;

(F) The extent to which the ex-spouse or the other person has performed valuable services for the other;

(G) The extent to which the ex-spouse or the other person has performed valuable services for the other's company or employer;

(H) Whether the ex-spouse and the other person have worked together to create or enhance anything of value;

(I) Whether the ex-spouse and the other person have jointly contributed to the purchase of any real or personal property;

(J) Evidence in support of a claim that the ex-spouse and the other person have an express agreement regarding property sharing or support; or

(K) Evidence in support of a claim that the ex-spouse and the other person have an implied agreement regarding property sharing or support.

(3) On the issue of whether spousal support should be reduced or terminated under this subsection, the burden is on the payor to prove by a preponderance of the evidence that a de facto marriage exists. If the court finds that the payor has failed to meet burden of proof on the issue, the court may award reasonable attorney's fees to a payee who prevails in an action that sought to reduce or terminate spousal support on the ground that a de facto marriage exists.

(4) The court shall order that a reduction or termination of spousal support is retroactive to the date of service of the petition on the payee, unless the court finds that reimbursement of amounts already paid would cause an undue hardship on the payee.

(5) An award of rehabilitative spousal support shall not be reduced or terminated because of the existence of a de facto marriage between the spousal support payee and another person.

(6) An award of spousal support in gross shall not be reduced or terminated because of the existence of a de facto marriage between the spousal support payee and another person.

(7) An award of spousal support shall not be reduced or terminated under the provisions of this subsection for conduct by a spousal support payee that occurred before the first day of October, one thousand nine hundred ninety-nine.

(b) Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to abrogate the requirement that every marriage in this state be solemnized under a license or construed to recognize a common law marriage as valid.


WVC 48 - 5 A- ARTICLE 5A. COLLABORATIVE FAMILY LAW PROCEEDINGS.

WVC 48 - 5 A- 101 §48-5A-101. Legislative findings.
The Legislature finds that parties to family law actions often have particular needs and interests that may not be addressed through traditional litigation. The Legislature also finds that in the area of family law there may be an alternative approach to dispute resolution which targets settlement from the outset and which employs cooperative negotiation and problem solving that encourages compromise and direct communication among the parties.


WVC 48 - 5 A- 102 §48-5A-102. Collaborative law generally; requesting the Supreme Court to study collaborative law procedures for possible implementation in this state.
(a) Collaborative law is a procedure in which parties who are involved in family law matters and the involved attorneys agree in writing to use their best efforts and make a good-faith attempt to resolve their disputes arising from family law matters on an agreed basis without resorting to judicial intervention, except to have a court approve the settlement agreement, make the legal pronouncements and sign the orders required by law to effectuate the agreement of the parties as the court determines appropriate.

(b) Several states have passed laws adopting collaborative law procedures. The Legislature requests that the Supreme Court of Appeals study the use of collaborative law procedures in the family courts of this state and, should the court find that the procedures would be an effective alternative approach to dispute resolution in family law matters, promulgate rules for the implementation of the collaborative law procedures. The Legislature further requests that the Supreme Court of Appeals present its findings and any rules promulgated to the Legislature at the regular session of the Legislature, 2009.


WVC 48 - 6 - ARTICLE 6. APPENDICES.


WVC 48 - 6 - 101 PART I. DEFINITIONS.
§48-6-101. Property settlement or separation agreement defined.
(a) "Property settlement or separation agreement" means a written agreement between a husband and wife whereby they agree to live separate and apart from each other. A separation agreement may also:

(1) Settle the property rights of the parties;

(2) Provide for child support;

(3) Provide for the allocation of custodial responsibility and the determination of decision-making responsibility for the children of the parties;

(4) Provide for the payment or waiver of spousal support by either party; or

(5) Otherwise settle and compromise issues arising from the marital rights and obligations of the parties.

(b) To the extent that an antenuptial agreement affects the property rights of the parties or the disposition of property after an annulment of the marriage or after a divorce or separation of the parties, the antenuptial agreement is a separation agreement.


WVC 48 - 6 - 201 PART II. RELIEF BASED ON AGREEMENT.
§48-6-201. Effect of separation agreement.
(a) In cases where the parties to an action commenced under the provisions of this chapter have executed a separation agreement, if the court finds that the agreement is fair and reasonable, and not obtained by fraud, duress or other unconscionable conduct by one of the parties, and further finds that the parties, through the separation agreement, have expressed themselves in terms which, if incorporated into a judicial order, would be enforceable by a court in future proceedings, then the court shall conform the relief which it is authorized to order under the provisions of parts 5 and 6, article 5 of this chapter to the separation agreement of the parties. The separation agreement may contractually fix the division of property between the parties and may determine whether spousal support shall be awarded, whether an award of spousal support, other than an award of rehabilitative spousal support or spousal support in gross, may be reduced or terminated because a de facto marriage exists between the spousal support payee and another person, whether a court shall have continuing jurisdiction over the amount of a spousal support award so as to increase or decrease the amount of spousal support to be paid, whether spousal support shall be awarded as a lump sum settlement in lieu of periodic payments, whether spousal support shall continue beyond the death of the payor party or the remarriage of the payee party, or whether the spousal support award shall be enforceable by contempt proceedings or other judicial remedies aside from contractual remedies.

(b) Any award of periodic payments of spousal support shall be deemed to be judicially decreed and subject to subsequent modification unless there is some explicit, well expressed, clear, plain and unambiguous provision to the contrary set forth in the court-approved separation agreement or the order granting the divorce. Child support shall, under all circumstances, always be subject to continuing judicial modification.


WVC 48 - 6 - 202 §48-6-202. Agreement for spousal support beyond the death of the payor.
When a separation agreement is the basis for an award of spousal support, the court, in approving the agreement, shall examine the agreement to ascertain whether it clearly provides for spousal support to continue beyond the death of the payor or the payee or to cease in such event. When spousal support is to be paid pursuant to the terms of a separation agreement which does not state whether the payment of spousal support is to continue beyond the death of the payor or payee or is to cease, or when the parties have not entered into a separation agreement and spousal support is awarded, the court shall have the discretion to determine, as a part of its order, whether such payments of spousal support are to be continued beyond the death of the payor or payee or cease. In the event neither an agreement nor an order makes provision for the death of the payor or payee, spousal support other than rehabilitative spousal support or spousal support in gross shall cease on the death of the payor or payee. In the event neither an agreement nor an order makes provision for the death of the payor, rehabilitative spousal support continues beyond the payor's death, in the absence of evidence that the payor's estate is likely to be insufficient to meet other obligations or that other matters would make continuation after death inequitable. Rehabilitative spousal support ceases with the payee's death. In the event neither an agreement nor an order makes provision for the death of the payor or payee, spousal support in gross continues beyond the payor's or payee's death.


WVC 48 - 6 - 203 §48-6-203. Agreement for spousal support beyond the remarriage of the payee.
When a separation agreement is the basis for an award of spousal support, the court, in approving the agreement, shall examine the agreement to ascertain whether it clearly provides for spousal support to continue beyond the remarriage of the payee or to cease in such event. When spousal support is to be paid pursuant to the terms of a separation agreement which does not state whether the payment of spousal support is to continue beyond the remarriage of the payee or is to cease, or when the parties have not entered into a separation agreement and spousal support is awarded, the court shall have the discretion to determine, as a part of its order, whether such payments of spousal support are to be continued beyond the remarriage of the payee. In the event neither an agreement nor an order makes provision for the remarriage of the payee, spousal support other than rehabilitative spousal support or spousal support in gross shall cease on the remarriage of the payee. Rehabilitative spousal support does not cease upon the remarriage of the payee during the first four years of a rehabilitative period. In the event neither an agreement nor an order makes provision for the remarriage of the payee, spousal support in gross continues beyond the payee's remarriage.


WVC 48 - 6 - 301 PART 3. RELIEF IN ABSENCE OF AGREEMENT.
§48-6-301. Factors considered in awarding spousal support, child support or separate maintenance.
(a) In cases where the parties to an action commenced under the provisions of this article have not executed a separation agreement, or have executed an agreement which is incomplete or insufficient to resolve the outstanding issues between the parties, or where the court finds the separation agreement of the parties not to be fair and reasonable or clear and unambiguous, the court shall proceed to resolve the issues outstanding between the parties.

(b) The court shall consider the following factors in determining the amount of spousal support, child support or separate maintenance, if any, to be ordered under the provisions of parts 5 and 6, article five of this chapter, as a supplement to or in lieu of the separation agreement:

(1) The length of time the parties were married;

(2) The period of time during the marriage when the parties actually lived together as husband and wife;

(3) The present employment income and other recurring earnings of each party from any source;

(4) The income-earning abilities of each of the parties, based upon such factors as educational background, training, employment skills, work experience, length of absence from the job market and custodial responsibilities for children;

(5) The distribution of marital property to be made under the terms of a separation agreement or by the court under the provisions of article seven of this chapter, insofar as the distribution affects or will affect the earnings of the parties and their ability to pay or their need to receive spousal support, child support or separate maintenance: Provided, That for the purposes of determining a spouse's ability to pay spousal support, the court may not consider the income generated by property allocated to the payor spouse in connection with the division of marital property unless the court makes specific findings that a failure to consider income from the allocated property would result in substantial inequity;

(6) The ages and the physical, mental and emotional condition of each party;

(7) The educational qualifications of each party;

(8) Whether either party has foregone or postponed economic, education or employment opportunities during the course of the marriage;

(9) The standard of living established during the marriage;

(10) The likelihood that the party seeking spousal support, child support or separate maintenance can substantially increase his or her income-earning abilities within a reasonable time by acquiring additional education or training;

(11) Any financial or other contribution made by either party to the education, training, vocational skills, career or earning capacity of the other party;

(12) The anticipated expense of obtaining the education and training described in subdivision (10) above;

(13) The costs of educating minor children;

(14) The costs of providing health care for each of the parties and their minor children;

(15) The tax consequences to each party;

(16) The extent to which it would be inappropriate for a party, because said party will be the custodian of a minor child or children, to seek employment outside the home;

(17) The financial need of each party;

(18) The legal obligations of each party to support himself or herself and to support any other person;

(19) Costs and care associated with a minor or adult child's physical or mental disabilities; and

(20) Such other factors as the court deems necessary or appropriate to consider in order to arrive at a fair and equitable grant of spousal support, child support or separate maintenance.


WVC 48 - 6 - ARTICLE 6. APPENTICES.


WVC 48 - 6 - 101 PART I. DEFINITIONS.
§48-6-101. Property settlement or separation agreement defined.
(a) "Property settlement or separation agreement" means a written agreement between a husband and wife whereby they agree to live separate and apart from each other. A separation agreement may also:

(1) Settle the property rights of the parties;

(2) Provide for child support;

(3) Provide for the allocation of custodial responsibility and the determination of decision-making responsibility for the children of the parties;

(4) Provide for the payment or waiver of spousal support by either party; or

(5) Otherwise settle and compromise issues arising from the marital rights and obligations of the parties.

(b) To the extent that an antenuptial agreement affects the property rights of the parties or the disposition of property after an annulment of the marriage or after a divorce or separation of the parties, the antenuptial agreement is a separation agreement.


WVC 48 - 6 - 201 PART II. RELIEF BASED ON AGREEMENT.
§48-6-201. Effect of separation agreement.
(a) In cases where the parties to an action commenced under the provisions of this chapter have executed a separation agreement, if the court finds that the agreement is fair and reasonable, and not obtained by fraud, duress or other unconscionable conduct by one of the parties, and further finds that the parties, through the separation agreement, have expressed themselves in terms which, if incorporated into a judicial order, would be enforceable by a court in future proceedings, then the court shall conform the relief which it is authorized to order under the provisions of parts 5 and 6, article 5 of this chapter to the separation agreement of the parties. The separation agreement may contractually fix the division of property between the parties and may determine whether spousal support shall be awarded, whether an award of spousal support, other than an award of rehabilitative spousal support or spousal support in gross, may be reduced or terminated because a de facto marriage exists between the spousal support payee and another person, whether a court shall have continuing jurisdiction over the amount of a spousal support award so as to increase or decrease the amount of spousal support to be paid, whether spousal support shall be awarded as a lump sum settlement in lieu of periodic payments, whether spousal support shall continue beyond the death of the payor party or the remarriage of the payee party, or whether the spousal support award shall be enforceable by contempt proceedings or other judicial remedies aside from contractual remedies.

(b) Any award of periodic payments of spousal support shall be deemed to be judicially decreed and subject to subsequent modification unless there is some explicit, well expressed, clear, plain and unambiguous provision to the contrary set forth in the court-approved separation agreement or the order granting the divorce. Child support shall, under all circumstances, always be subject to continuing judicial modification.


WVC 48 - 6 - 202 §48-6-202. Agreement for spousal support beyond the death of the payor.
When a separation agreement is the basis for an award of spousal support, the court, in approving the agreement, shall examine the agreement to ascertain whether it clearly provides for spousal support to continue beyond the death of the payor or the payee or to cease in such event. When spousal support is to be paid pursuant to the terms of a separation agreement which does not state whether the payment of spousal support is to continue beyond the death of the payor or payee or is to cease, or when the parties have not entered into a separation agreement and spousal support is awarded, the court shall have the discretion to determine, as a part of its order, whether such payments of spousal support are to be continued beyond the death of the payor or payee or cease. In the event neither an agreement nor an order makes provision for the death of the payor or payee, spousal support other than rehabilitative spousal support or spousal support in gross shall cease on the death of the payor or payee. In the event neither an agreement nor an order makes provision for the death of the payor, rehabilitative spousal support continues beyond the payor's death, in the absence of evidence that the payor's estate is likely to be insufficient to meet other obligations or that other matters would make continuation after death inequitable. Rehabilitative spousal support ceases with the payee's death. In the event neither an agreement nor an order makes provision for the death of the payor or payee, spousal support in gross continues beyond the payor's or payee's death.


WVC 48 - 6 - 203 §48-6-203. Agreement for spousal support beyond the remarriage of the payee.
When a separation agreement is the basis for an award of spousal support, the court, in approving the agreement, shall examine the agreement to ascertain whether it clearly provides for spousal support to continue beyond the remarriage of the payee or to cease in such event. When spousal support is to be paid pursuant to the terms of a separation agreement which does not state whether the payment of spousal support is to continue beyond the remarriage of the payee or is to cease, or when the parties have not entered into a separation agreement and spousal support is awarded, the court shall have the discretion to determine, as a part of its order, whether such payments of spousal support are to be continued beyond the remarriage of the payee. In the event neither an agreement nor an order makes provision for the remarriage of the payee, spousal support other than rehabilitative spousal support or spousal support in gross shall cease on the remarriage of the payee. Rehabilitative spousal support does not cease upon the remarriage of the payee during the first four years of a rehabilitative period. In the event neither an agreement nor an order makes provision for the remarriage of the payee, spousal support in gross continues beyond the payee's remarriage.


WVC 48 - 6 - 301 PART 3. RELIEF IN ABSENCE OF AGREEMENT.
§48-6-301. Factors considered in awarding spousal support, child support or separate maintenance.
(a) In cases where the parties to an action commenced under the provisions of this article have not executed a separation agreement, or have executed an agreement which is incomplete or insufficient to resolve the outstanding issues between the parties, or where the court finds the separation agreement of the parties not to be fair and reasonable or clear and unambiguous, the court shall proceed to resolve the issues outstanding between the parties.

(b) The court shall consider the following factors in determining the amount of spousal support, child support or separate maintenance, if any, to be ordered under the provisions of parts 5 and 6, article five of this chapter, as a supplement to or in lieu of the separation agreement:

(1) The length of time the parties were married;

(2) The period of time during the marriage when the parties actually lived together as husband and wife;

(3) The present employment income and other recurring earnings of each party from any source;

(4) The income-earning abilities of each of the parties, based upon such factors as educational background, training, employment skills, work experience, length of absence from the job market and custodial responsibilities for children;

(5) The distribution of marital property to be made under the terms of a separation agreement or by the court under the provisions of article seven of this chapter, insofar as the distribution affects or will affect the earnings of the parties and their ability to pay or their need to receive spousal support, child support or separate maintenance: Provided, That for the purposes of determining a spouse's ability to pay spousal support, the court may not consider the income generated by property allocated to the payor spouse in connection with the division of marital property unless the court makes specific findings that a failure to consider income from the allocated property would result in substantial inequity;

(6) The ages and the physical, mental and emotional condition of each party;

(7) The educational qualifications of each party;

(8) Whether either party has foregone or postponed economic, education or employment opportunities during the course of the marriage;

(9) The standard of living established during the marriage;

(10) The likelihood that the party seeking spousal support, child support or separate maintenance can substantially increase his or her income-earning abilities within a reasonable time by acquiring additional education or training;

(11) Any financial or other contribution made by either party to the education, training, vocational skills, career or earning capacity of the other party;

(12) The anticipated expense of obtaining the education and training described in subdivision (10) above;

(13) The costs of educating minor children;

(14) The costs of providing health care for each of the parties and their minor children;

(15) The tax consequences to each party;

(16) The extent to which it would be inappropriate for a party, because said party will be the custodian of a minor child or children, to seek employment outside the home;

(17) The financial need of each party;

(18) The legal obligations of each party to support himself or herself and to support any other person;

(19) Costs and care associated with a minor or adult child's physical or mental disabilities; and

(20) Such other factors as the court deems necessary or appropriate to consider in order to arrive at a fair and equitable grant of spousal support, child support or separate maintenance.


WVC 48 - 7 - ARTICLE 7. EQUITABLE DISTRIBUTION OF PROPERTY.
WVC 48 - 7 - 101 PART 1. MARITAL PROPERTY DISPOSITION.
§48-7-101. Equal division of marital property.
Except as otherwise provided in this section, upon every judgment of annulment, divorce or separation, the court shall divide the marital property of the parties equally between the parties.


WVC 48 - 7 - 102 §48-7-102. Division of marital property in accordance with a separation agreement.
In cases where the parties to an action commenced under the provisions of this chapter have executed a separation agreement, then the court shall divide the marital property in accordance with the terms of the agreement, unless the court finds:

(1) That the agreement was obtained by fraud, duress or other unconscionable conduct by one of the parties; or

(2) That the parties, in the separation agreement, have not expressed themselves in terms which, if incorporated into a judicial order, would be enforceable by a court in future proceedings; or

(3) That the agreement, viewed in the context of the actual contributions of the respective parties to the net value of the marital property of the parties, is so inequitable as to defeat the purposes of this section, and such agreement was inequitable at the time the same was executed.


WVC 48 - 7 - 103 §48-7-103. Division of marital property without a valid agreement.
In the absence of a valid agreement, the court shall presume that all marital property is to be divided equally between the parties, but may alter this distribution, without regard to any attribution of fault to either party which may be alleged or proved in the course of the action, after a consideration of the following:

(1) The extent to which each party has contributed to the acquisition, preservation and maintenance, or increase in value of marital property by monetary contributions, including, but not limited to:

(A) Employment income and other earnings; and

(B) Funds which are separate property.

(2) The extent to which each party has contributed to the acquisition, preservation and maintenance or increase in value of marital property by nonmonetary contributions, including, but not limited to:

(A) Homemaker services;

(B) Child care services;

(C) Labor performed without compensation, or for less than adequate compensation, in a family business or other business entity in which one or both of the parties has an interest;

(D) Labor performed in the actual maintenance or improvement of tangible marital property; and

(E) Labor performed in the management or investment of assets which are marital property.

(3) The extent to which each party expended his or her efforts during the marriage in a manner which limited or decreased such party's income-earning ability or increased the income-earning ability of the other party, including, but not limited to:

(A) Direct or indirect contributions by either party to the education or training of the other party which has increased the income-earning ability of such other party; and

(B) Foregoing by either party of employment or other income-earning activity through an understanding of the parties or at the insistence of the other party.

(4) The extent to which each party, during the marriage, may have conducted himself or herself so as to dissipate or depreciate the value of the marital property of the parties: Provided, That except for a consideration of the economic consequences of conduct as provided for in this subdivision, fault or marital misconduct shall not be considered by the court in determining the proper distribution of marital property.


WVC 48 - 7 - 104 §48-7-104. Determination of worth of marital property.
After considering the factors set forth in section 7-103, the court shall:

(1) Determine the net value of all marital property of the parties as of the date of the separation of the parties or as of such later date determined by the court to be more appropriate for attaining an equitable result. Where the value of the marital property portion of a spouse's entitlement to future payments can be determined at the time of entering a final order in a domestic relations action, the court may include it in reckoning the worth of the marital property assigned to each spouse. In the absence of an agreement between the parties, when the value of the future payments is not known at the time of entering a final order in a domestic relations action, if their receipt is contingent on future events or not reasonably assured, or if for other reasons it is not equitable under the circumstances to include their value in the property assigned at the time of dissolution, the court may decline to do so; and

(A) Fix the spouses' respective shares in such future payments if and when received; or

(B) If it is not possible and practical to fix their share at the time of entering a final order in a domestic relations action, reserve jurisdiction to make an appropriate order at the earliest practical date;

If a valuation is made after a contingent or other future fee has been earned through the personal services or skills of a spouse, the portion that is marital property shall be in the same proportion to the total fee that the personal services or skills expended before the separation of the parties bears to the total personal skills or services expended. The provisions of this subdivision apply to pending cases when the issues of contingent fees or future earned fees have not been finally adjudicated.

(2) Designate the property which constitutes marital property, and define the interest therein to which each party is entitled and the value of their respective interest therein. In the case of an action wherein there is no agreement between the parties and the relief demanded requires the court to consider such factors as are described in subdivisions (1), (2), (3) and (4), section 7-103, if a consideration of factors only under said subdivisions (1) and (2) would result in an unequal division of marital property, and if an examination of the factors described in said subdivisions (3) and (4) produce a finding that a party: (A) Expended his or her efforts during the marriage in a manner which limited or decreased such party's income-earning ability or increased the income-earning ability of the other party; or (B) conducted himself or herself so as to dissipate or depreciate the value of the marital property of the parties, then the court may, in the absence of a fair and just spousal support award under the provisions of section 5-602 which adequately takes into account the facts which underlie the factors described in subdivisions (3) and (4), section 7-103, equitably adjust the definition of the parties' interest in marital property, increasing the interest in marital property of a party adversely affected by the factors considered under said subdivisions who would otherwise be awarded less than one half of the marital property, to an interest not to exceed one half of the marital property;

(3) Designate the property which constitutes separate property of the respective parties or the separate property of their children;

(4) Determine the extent to which marital property is susceptible to division in accordance with the findings of the court as to the respective interests of the parties therein;

(5) In the case of any property which is not susceptible to division, ascertain the projected results of a sale of such property;

(6) Ascertain the projected effect of a division or transfer of ownership of income-producing property, in terms of the possible pecuniary loss to the parties or other persons which may result from an impairment of the property's capacity to generate earnings; and

(7) Transfer title to such component parts of the marital property as may be necessary to achieve an equitable distribution of the marital property. To make such equitable distribution, the court may:

(A) Direct either party to transfer their interest in specific property to the other party;

(B) Permit either party to purchase from the other party their interest in specific property;

(C) Direct either party to pay a sum of money to the other party in lieu of transferring specific property or an interest therein, if necessary to adjust the equities and rights of the parties, which sum may be paid in installments or otherwise, as the court may direct;

(D) Direct a party to transfer his or her property to the other party in substitution for property of the other party of equal value which the transferor is permitted to retain and assume ownership of; or

(E) Order a sale of specific property and an appropriate division of the net proceeds of such sale: Provided, That such sale may be by private sale, or through an agent or by judicial sale, whichever would facilitate a sale within a reasonable time at a fair price.


WVC 48 - 7 - 105 §48-7-105. Transfers of property to achieve equitable distribution of marital property.
In order to achieve the equitable distribution of marital property, the court shall, unless the parties otherwise agree, order, when necessary, the transfer of legal title to any property of the parties, giving preference to effecting equitable distribution through periodic or lump sum payments: Provided, That the court may order the transfer of legal title to motor vehicles, household goods and the former marital domicile without regard to such preference where the court determines it to be necessary or convenient. In any case involving the equitable distribution of: (1) Property acquired by bequest, devise, descent, distribution or gift; or (2) ownership interests in a business entity, the court shall, unless the parties otherwise agree, give preference to the retention of the ownership interests in such property. In the case of such business interests, the court shall give preference to the party having the closer involvement, larger ownership interest or greater dependency upon the business entity for income or other resources required to meet responsibilities imposed under this article, and shall also consider the effects of transfer or retention in terms of which alternative will best serve to preserve the value of the business entity or protect the business entity from undue hardship or from interference caused by one of the parties or by the divorce, annulment or decree of separate maintenance: Provided, however, That the court may, unless the parties otherwise agree, sever the business relationship of the parties and order the transfer of legal title to ownership interests in the business entity from one party to the other, without regard to the limitations on the transfer of title to such property otherwise provided in this subsection, if such transfer is required to achieve the other purposes of this article: Provided further, That in all such cases the court shall order, or the agreement of the parties shall provide for, equitable payment or transfer of legal title to other property, of fair value in money or moneys' worth, in lieu of any ownership interests in a business entity which are ordered to be transferred under this subsection: And provided further, That the court may order the transfer of such business interests to a third party (such as the business entity itself or another principal in the business entity) where the interests of the parties under this article can be protected and at least one party consents thereto.


WVC 48 - 7 - 106 §48-7-106. Findings; rationale for division of property.
In any order which divides or transfers the title to any property, determines the ownership or value of any property, designates the specific property to which any party is entitled or grants any monetary award, the court shall set out in detail its findings of fact and conclusions of law, and the reasons for dividing the property in the manner adopted.


WVC 48 - 7 - 107 §48-7-107. Refusal to transfer property; appointment of special commissioner.
If an order entered in accordance with the provisions of this article requires the transfer of title to property and a party fails or refuses to execute a deed or other instrument necessary to convey title to such property, the deed or other instrument shall be executed by a special commissioner appointed by the court for the purpose of effecting such transfer of title pursuant to section seven, article twelve, chapter fifty-five of this code.


WVC 48 - 7 - 108 §48-7-108. Interest or title in property prior to judicial determination.
As to any third party, the doctrine of equitable distribution of marital property and the provisions of this article shall be construed as creating no interest or title in property until and unless an order is entered under this article judicially defining such interest or approving a separation agreement which defines such interest. Neither this article nor the doctrine of equitable distribution of marital property shall be construed to create community property nor any other interest or estate in property except those previously recognized in this state. A husband or wife may alienate property at any time prior to the entry of an order under the provisions of this article or prior to the recordation of a notice of lis pendens in accordance with the provisions of part 7-401, et seq., and at anytime and in any manner not otherwise prohibited by an order under this chapter, in like manner and with like effect as if this article and the doctrine of equitable distribution had not been adopted: Provided, That as to any transfer prior to the entry of an order under the provisions of this article, a transfer other than to a bona fide purchaser for value shall be voidable if the court finds such transfer to have been effected to avoid the application of the provisions of this article or to otherwise be a fraudulent conveyance. Upon the entry of any order under this article or the admission to record of any notice with respect to an action under this article, restraining the alienation of property of a party, a bona fide purchaser for value shall take such title or interest as he or she might have taken prior to the effective date of this section and no purchaser for value need see to the application of the proceeds of such purchase except to the extent he or she would have been required so to do prior to the effective date of this section: Provided, however, That as to third parties nothing in this section shall be construed to limit or otherwise defeat the interests or rights to property which any husband or wife would have had in property prior to the enactment of this section or prior to the adoption of the doctrine of equitable distribution by the supreme court of appeals on the twenty-fifth day of May, one thousand nine hundred eighty-three: Provided further, That no order entered under this article shall be construed to defeat the title of a third party transferee thereof except to the extent that the power to effect such a transfer of title or interest in such property is secured by a valid and duly perfected lien and, as to any personal property, secured by a duly perfected security interest.


WVC 48 - 7 - 109 §48-7-109. Tax consequences of transfer of interest or title.
Notwithstanding the provisions of chapter eleven of this code, no transfer of interest in or title to property under this article is taxable as a transfer of property without consideration nor, except as to spousal support, create liability for sales, use, inheritance and transfer or income taxes due the state or any political subdivision nor require the payment of the excise tax imposed under article twenty-two, chapter eleven of this code.


WVC 48 - 7 - 110 §48-7-110. Requiring sums to be paid out of disposable retired or retainer pay.
Whenever under the terms of this article a court enters an order requiring a division of property, if the court anticipates the division of property will be effected by requiring sums to be paid out of "disposable retired or retainer pay" as that term is defined in 10 U.S.C. §1408, relating to members or former members of the uniformed services of the United States, the court shall specifically provide for the payment of an amount, expressed in dollars or as a percentage of disposable retired or retainer pay, from the disposable retired or retainer pay of the payor party to the payee party.


WVC 48 - 7 - 111 §48-7-111. No equitable distribution of property between individuals not married to one another.
A court may not award spousal support or order equitable distribution of property between individuals who are not married to one another in accordance with the provisions of article one of this chapter.


WVC 48 - 7 - 112 §48-7-112. Prospective effect of prior amendments.
The amendments to this section effected by the reenactment of section 48-2-32 during the regular session of the Legislature, 1996, are to be applied prospectively and have no application to any action for annulment, divorce or separate maintenance that was commenced on or before June 7, 1996.


WVC 48 - 7 - 201 PART 2. DISCLOSURE OF ASSETS REQUIRED.
§48-7-201. Required disclosure and updates.
In all divorce actions and in any other action involving child support, all parties shall fully disclose their assets and liabilities within forty days after the service of summons or at such earlier time as ordered by the court. The information contained on these forms shall be updated on the record to the date of the hearing.


WVC 48 - 7 - 202 §48-7-202. Assets that are required to be disclosed.
The disclosure required by this part 2 may be made by each party individually or by the parties jointly. Assets required to be disclosed shall include, but are not limited to, real property, savings accounts, stocks and bonds, mortgages and notes, life insurance, health insurance coverage, interest in a partnership or corporation, tangible personal property, income from employment, future interests whether vested or nonvested and any other financial interest or source.


WVC 48 - 7 - 203 PART 2. DISCLOSURE OF ASSETS REQUIRED.
§48-7-203. Forms for disclosure of assets.
The supreme court of appeals shall prepare and make available a standard form for the disclosure of assets and liabilities required by this part. The clerk of the circuit court and the secretary-clerk of the family court shall make these forms available to all parties in any divorce action or other action involving child support. All disclosure required by this part shall be on a form that substantially complies with the form promulgated by the supreme court of appeals. The form used shall contain a statement in conspicuous print that complete disclosure of assets and liabilities is required by law and deliberate failure to provide complete disclosure as ordered by the court constitutes false swearing.


WVC 48 - 7 - 204 §48-7-204. Discovery under rules; optional disclosure of tax returns.
Nothing contained in this part 2 shall be construed to prohibit the court from ordering discovery pursuant to rule eighty-one of the rules of civil procedure. Additionally, the court may on its own initiative and shall at the request of either party require the parties to furnish copies of all state and federal income tax returns filed by them for the past two years and may require copies of such returns for prior years.


WVC 48 - 7 - 205 §48-7-205. Confidentiality of disclosed information.
Information disclosed under this part 2 is confidential and may not be made available to any person for any purpose other than the adjudication, appeal, modification or enforcement of judgment of an action affecting the family of the disclosing parties. The court shall include in any order compelling disclosure of assets such provisions as the court considers necessary to preserve the confidentiality of the information ordered disclosed.


WVC 48 - 7 - 206 §48-7-206. Failure to disclose required financial information.
Any failure to timely or accurately disclose financial information required by this part 2 may be considered as follows:

(1) Upon the failure by either party timely to file a complete disclosure statement as required by this part 2 or as ordered by the court, the court may accept the statement of the other party as accurate.

(2) If any party deliberately or negligently fails to disclose information which is required by this part 2 and in consequence thereof any asset or assets with a fair market value of five hundred dollars or more is omitted from the final distribution of property, the party aggrieved by the nondisclosure may at any time petition a court of competent jurisdiction to declare the creation of a constructive trust as to all undisclosed assets, for the benefit of the parties and their minor or dependent children, if any, with the party in whose name the assets are held declared the constructive trustee, such trust to include such terms and conditions as the court may determine. The court shall impose the trust upon a finding of a failure to disclose such assets as required under this part 2 .

(3) Any assets with a fair market value of five hundred dollars or more which would be considered part of the estate of either or both of the parties if owned by either or both of them at the time of the action, but which was transferred for inadequate consideration, wasted, given away or otherwise unaccounted for by one of the parties, within five years prior to the filing of the petition or length of the marriage, whichever is shorter, shall be presumed to be part of the estate and shall be subject to the disclosure requirement contained in this part 2. With respect to such transfers the spouse shall have the same right and remedies as a creditor whose debt was contracted at the time the transfer was made under article one-a, chapter forty of this code. Transfers which resulted in an exchange of assets of substantially equivalent value need not be specifically disclosed when such assets are otherwise identified in the statement of net worth.

(4) A person who knowingly provides incorrect information or who deliberately fails to disclose information pursuant to the provisions of this part 2 is guilty of false swearing.


WVC 48 - 7 - 301 PART 3. INJUNCTION; SETTING ASIDE CERTAIN TRANSFERS.
§48-7-301. Injunction to prevent removal or disposition of property.
Where it appears to the court that a party is about to remove himself or herself or his or her property from the jurisdiction of the court or is about to dispose of, alienate or encumber property in order to defeat a fair distribution of marital property, or the payment of alimony, child support or separate maintenance, an injunction may issue to prevent the removal or disposition and the property may be attached as provided by this code. The court may issue such injunction or attachment without bond.


WVC 48 - 7 - 302 §48-7-302. Notice of hearing for injunction; temporary injunction.
Any such injunction may be granted upon proper hearing after notice. For good cause shown, a temporary injunction may be issued after an ex parte proceeding with notice and proper hearing for a permanent injunction to be held forthwith thereafter.


WVC 48 - 7 - 303 §48-7-303. Applicability of injunction procedures to sale of goods or disposition of major business assets.
The procedures of this part 3 are not intended to apply to the sale of goods in the ordinary course of operating a business but shall apply to the disposition of the major assets of a business.


WVC 48 - 7 - 304 §48-7-304. Setting aside encumbrance or disposition of property to third persons.
Any encumbrance or disposition of property to third persons, except to bona fide purchasers without notice for full and adequate consideration, may be set aside by the court.


WVC 48 - 7 - 401 PART 4. LIS PENDENS.
§48-7-401. Lis pendens.
Upon the commencement of an action under the provisions of this article, any party claiming an interest in real property in which the other party has an interest, may cause a notice of lis pendens to be recorded in the office of the clerk of the county commission of the county wherein the property is located.


WVC 48 - 7 - 402 §48-7-402. Notice of lis pendens.
The notice shall contain the names of the parties, the nature of the complaint, the court having jurisdiction, the date the complaint was filed, and a description of the real property. Such notice shall, from the time of the recording only, be notice to any person thereafter acquiring any interest in such property of the pendency of the complaint. Each person whose conveyance or encumbrance is subsequently executed or subsequently recorded or whose interest is thereafter acquired by descent, or otherwise, shall be deemed to be a subsequent purchaser or encumbrancer, and shall be bound by all proceedings taken after the recording of the notice, to the same extent as if he were made a party to the complaint. A notice of lis pendens recorded in accordance with this section may be discharged by the court upon substitution of a bond with surety in an amount established by the court, if the court finds that the claim against the property subject to the notice of lis pendens can be satisfied by a monetary award. In cases in which the sale of property is already in process when the notice of lis pendens is filed, and upon application, proper notice and hearing, the court may substitute a lien on the net proceeds of the sale.


WVC 48 - 7 - 501 PART 5. MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS RELATING
TO EQUITABLE DISTRIBUTION.
§48-7-501. Retroactive effect of amendments.
Amendments made to the provisions of former article two of this chapter during the regular session of the Legislature in the year one thousand nine hundred eighty-four, shall be of retroactive effect to the extent that such amended provisions shall apply to the distribution of marital property, but not an award of spousal support, in all actions filed under the provisions of former article two of this chapter after the twenty-fifth day of May, one thousand nine hundred eighty-three, or actions pending on that date in which a claim for equitable distribution of marital property had been pleaded: Provided, That the amendments are not applicable to actions where, prior to the effective date of the amendments, there has been a final decree entered or the taking of evidence has been completed and the case has been submitted for decision.


WVC 48 - 8 - ARTICLE 8. SPOUSAL SUPPORT.


WVC 48 - 8 - 101 §48-8-101. General provisions regarding spousal support.
(a) An obligation that compels a person to pay spousal support may arise from the terms of a court order, an antenuptial agreement or a separation agreement. In an order or agreement, a provision that has the support of a spouse or former spouse as its sole purpose is to be regarded as an allowance for spousal support whether expressly designated as such or not, unless the provisions of this chapter specifically require the particular type of allowance to be treated as child support or a division of marital property. Spousal support may be paid as a lump sum or as periodic installments without affecting its character as spousal support.

(b) Spousal support is divided into four classes which are: (1) Permanent spousal support; (2) temporary spousal support, otherwise known as spousal support pendente lite; (3) rehabilitative spousal support; and (4) spousal support in gross.

(c) An award of spousal support cannot be ordered unless the parties are actually living separate and apart from each other.


WVC 48 - 8 - 102 §48-8-102. Jurisdiction to award spousal support.
The family courts and circuit courts, as provided in this chapter, have jurisdiction to award spousal support. A court may provide for the maintenance of a spouse during the pendency of an appeal to the circuit court or to the supreme court of appeals.


WVC 48 - 8 - 103 §48-8-103. Payment of spousal support.

     (a) Upon ordering a divorce or granting a decree of separate maintenance, the court may require either party to pay spousal support in the form of periodic installments, or a lump sum, or both, for the maintenance of the other party. Payments of spousal support are to be ordinarily made from a party's income, but when the income is not sufficient to adequately provide for those payments, the court may, upon specific findings set forth in the order, order the party required to make those payments to make them from the corpus of his or her separate estate. An award of spousal support shall not be disproportionate to a party's ability to pay as disclosed by the evidence before the court.

     (b) At any time after the entry of an order pursuant to the provisions of this article, the court may, upon motion of either party, revise or alter the order concerning the maintenance of the parties, or either of them, and make a new order concerning the same, issuing it forthwith, as the altered circumstances or needs of the parties may render necessary to meet the ends of justice.      (c)(1) For the purposes of subsection (b) of this section, "altered circumstances" includes evidence in the form of genetic testing that establishes that a child conceived during the marriage of the parties is not the child of the former husband, or that a child was born to a woman other than the former wife because of the adultery of the former husband.

     (2) Prior to admitting evidence of genetic testing, the court shall preliminarily determine whether genetic testing evidence should be admitted for the purpose of disproving or establishing paternity. The facts that may be considered by the court at this hearing include the following:

     (A) The length of time that has elapsed since the party was first placed on notice that a child conceived during the marriage of the parties is not the child of the former husband, or that a child was born to a woman other than the former wife because of the adultery of the former husband;

     (B) The length of time during which the individual desiring to challenge paternity assumed the role of parent to the child;

     (C) The facts surrounding the party's discovery of nonpaternity;

     (D) The nature of the parent/child relationship;

     (E) The age of the child;

     (F) The harm which may result to the child if paternity were successfully disproved;

     (G) The extent to which the passage of time reduced the chances of establishing paternity in favor of the child; and

     (H) All other factors which may affect the equities involved in the potential disruption of the parent/child relationship or the chances of undeniable harm to the child.

     (d) For the purposes of subsection (c), genetic testing must be performed pursuant to the following guidelines:

     (1) The tests show that the inherited characteristics including, but not limited to, blood types, have been determined by appropriate testing procedures at a hospital, independent medical institution or independent medical laboratory duly licensed under the laws of this state, or any other state, and an expert qualified as an examiner of genetic markers has analyzed, interpreted and reported on the results; and

     (2) The genetic test results exclude the former husband as the father of the child.
WVC 48 - 8 - 104 §48-8-104. Effect of fault or misconduct on award of spousal support.
In determining whether spousal support is to be awarded, or in determining the amount of spousal support, if any, to be awarded, the court shall consider and compare the fault or misconduct of either or both of the parties and the effect of the fault or misconduct as a contributing factor to the deterioration of the marital relationship.


WVC 48 - 8 - 105 §48-8-105. Rehabilitative spousal support.
(a) The court may award rehabilitative spousal support for a limited period of time to allow the recipient spouse, through reasonable efforts, to become gainfully employed. When awarding rehabilitative spousal support, the court shall make specific findings of fact to explain the basis for the award, giving due consideration to the factors set forth in section 8-103 of this article. An award of rehabilitative spousal support is appropriate when the dependent spouse evidences a potential for self-support that could be developed through rehabilitation, training or academic study.

(b) The court may modify an award of rehabilitative spousal support if a substantial change in the circumstances under which rehabilitative spousal support was granted warrants terminating, extending or modifying the award or replacing it with an award of permanent spousal support. In determining whether a substantial change of circumstances exists which would warrant a modification of a rehabilitative spousal support award, the court may consider a reassessment of the dependent spouse's potential work skills and the availability of a relevant job market, the dependent spouse's age, health and skills, the dependent spouse's ability or inability to meet the terms of the rehabilitative plan and other relevant factors as provided for in section 8-103 of this article.


WVC 48 - 8 - 106 §48-8-106. Payments out of disposable retired or retainer pay.
Whenever the court enters an order requiring the payment of spousal support, if the court anticipates the payment or any portion thereof is to be paid out of "disposable retired or retainer pay" as that term is defined in 10 U.S.C. §1408, relating to members or former members of the uniformed services of the United States, the court shall specifically provide for the payment of an amount, expressed in dollars or as a percentage of disposable retired or retainer pay, from the disposable retired or retainer pay of the payor party to the payee party.


WVC 48 - 9 - ARTICLE 9. ALLOCATION OF CUSTODIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND DECISION-MAKING RESPONSIBILITY OF CHILDREN.


WVC 48 - 9 - 101 PART 1. SCOPE; OBJECTIVES; PARTIES
AND PARENT EDUCATION CLASSES.
§48-9-101. Scope of article; legislative findings and declarations.
(a) This article sets forth principles governing the allocation of custodial and decision-making responsibility for a minor child when the parents do not live together.

(b) The Legislature finds and declares that it is the public policy of this state to assure that the best interest of children is the court's primary concern in allocating custodial and decision-making responsibilities between parents who do not live together. In furtherance of this policy, the Legislature declares that a child's best interest will be served by assuring that minor children have frequent and continuing contact with parents who have shown the ability to act in the best interest of their children, to educate parents on their rights and responsibilities and the effect their separation may have on children, to encourage mediation of disputes, and to encourage parents to share in the rights and responsibilities of rearing their children after the parents have separated or divorced.


WVC 48 - 9 - 102 §48-9-102. Objectives; best interests of the child.
(a) The primary objective of this article is to serve the child's best interests, by facilitating:

(1) Stability of the child;

(2) Parental planning and agreement about the child's custodial arrangements and upbringing;

(3) Continuity of existing parent-child attachments;

(4) Meaningful contact between a child and each parent;

(5) Caretaking relationships by adults who love the child, know how to provide for the child's needs, and who place a high priority on doing so;

(6) Security from exposure to physical or emotional harm; and

(7) Expeditious, predictable decision-making and avoidance of prolonged uncertainty respecting arrangements for the child's care and control.

(b) A secondary objective of article is to achieve fairness between the parents.


WVC 48 - 9 - 103 §48-9-103. Parties to an action under this article.
(a) Persons who have a right to be notified of and participate as a party in an action filed by another are:

(1) A legal parent of the child, as defined in section 1-232 of this chapter;

(2) An adult allocated custodial responsibility or decision-making responsibility under a parenting plan regarding the child that is then in effect; or

(3) Persons who were parties to a prior order establishing custody and visitation, or who, under a parenting plan, were allocated custodial responsibility or decision-making responsibility.

(b) In exceptional cases the court may, in its discretion, grant permission to intervene to other persons or public agencies whose participation in the proceedings under this article it determines is likely to serve the child's best interests. The court may place limitations on participation by the intervening party as the court determines to be appropriate. Such persons or public agencies do not have standing to initiate an action under this article.


WVC 48 - 9 - 104 PART 1. SCOPE; OBJECTIVES; PARTIES
AND PARENT EDUCATION CLASSES.
§48-9-104. Parent education classes.
(a) The family court shall, by order, and with the approval of the supreme court of appeals, designate an organization or agency to establish and operate education programs designed for parents who have filed an action for divorce, paternity, support, separate maintenance or other custody proceeding and who have minor children. The education programs shall be designed to instruct and educate parents about the effects of divorce and custody disputes on their children and to teach parents ways to help their children and minimize their trauma.

(b) The family court shall issue an order requiring parties to an action for divorce involving a minor child or children to attend parent education classes established pursuant to subsection (a) of this section unless the court determines that attendance is not appropriate or necessary based on the conduct or circumstances of the parties. The court may, by order, establish sanctions for failure to attend. The court may also order parties to an action involving paternity, separate maintenance or modification of a divorce decree to attend such classes.

(c) The family court may require that each person attending a parent education class pay a fee, not to exceed twenty-five dollars, to the clerk of the circuit court to defray the cost of materials and of hiring teachers: Provided, That where it is determined that a party is indigent and unable to pay for such classes, the court shall waive the payment of the fee for such party. The clerk of the circuit court shall, on or before the tenth day of each month, transmit all fees collected under this subsection to the state treasurer for deposit in the state treasury to the credit of special revenue fund to be known as the "parent education fund" which is hereby created. All moneys collected and received under this subsection and paid into the state treasury and credited to the parent education fund shall be used by the administrative office of the supreme court of appeals solely for reimbursing the provider of parent education classes for the costs of materials and of providing such classes. Such moneys shall not be treated by the auditor and treasurer as part of the general revenue of the state.

(d) The administrative office of the supreme court of appeals shall submit a report to the joint committee on government and finance summarizing the effectiveness of any program of parent education no later than two years from the initiation of the program.


WVC 48 - 9 - 201 PART 2. PARENTING PLANS.
§48-9-201. Parenting agreements.
(a) If the parents agree to one or more provisions of a parenting plan, the court shall so order, unless it makes specific findings that:

(1) The agreement is not knowing or voluntary; or

(2) The plan would be harmful to the child.

(b) The court, at its discretion and on any basis it deems sufficient, may conduct an evidentiary hearing to determine whether there is a factual basis for a finding under subdivision (1) or (2), subsection (a) of this section. When there is credible information that child abuse as defined by section 49-1-3 of this code or domestic violence as defined by section 27-202 of this code has occurred, a hearing is mandatory and if the court determines that abuse has occurred, appropriate protective measures shall be ordered.

(c) If an agreement, in whole or in part, is not accepted by the court under the standards set forth in subsection (a) of this section, the court shall allow the parents the opportunity to negotiate another agreement.


WVC 48 - 9 - 202 PART 2. PARENTING PLANS.
§48-9-202. Court-ordered services.
(a)(1) The court shall inform the parents, or require them to be informed, about:

(A) How to prepare a parenting plan;

(B) The impact of family dissolution on children and how the needs of children facing family dissolution can best be addressed;

(C) The impact of domestic abuse on children and resources for addressing domestic abuse; and

(D) Mediation or other nonjudicial procedures designed to help them achieve an agreement.

(2) The court shall require the parents to attend parent education classes.

(3) If parents are unable to resolve issues and agree to a parenting plan, the court shall require mediation unless application of the procedural rules promulgated pursuant to the provisions of subsection (b) of this section indicates that mediation is inappropriate in the particular case.

(b) The supreme court of appeals shall make and promulgate rules that will provide for premediation screening procedures to determine whether domestic violence, child abuse or neglect, acts or threats of duress or coercion, substance abuse, mental illness or other such elements would adversely affect the safety of a party, the ability of a party to meaningfully participate in the mediation or the capacity of a party to freely and voluntarily consent to any proposed agreement reached as a result of the mediation. Such rules shall authorize a family court judge to consider alternatives to mediation which may aid the parties in establishing a parenting plan. Such rules shall not establish a per se bar to mediation if domestic violence, child abuse or neglect, acts or threats of duress or coercion, substance abuse, mental illness or other such elements exist, but may be the basis for the court, in its discretion, not to order services under subsection (a) of this section or not to require a parent to have face-to-face meetings with the other parent.

(c) A mediator shall not make a recommendation to the court and may not reveal information that either parent has disclosed during mediation under a reasonable expectation of confidentiality, except that a mediator may reveal to the court credible information that he or she has received concerning domestic violence or child abuse.

(d) Mediation services authorized under subsection (a) of this section shall be ordered at an hourly cost that is reasonable in light of the financial circumstances of each parent, assessed on a uniform sliding scale. Where one parent's ability to pay for such services is significantly greater than the other, the court may order that parent to pay some or all of the expenses of the other. State revenues shall not be used to defray the costs for the services of a mediator: Provided, That the supreme court of appeals may use a portion of its budget to pay administrative costs associated with establishing and operating mediation programs: Provided, however, That grants and gifts to the state that may be used to fund mediation are not to be considered as state revenues for purposes of this subsection.

(e) The supreme court of appeals shall establish standards for the qualification and training of mediators.


WVC 48 - 9 - 203 §48-9-203. Proposed temporary parenting plan; temporary order; amendment; vacation of order.
(a) A parent seeking a temporary order relating to parenting shall file and serve a proposed temporary parenting plan by motion. The other parent, if contesting the proposed temporary parenting plan, shall file and serve a responsive proposed parenting plan. Either parent may move to have a proposed temporary parenting plan entered as part of a temporary order. The parents may enter an agreed temporary parenting plan at any time as part of a temporary order. The proposed temporary parenting plan may be supported by relevant evidence and shall be verified and shall state at a minimum the following:

(1) The name, address and length of residence with the person or persons with whom the child has lived for the preceding twelve months;

(2) The performance by each parent during the last twelve months of the parenting functions relating to the daily needs of the child;

(3) The parents' work and child-care schedules for the preceding twelve months;

(4) The parents' current work and child-care schedules; and

(5) Any of the circumstances set forth in section 9-209 that are likely to pose a serious risk to the child and that warrant limitation on the award to a parent of temporary residence or time with the child pending entry of a permanent parenting plan.

(b) At the hearing, the court shall enter a temporary parenting order incorporating a temporary parenting plan which includes:

(1) A schedule for the child's time with each parent when appropriate;

(2) Designation of a temporary residence for the child;

(3) Allocation of decision-making authority, if any. Absent allocation of decision-making authority consistent with section two hundred seven of this article, neither party shall make any decision for the child other than those relating to day-to-day or emergency care of the child, which shall be made by the party who is present with the child;

(4) Provisions for temporary support for the child; and

(5) Restraining orders, if applicable.

(c) A parent may make a motion for an order to show cause and the court may enter a temporary order, including a temporary parenting plan, upon a showing of necessity.

(d) A parent may move for amendment of a temporary parenting plan, and the court may order amendment to the temporary parenting plan, if the amendment conforms to the limitations of section 9-209 and is in the best interest of the child.


WVC 48 - 9 - 204 §48-9-204. Criteria for temporary parenting plan.
(a) After considering the proposed temporary parenting plan filed pursuant to section 9-203 and other relevant evidence presented, the court shall make a temporary parenting plan that is in the best interest of the child. In making this determination, the court shall give particular consideration to:

(1) Which parent has taken greater responsibility during the last twelve months for performing caretaking functions relating to the daily needs of the child; and

(2) Which parenting arrangements will cause the least disruption to the child's emotional stability while the action is pending.

(b) The court shall also consider the factors used to determine residential provisions in the permanent parenting plan.

(c) Upon credible evidence of one or more of the circumstances set forth in subsection 9-209(a), the court shall issue a temporary order limiting or denying access to the child as required by that section, in order to protect the child or the other party, pending adjudication of the underlying facts.

(d) Expedited procedures shall be instituted to facilitate the prompt issuance of a parenting plan.


WVC 48 - 9 - 205 §48-9-205. Permanent parenting plan.
(a) A party seeking a judicial allocation of custodial responsibility or decision-making responsibility under this article shall file a proposed parenting plan with the court. Parties may file a joint plan. A proposed plan shall be verified and shall state, to the extent known or reasonably discoverable by the filing party or parties:

(1) The name, address and length of residence of any adults with whom the child has lived for one year or more, or in the case of a child less than one year old, any adults with whom the child has lived since the child's birth;

(2) The name and address of each of the child's parents and any other individuals with standing to participate in the action under section one hundred three of this article;

(3) A description of the allocation of care taking and other parenting responsibilities performed by each person named in subdivisions (1) and (2) of this subsection during the twenty-four months preceding the filing of an action under this article;

(4) A description of the work and child-care schedules of any person seeking an allocation of custodial responsibility, and any expected changes to these schedules in the near future;

(5) A description of the child's school and extracurricular activities;

(6) A description of any of the limiting factors as described in section two hundred nine of this article that are present, including any restraining orders against either parent to prevent domestic or family violence, by case number and jurisdiction;

(7) Required financial information; and

(8) A description of the known areas of agreement and disagreement with any other parenting plan submitted in the case.

The court shall maintain the confidentiality of any information required to be filed under this section when the person giving that information has a reasonable fear of domestic abuse and disclosure of the information would increase that fear.

(b) The court shall develop a process to identify cases in which there is credible information that child abuse or neglect, as defined in section three, article one, chapter forty-nine of this code, or domestic violence as defined in section two hundred two, article twenty-seven of this chapter has occurred. The process shall include assistance for possible victims of domestic abuse in complying with subdivision (6), subsection (a) of this section, and referral to appropriate resources for safe shelter, counseling, safety planning, information regarding the potential impact of domestic abuse on children and information regarding civil and criminal remedies for domestic abuse. The process shall also include a system for ensuring that jointly submitted parenting plans that are filed in cases in which there is credible information that child abuse or domestic abuse has occurred receive the court review that is mandated by subsection (b), section two hundred one of this article.

(c) Upon motion of a party and after consideration of the evidence, the court shall order a parenting plan consistent with the provisions of sections two hundred six, two hundred seven, two hundred eight and two hundred nine of this article, containing:

(1) A provision for the child's living arrangements and each parent's custodial responsibility, which shall include either:

(A) A custodial schedule that designates in which parent's home each minor child will reside on given days of the year; or

(B) A formula or method for determining such a schedule in sufficient detail that, if necessary, the schedule can be enforced in subsequent proceedings by the court;

(2) An allocation of decision-making responsibility as to significant matters reasonably likely to arise with respect to the child;

(3) A provision consistent with section two hundred two of this article for resolution of disputes that arise under the plan, and remedies for violations of the plan; and

(4) A plan for the custody of the child should one or both of the parents as a member of the National Guard, a reserve component or an active duty component be mobilized, deployed or called to active duty.

(d) A parenting plan may, at the court's discretion, contain provisions that address matters that are expected to arise in the event of a party's relocation, or provide for future modifications in the parenting plan if specified contingencies occur.


WVC 48 - 9 - 206 §48-9-206. Allocation of custodial responsibility.
(a) Unless otherwise resolved by agreement of the parents under section 9-201 or unless manifestly harmful to the child, the court shall allocate custodial responsibility so that the proportion of custodial time the child spends with each parent approximates the proportion of time each parent spent performing caretaking functions for the child prior to the parents' separation or, if the parents never lived together, before the filing of the action, except to the extent required under section 9-209 or necessary to achieve any of the following objectives:

(1) To permit the child to have a relationship with each parent who has performed a reasonable share of parenting functions;

(2) To accommodate the firm and reasonable preferences of a child who is fourteen years of age or older, and with regard to a child under fourteen years of age, but sufficiently matured that he or she can intelligently express a voluntary preference for one parent, to give that preference such weight as circumstances warrant;

(3) To keep siblings together when the court finds that doing so is necessary to their welfare;

(4) To protect the child's welfare when, under an otherwise appropriate allocation, the child would be harmed because of a gross disparity in the quality of the emotional attachments between each parent and the child or in each parent's demonstrated ability or availability to meet a child's needs;

(5) To take into account any prior agreement of the parents that, under the circumstances as a whole including the reasonable expectations of the parents in the interest of the child, would be appropriate to consider;

(6) To avoid an allocation of custodial responsibility that would be extremely impractical or that would interfere substantially with the child's need for stability in light of economic, physical or other circumstances, including the distance between the parents' residences, the cost and difficulty of transporting the child, the parents' and child's daily schedules, and the ability of the parents to cooperate in the arrangement;

(7) To apply the principles set forth in 9-403(d) of this article if one parent relocates or proposes to relocate at a distance that will impair the ability of a parent to exercise the amount of custodial responsibility that would otherwise be ordered under this section; and

(8) To consider the stage of a child's development.

(b) In determining the proportion of caretaking functions each parent previously performed for the child under subsection (a) of this section, the court shall not consider the divisions of functions arising from temporary arrangements after separation, whether those arrangements are consensual or by court order. The court may take into account information relating to the temporary arrangements in determining other issues under this section.

(c) If the court is unable to allocate custodial responsibility under subsection (a) of this section because the allocation under that subsection would be manifestly harmful to the child, or because there is no history of past performance of caretaking functions, as in the case of a newborn, or because the history does not establish a pattern of caretaking sufficiently dispositive of the issues of the case, the court shall allocate custodial responsibility based on the child's best interest, taking into account the factors in considerations that are set forth in this section and in section two hundred nine and 9-403(d) of this article and preserving to the extent possible this section's priority on the share of past caretaking functions each parent performed.

(d) In determining how to schedule the custodial time allocated to each parent, the court shall take account of the economic, physical and other practical circumstances such as those listed in subdivision (6), subsection (a) of this section.


WVC 48 - 9 - 207 §48-9-207. Allocation of significant decision-making responsibility.
(a) Unless otherwise resolved by agreement of the parents under section 9-201, the court shall allocate responsibility for making significant life decisions on behalf of the child, including the child's education and health care, to one parent or to two parents jointly, in accordance with the child's best interest, in light of:

(1) The allocation of custodial responsibility under section 9-206 of this article;

(2) The level of each parent's participation in past decision-making on behalf of the child;

(3) The wishes of the parents;

(4) The level of ability and cooperation the parents have demonstrated in decision-making on behalf of the child;

(5) Prior agreements of the parties; and

(6) The existence of any limiting factors, as set forth in section 9-209 of this article.

(b) If each of the child's legal parents has been exercising a reasonable share of parenting functions for the child, the court shall presume that an allocation of decision-making responsibility to both parents jointly is in the child's best interests. The presumption is overcome if there is a history of domestic abuse, or by a showing that joint allocation of decision-making responsibility is not in the child's best interest.

(c) Unless otherwise provided or agreed by the parents, each parent who is exercising custodial responsibility shall be given sole responsibility for day-to-day decisions for the child, while the child is in that parent's care and control, including emergency decisions affecting the health and safety of the child.


WVC 48 - 9 - 208 §48-9-208. Criteria for parenting plan; dispute resolution.
(a) If provisions for resolving parental disputes are not ordered by the court pursuant to parenting agreement under section 9-201, the court shall order a method of resolving disputes that serves the child's best interest in light of:

(1) The parents' wishes and the stability of the child;

(2) Circumstances, including, but not limited to, financial circumstances, that may affect the parents ability to participate in a prescribed dispute resolution process; and

(3) The existence of any limiting factor, as set forth in section 9-209 of this article.

(b) The court may order a nonjudicial process of dispute resolution by designating with particularity the person or agency to conduct the process or the method for selecting such a person or agency. The disposition of a dispute through a nonjudicial method of dispute resolution that has been ordered by the court without prior parental agreement is subject to de novo judicial review. If the parents have agreed in a parenting plan or by agreement thereafter to a binding resolution of their dispute by nonjudicial means, a decision by such means is binding upon the parents and must be enforced by the court, unless it is shown to be contrary to the best interests of the child, beyond the scope of the parents' agreement, or the result of fraud, misconduct, corruption or other serious irregularity.

(c) This section is subject to the limitations imposed by section two hundred two of this article.


WVC 48 - 9 - 209 Part 2 - Parenting Plans
§48-9-209. Parenting plan; limiting factors.
(a) If either of the parents so requests, or upon receipt of credible information thereof, the court shall determine whether a parent who would otherwise be allocated responsibility under a parenting plan:

(1) Has abused, neglected or abandoned a child, as defined by state law;

(2) Has sexually assaulted or sexually abused a child as those terms are defined in articles eight-b and eight-d, chapter sixty-one of this code;

(3) Has committed domestic violence, as defined in section 27-202;

(4) Has interfered persistently with the other parent's access to the child, except in the case of actions taken for the purpose of protecting the safety of the child or the interfering parent or another family member, pending adjudication of the facts underlying that belief; or

(5) Has repeatedly made fraudulent reports of domestic violence or child abuse.

(b) If a parent is found to have engaged in any activity specified by subsection (a) of this section, the court shall impose limits that are reasonably calculated to protect the child or child's parent from harm. The limitations that the court shall consider include, but are not limited to:

(1) An adjustment of the custodial responsibility of the parents, including but not limited to:

(A) Increased parenting time with the child to make up for any parenting time the other parent lost as a result of the proscribed activity;

(B) An additional allocation of parenting time in order to repair any adverse effect upon the relationship between the child and the other parent resulting from the proscribed activity; or

(C) The allocation of exclusive custodial responsibility to one of them;

(2) Supervision of the custodial time between a parent and the child;

(3) Exchange of the child between parents through an intermediary, or in a protected setting;

(4) Restraints on the parent from communication with or proximity to the other parent or the child;

(5) A requirement that the parent abstain from possession or consumption of alcohol or nonprescribed drugs while exercising custodial responsibility and in the twenty-four hour period immediately preceding such exercise;

(6) Denial of overnight custodial responsibility;

(7) Restrictions on the presence of specific persons while the parent is with the child;

(8) A requirement that the parent post a bond to secure return of the child following a period in which the parent is exercising custodial responsibility or to secure other performance required by the court;

(9) A requirement that the parent complete a program of intervention for perpetrators of domestic violence, for drug or alcohol abuse, or a program designed to correct another factor; or

(10) Any other constraints or conditions that the court deems necessary to provide for the safety of the child, a child's parent or any person whose safety immediately affects the child's welfare.

(c) If a parent is found to have engaged in any activity specified in subsection (a) of this section, the court may not allocate custodial responsibility or decision-making responsibility to that parent without making special written findings that the child and other parent can be adequately protected from harm by such limits as it may impose under subsection (b) of this section. The parent found to have engaged in the behavior specified in subsection (a) of this section has the burden of proving that an allocation of custodial responsibility or decision-making responsibility to that parent will not endanger the child or the other parent.

(d) If the court determines, based on the investigation described in part three of this article or other evidence presented to it, that an accusation of child abuse or neglect, or domestic violence made during a child custody proceeding is false and the parent making the accusation knew it to be false at the time the accusation was made, the court may order reimbursement to be paid by the person making the accusations of costs resulting from defending against the accusations. Such reimbursement may not exceed the actual reasonable costs incurred by the accused party as a result of defending against the accusation and reasonable attorney's fees incurred.

(e) (1) A parent who believes he or she is the subject of activities by the other parent described in subdivision (5) of subsection (a), may move the court pursuant to subdivision (4), subsection (b), section one, article seven, chapter forty-nine of this code for the Department of Health and Human Resources to disclose whether the other parent was the source of the allegation and, if so, whether the Department found the report to be:

(A) Substantiated;

(B) Unsubstantiated;

(C) Inconclusive; or

(D) Still under investigation.

(2) If the court grants a motion pursuant to this subsection, disclosure by the Department of Health and Human Resources shall be in camera. The court may disclose to the parties information received from the Department only if it has reason to believe a parent knowingly made a false report.


WVC 48 - 9 - 209 A

Part 2 - Parenting Plans

§48-9-209a. Child conceived as result of sexual assault or sexual  abuse by a parent; rights of a biological parent  convicted of sexual assault or abuse; post-   conviction cohabitation; rebuttable presumption upon  separation or divorce.

 (a) Except as otherwise provided in this section, if a child custodial responsibility or parenting time dispute involves a child who is conceived as a result of acts by which one of the child's biological parents has been convicted of sexual assault, pursuant to section three, four or five, article eight-b, chapter sixty-one of this code, or of sexual abuse by a parent, guardian or custodian, pursuant to section five, article eight-d, chapter sixty-one of this code, the court shall not allocate custodial responsibility to the biological parent convicted of the sexual assault, and the convicted parent has no right to parenting time with the child unless the court finds by clear and convincing evidence set forth in written findings that it is in the best interests of the child, adequately protects the child and the victim of the sexual offense and that the person or persons with custodial responsibility of the child consent thereto.

 (b) Subsection (a) does not apply if:

 (1) The biological parents are husband and wife at the time of the offense and, after the date of conviction, cohabit and establish a mutual custodial environment for the child; or

 (2) After the date of conviction, the unmarried biological parents cohabit and establish a mutual custodial environment for the child.

 (c) If persons described by subsection (b) of this section later separate or divorce, the conviction of sexual assault, pursuant to section three, four or five, article eight-b, chapter sixty-one of this code, or of sexual abuse by a parent, guardian or custodian, pursuant to section five, article eight-d, chapter sixty-one of this code creates a rebuttable presumption that exclusive or shared custodial responsibility of the child by the perpetrator of the offense is not in the best interests of the child. The convicted parent has no right to parenting time with the child unless the court finds by clear and convincing evidence set forth in written findings that, despite the rebuttable presumption required by this subsection, a custodial responsibility or parenting time arrangement with the convicted parent is in the best interests of the child, adequately protects the child and the victim of the sexual offense, and that the victim of the sexual offense consents thereto.

 (d) A denial of custodial responsibility or parenting time under this section does not by itself terminate the parental rights of the person denied custodial responsibility or parenting time, nor does it affect the obligation of the person to support the minor child.
WVC 48 - 9 - 301 PART 3. FACT FINDING.
§48-9-301. Court-ordered investigation.
(a) In its discretion, the court may order a written investigation and report to assist it in determining any issue relevant to proceedings under this article. The investigation and report may be made by the guardian ad litem, the staff of the court or other professional social service organization experienced in counseling children and families. The court shall specify the scope of the investigation or evaluation and the authority of the investigator.

(b) In preparing the report concerning a child, the investigator may consult any person who may have information about the child and the potential parenting or custodian arrangements. Upon order of the court, the investigator may refer the child to professional personnel for diagnosis. The investigator may consult with and obtain information from medical, psychiatric or other expert persons who have served the child in the past without obtaining the consent of the parent or the child's custodian; but the child's consent must be obtained if the child has reached the age of twelve, unless the court finds that the child lacks mental capacity to consent. If the requirements of subsection (c) of this section are fulfilled, the investigator's report may be received in evidence at the hearing.

(c) The investigator shall deliver the investigator's report to counsel and to any party not represented by counsel at least ten days prior to the hearing unless a shorter time is ordered by the court for good cause shown. The investigator shall make available to counsel and to any party not represented by counsel the investigator's file of underlying data and reports, complete texts of diagnostic reports made to the investigator pursuant to the provisions of subsection (b) of this section, and the names and addresses of all persons whom the investigator has consulted. Any party to the proceeding may call the investigator and any person whom the investigator has consulted for cross-examination. A party may not waive the right of cross-examination prior to the hearing.

(d) Services and tests ordered under this section shall be ordered only if at no cost to the individuals involved, or at a cost that is reasonable in light of the available financial resources.


WVC 48 - 9 - 301 A Part 3 - Fact Finding.

§48-9-301a. Child abuse allegations.
(a) If allegations of child abuse are made during a child custody proceeding and the court has concerns regarding the child's safety, the court may take any reasonable, temporary steps as the court, in its discretion, deems appropriate under the circumstances to protect the child's safety until an investigation can be completed. Nothing in this subsection shall affect the applicability of sections two and nine of article six-a, chapter forty-nine of this code.

(b) If allegations of child abuse are made during a child custody proceeding, the court may request that the local child protective service conduct an investigation of the allegations pursuant to article six-a, chapter forty-nine of this code. Upon completion of the investigation, the agency shall report its findings to the court.


WVC 48 - 9 - 302 §48-9-302. Appointment of guardian.
(a) In its discretion, the court may appoint a guardian ad litem to represent the child's best interests. The court shall specify the terms of the appointment, including the guardian's role, duties and scope of authority.

(b) In its discretion, the court may appoint a lawyer to represent the child, if the child is competent to direct the terms of the representation and court has a reasonable basis for finding that the appointment would be helpful in resolving the issues of the case. The court shall specify the terms of the appointment, including the lawyer's role, duties and scope of authority.

(c) When substantial allegations of domestic abuse have been made, the court shall order an investigation under section 9-301 or make an appointment under subsection (a) or (b) of this section, unless the court is satisfied that the information necessary to evaluate the allegations will be adequately presented to the court without such order or appointment.

(d) Subject to whatever restrictions the court may impose or that may be imposed by the attorney-client privilege or by subsection 9-202(d), the court may require the child or parent to provide information to an individual or agency appointed by the court under section 9-301 or subsection (a) or (b) of this section, and it may require any person having information about the child or parent to provide that information, even in the absence of consent by a parent or by the child, except if the information is otherwise protected by law.

(e) The investigator who submits a report or evidence to the court that has been requested under section 9-301 and a guardian ad litem appointed under subsection (a) of this section who submits information or recommendations to the court are subject to cross-examination by the parties. A lawyer appointed under subsection (b) of this section may not be a witness in the proceedings, except as allowed under standards applicable in other civil proceedings.

(f) Services and tests ordered under this section shall be ordered only if at no cost to the individuals involved, or at a cost that is reasonable in light of the available financial resources.


WVC 48 - 9 - 303 §48-9-303. Interview of the child by the court.
The court, in its discretion, may interview the child in chambers or direct another person to interview the child, in order to obtain information relating to the issues of the case. The interview shall be conducted in accordance with rule 16 of the rules of practice and procedure for family law, as promulgated by the supreme court of appeals.


WVC 48 - 9 - 401 PART 4. MODIFICATION OF PARENTING PLAN.
§48-9-401. Modification upon showing of changed circumstances or harm.
(a) Except as provided in section 9-402 or 9-403, a court shall modify a parenting plan order if it finds, on the basis of facts that were not known or have arisen since the entry of the prior order and were not anticipated therein, that a substantial change has occurred in the circumstances of the child or of one or both parents and a modification is necessary to serve the best interests of the child.

(b) In exceptional circumstances, a court may modify a parenting plan if it finds that the plan is not working as contemplated and in some specific way is manifestly harmful to the child, even if a substantial change of circumstances has not occurred.

(c) Unless the parents have agreed otherwise, the following circumstances do not justify a significant modification of a parenting plan except where harm to the child is shown:

(1) Circumstances resulting in an involuntary loss of income, by loss of employment or otherwise, affecting the parent's economic status;

(2) A parent's remarriage or cohabitation; and

(3) Choice of reasonable caretaking arrangements for the child by a legal parent, including the child's placement in day care.

(d) For purposes of subsection (a) of this section, the occurrence or worsening of a limiting factor, as defined in subsection (a), section 9-209, after a parenting plan has been ordered by the court, constitutes a substantial change of circumstances and measures shall be ordered pursuant to section 9-209 to protect the child or the child's parent.


WVC 48 - 9 - 402 §48-9-402. Modification without showing of changed circumstances.
(a) The court shall modify a parenting plan in accordance with a parenting agreement, unless it finds that the agreement is not knowing and voluntary or that it would be harmful to the child.

(b) The court may modify any provisions of the parenting plan without the showing of change circumstances required by subsection 9-401(a) if the modification is in the child's best interests, and the modification:

(1) Reflects the de facto arrangements under which the child has been receiving care from the petitioner, without objection, in substantial deviation from the parenting plan, for the preceding six months before the petition for modification is filed, provided the arrangement is not the result of a parent's acquiescence resulting from the other parent's domestic abuse;

(2) Constitutes a minor modification in the plan; or

(3) Is necessary to accommodate the reasonable and firm preferences of a child who has attained the age of fourteen.

(c) Evidence of repeated filings of fraudulent reports of domestic violence or child abuse is admissible in a domestic relations action between the involved parties when the allocation of custodial responsibilities is in issue, and the fraudulent accusations may be a factor considered by the court in making the allocation of custodial responsibilities.


WVC 48 - 9 - 403 PART 4. MODIFICATION OF PARENTING PLAN.

§48-9-403. Relocation of a parent.


(a) The relocation of a parent constitutes a substantial change in the circumstances under subsection 9-401(a) of the child only when it significantly impairs either parent's ability to exercise responsibilities that the parent has been exercising.

(b) Unless otherwise ordered by the court, a parent who has responsibility under a parenting plan who changes, or intends to change, residences for more than ninety days must give a minimum of sixty days' advance notice, or the most notice practicable under the circumstances, to any other parent with responsibility under the same parenting plan. Notice shall include:

(1) The relocation date;

(2) The address of the intended new residence;

(3) The specific reasons for the proposed relocation;

(4) A proposal for how custodial responsibility shall be modified, in light of the intended move; and

(5) Information for the other parent as to how he or she may respond to the proposed relocation or modification of custodial responsibility.

Failure to comply with the notice requirements of this section without good cause may be a factor in the determination of whether the relocation is in good faith under subsection (d) of this section and is a basis for an award of reasonable expenses and reasonable attorney's fees to another parent that are attributable to such failure.

The supreme court of appeals shall make available through the offices of the circuit clerks and the secretary-clerks of the family courts a form notice that complies with the provisions of this subsection. The supreme court of appeals shall promulgate procedural rules that provide for an expedited hearing process to resolve issues arising from a relocation or proposed relocation.

(c) When changed circumstances are shown under subsection (a) of this section, the court shall, if practical, revise the parenting plan so as to both accommodate the relocation and maintain the same proportion of custodial responsibility being exercised by each of the parents. In making such revision, the court may consider the additional costs that a relocation imposes upon the respective parties for transportation and communication, and may equitably allocate such costs between the parties.

(d) When the relocation constituting changed circumstances under subsection (a) of this section renders it impractical to maintain the same proportion of custodial responsibility as that being exercised by each parent, the court shall modify the parenting plan in accordance with the child's best interests and in accordance with the following principles:

(1) A parent who has been exercising a significant majority of the custodial responsibility for the child should be allowed to relocate with the child so long as that parent shows that the relocation is in good faith for a legitimate purpose and to a location that is reasonable in light of the purpose. The percentage of custodial responsibility that constitutes a significant majority of custodial responsibility is seventy percent or more. A relocation is for a legitimate purpose if it is to be close to significant family or other support networks, for significant health reasons, to protect the safety of the child or another member of the child's household from significant risk of harm, to pursue a significant employment or educational opportunity or to be with one's spouse who is established, or who is pursuing a significant employment or educational opportunity, in another location. The relocating parent has the burden of proving of the legitimacy of any other purpose. A move with a legitimate purpose is reasonable unless its purpose is shown to be substantially achievable without moving or by moving to a location that is substantially less disruptive of the other parent's relationship to the child.

(2) If a relocation of the parent is in good faith for legitimate purpose and to a location that is reasonable in light of the purpose and if neither has been exercising a significant majority of custodial responsibility for the child, the court shall reallocate custodial responsibility based on the best interest of the child, taking into account all relevant factors including the effects of the relocation on the child.

(3) If a parent does not establish that the purpose for that parent's relocation is in good faith for a legitimate purpose into a location that is reasonable in light of the purpose, the court may modify the parenting plan in accordance with the child's best interests and the effects of the relocation on the child. Among the modifications the court may consider is a reallocation of primary custodial responsibility, effective if and when the relocation occurs, but such a reallocation shall not be ordered if the relocating parent demonstrates that the child's best interests would be served by the relocation.

(4) The court shall attempt to minimize impairment to a parent-child relationship caused by a parent's relocation through alternative arrangements for the exercise of custodial responsibility appropriate to the parents' resources and circumstances and the developmental level of the child.

(e) In determining the proportion of caretaking functions each parent previously performed for the child under the parenting plan before relocation, the court may not consider a division of functions arising from any arrangements made after a relocation but before a modification hearing on the issues related to relocation.

(f) In determining the effect of the relocation or proposed relocation on a child, any interviewing or questioning of the child shall be conducted in accordance with the provisions of rule 17 of the rules of practice and procedure for family law as promulgated by the supreme court of appeals.


WVC 48 - 9 - 404 §48-9-404. Modification of a parenting plan due to military service.
(a) If a military parent is required to be separated from a child due to military service, a court shall not enter a final order modifying the terms of an existing parenting plan until ninety days after the military parent is released from military service. A military parent's absence or relocation because of military service must not be the sole factor supporting a change in circumstance or grounds sufficient to support a permanent modification of an existing parenting plan.

(b) A parenting plan establishing the terms of custody or visitation in place at the time a military parent is called to military service may be temporarily modified to make reasonable accommodation for the parties because of the military parent's service.

(c) A temporary parenting plan pursuant to this section shall provide that the military parent has at least substantial custodial responsibility of the child during a period of leave granted to the military parent during their military service, unless the court determines that it is not in the best interest of the child. If a temporary parenting plan is not issued pursuant to this section, the nonmilitary custodial parent shall make the child or children reasonably available to the military parent when the military parent has leave to ensure that the military parent has reasonable custodial responsibility and is able to exercise custodial responsibility of the child or children.

(d) If there is no existing parenting plan or order establishing the terms of custody or visitation and it appears that military service is imminent, upon motion by either parent, the court shall expedite a temporary hearing to establish a temporary parenting plan to ensure the military parent has access to the child, to establish support, and provide other appropriate relief.


WVC 48 - 9 - 501 PART 5. ENFORCEMENT OF PARENTING PLANS.
§48-9-501. Enforcement of parenting plans.
(a) If, upon a parental complaint, the court finds a parent intentionally and without good cause violated a provision of the court-ordered parenting plan, it shall enforce the remedy specified in the plan or, if no remedies are specified or they are clearly inadequate, it shall find the plan has been violated and order an appropriate remedy, which may include:

(1) In the case of interference with the exercise of custodial responsibility for a child by the other parent, substitute time for that parent to make up for time missed with the child;

(2) In the case of missed time by a parent, costs in recognition of lost opportunities by the other parent, in child care costs and other reasonable expenses in connection with the missed time;

(3) A modification of the plan, if the requirements for a modification are met under section 9-209, section 9-401, 402 or 403 of this article, including an adjustment of the custodial responsibility of the parents or an allocation of exclusive custodial responsibility to one of them;

(4) An order that the parent who violated the plan obtain appropriate counseling;

(5) A civil penalty, in an amount of not more than one hundred dollars for a first offense, not more than five hundred dollars for a second offense, or not more than one thousand dollars for a third or subsequent offense, to be paid to the parent education fund as established under section 9-104;

(6) Court costs, reasonable attorney's fees and any other reasonable expenses in enforcing the plan; and

(7) Any other appropriate remedy.

(b) Except as provided in a jointly submitted plan that has been ordered by the court, obligations established in a parenting plan are independent obligations, and it is not a defense to an action under this section by one parent that the other parent failed to meet obligations under a parenting plan or child support order.

(c) An agreement between the parents to depart from the parenting plan can be a defense to a claim that the plan has been violated, even though the agreement was not made part of a court order, but only as to acts or omissions consistent with the agreement that occur before the agreement is disaffirmed by either parent.


WVC 48 - 9 - 601 PART 6. MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS.
§48-9-601. Access to a child's records.
(a)(1) Each parent has full and equal access to a child's educational records absent a court order to the contrary. Neither parent may veto the access requested by the other parent. Educational records are academic, attendance and disciplinary records of public and private schools in all grades kindergarten through twelve and any form of alternative school. Educational records are any and all school records concerning the child that would otherwise be properly released to the primary custodial parent, including, but not limited to, report cards and progress reports, attendance records, disciplinary reports, results of the child's performance on standardized tests and statewide tests and information on the performance of the school that the child attends on standardized statewide tests; curriculum materials of the class or classes in which the child is enrolled; names of the appropriate school personnel to contact if problems arise with the child; information concerning the academic performance standards, proficiencies, or skills the child is expected to accomplish; school rules, attendance policies, dress codes and procedures for visiting the school; and information about any psychological testing the school does involving the child.

(2) In addition to the right to receive school records, the nonresidential parent has the right to participate as a member of a parent advisory committee or any other organization comprised of parents of children at the school that the child attends.

(3) The nonresidential parent or noncustodial parent has the right to question anything in the child's record that the parent feels is inaccurate or misleading or is an invasion of privacy and to receive a response from the school.

(4) Each parent has a right to arrange appointments for parent-teacher conferences absent a court order to the contrary. Neither parent can be compelled against their will to exercise this right by attending conferences jointly with the other parent.

(b)(1) Each parent has full and equal access to a child's medical records absent a court order to the contrary. Neither parent may veto the access requested by the other parent. If necessary, either parent is required to authorize medical providers to release to the other parent copies of any and all information concerning medical care provided to the child which would otherwise be properly released to either parent.

(2) If the child is in the actual physical custody of one parent, that parent is required to promptly inform the other parent of any illness of the child which requires medical attention.

(3) Each parent is required to consult with the other parent prior to any elective surgery being performed on the child, and in the event emergency medical procedures are undertaken for the child which require the parental consent of either parent, if time permits, the other parent shall be consulted, or if time does not permit such consultation, the other parent shall be promptly informed of the emergency medical procedures: Provided, That nothing contained herein alters or amends the law of this state as it otherwise pertains to physicians or health care facilities obtaining parental consent prior to providing medical care or performing medical procedures.

(c) Each parent has full and equal access to a child's juvenile court records, process and pleadings, absent a court order to the contrary. Neither parent may veto any access requested by the other parent. Juvenile court records are limited to those records which are normally available to a parent of a child who is a subject of the juvenile justice system.


WVC 48 - 9 - 602 §48-9-602. Designation of custody for the purpose of other state and federal statutes.
Solely for the purposes of all other state and federal statutes which require a designation or determination of custody, a parenting plan shall designate the parent with whom the child is scheduled to reside the majority of the time as the custodian of the child. However, this designation shall not affect either parent's rights and responsibilities under a parenting plan. In the absence of such a designation, the parent with whom the child is scheduled to reside the majority of the time is deemed to be the custodian of the child for the purposes of such federal and state statutes.


WVC 48 - 9 - 603 PART 6. MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS.
§48-9-603. Effect of enactment; operative dates.
(a) The enactment of this article, formerly enacted as article eleven of this chapter during the second extraordinary session of the Legislature, one thousand nine hundred ninety-nine, is prospective in operation unless otherwise expressly indicated.

(b) The provisions of section 9-202, insofar as they provide for parent education and mediation, became operative on the first day of January, two thousand. Until that date, parent education and mediation with regard to custody issues were discretionary unless made mandatory under a particular program or pilot project by rule or direction of the supreme court of appeals or a circuit court.

(c) The provisions of this article that authorize the court, in the absence of an agreement of the parents, to order an allocation of custodial responsibility and an allocation of significant decision-making responsibility became operative on the first day of January, two thousand, at which time the primary caretaker doctrine was replaced with a system that allocates custodial and decision-making responsibility to the parents in accordance with this article. Any order entered prior to the first day of January, two thousand, based on the primary caretaker doctrine remains in full force and effect until modified by a court of competent jurisdiction.


WVC 48 - 9 - 604 §48-9-604. Parent education and mediation fund.
There is hereby created in the state treasury a special revenue account, designated the "parent education and mediation fund." The moneys of the fund shall be expended by the administrator of the supreme court of appeals for parent education and mediation programs.


WVC -10- ARTICLE 10. GRANDPARENT VISITATION.


WVC 48 - 10 - 1 §§48-10-1 to 48-10-26.
Repealed.

Acts, 2000 Reg. Sess., Ch. 44.


WVC 48 - 10 - 101 §48-10-101. Legislative findings.
The Legislature finds that circumstances arise where it is appropriate for circuit courts or family courts of this state to order that grandparents of minor children may exercise visitation with their grandchildren. The Legislature further finds that in such situations, as in all situations involving children, the best interests of the child or children are the paramount consideration.


WVC 48 - 10 - 102 §48-10-102. Legislative intent.
It is the express intent of the Legislature that the provisions for grandparent visitation that are set forth in this article are exclusive.


WVC 48 - 10 - 201 PART 2. DEFINITIONS.
§48-10-201. Applicability of definitions.
For the purposes of this article the words or terms defined in this article, and any variation of those words or terms required by the context, have the meanings ascribed to them in this article. These definitions are applicable unless a different meaning clearly appears from the context.


WVC 48 - 10 - 202 §48-10-202. Child defined.

"Child" means a person under the age of eighteen years who has not been married or otherwise emancipated.


WVC 48 - 10 - 203 §48-10-203. Grandparent defined.
"Grandparent" means a biological grandparent, a person married or previously married to a biological grandparent, or a person who has previously been granted custody of the parent of a minor child with whom visitation is sought.


WVC 48 - 10 - 301 §48-10-301. Persons who may apply for grandparent visitation; venue.
A grandparent of a child residing in this state may, by motion or petition, make application to the circuit court or family court of the county in which that child resides for an order granting visitation with his or her grandchild.


WVC 48 - 10 - 401 §48-10-401. Motion for grandparent visitation when action for divorce, custody, legal separation, annulment or establishment of paternity is pending.
(a) The provisions of this section apply to any pending actions for divorce, custody, legal separation, annulment or establishment of paternity.

(b) After the commencement of the action, a grandparent seeking visitation with his or her grandchild may, by motion, apply to the family court for an order granting visitation. A grandparent moving for an order of visitation will not be afforded party status, but may be called as a witness by the court, and will be subject to cross-examination by the parties.

(c) Motions or petitions for grandparent visitation shall be filed and heard in the family court except when an abuse or neglect proceeding involving the child or children is pending before the circuit court, in which case the motion or petition shall be filed and heard in the circuit court.


WVC 48 - 10 - 402 §48-10-402. Petition for grandparent visitation when action for divorce, custody, legal separation, annulment or establishment of paternity is not pending.
(a) The provisions of this section apply when no proceeding for divorce, custody, legal separation, annulment or establishment of paternity is pending.

(b) A grandparent may petition the family court for an order granting visitation with his or her grandchild, regardless of whether the parents of the child are married. If the grandparent filed a motion for visitation in a previous proceeding for divorce, custody, legal separation, annulment or establishment of paternity, and a decree or final order has issued in that earlier action, the grandparent may petition for visitation if the circumstances have materially changed since the entry of the earlier order or decree.

(c) When a petition under this section is filed, the matter shall be styled "In re grandparent visitation of [petitioner's(s') name(s)]".

(d) Motions or petitions for grandparent visitation shall be filed and heard in the family court except when an abuse or neglect proceeding involving the child or children is pending before the circuit court, in which case the motion or petition shall be filed and heard in the circuit court.


WVC 48 - 10 - 403 §48-10-403. Appointment of guardian ad litem for the child.
When a motion or petition is filed seeking grandparent visitation, the court, on its own motion or upon the motion of a party or grandparent, may appoint a guardian ad litem for the child to assist the court in determining the best interests of the child regarding grandparent visitation.


WVC 48 - 10 - 501 §48-10-501. Necessary findings for grant of reasonable visitation to a grandparent.
The circuit court or family court shall grant reasonable visitation to a grandparent upon a finding that visitation would be in the best interests of the child and would not substantially interfere with the parent-child relationship.


WVC 48 - 10 - 502 §48-10-502. Factors to be considered in making a determination as to a grant of visitation to a grandparent.

In making a determination on a motion or petition the court shall consider the following factors:

(1) The age of the child;

(2) The relationship between the child and the grandparent;

(3) The relationship between each of the child's parents or the person with whom the child is residing and the grandparent;

(4) The time which has elapsed since the child last had contact with the grandparent;

(5) The effect that such visitation will have on the relationship between the child and the child's parents or the person with whom the child is residing;

(6) If the parents are divorced or separated, the custody and visitation arrangement which exists between the parents with regard to the child;

(7) The time available to the child and his or her parents, giving consideration to such matters as each parent's employment schedule, the child's schedule for home, school and community activities, and the child's and parents' holiday and vacation schedule;

(8) The good faith of the grandparent in filing the motion or petition;

(9) Any history of physical, emotional or sexual abuse or neglect being performed, procured, assisted or condoned by the grandparent;

(10) Whether the child has, in the past, resided with the grandparent for a significant period or periods of time, with or without the child's parent or parents;

(11) Whether the grandparent has, in the past, been a significant caretaker for the child, regardless of whether the child resided inside or outside of the grandparent's residence;

(12) The preference of the parents with regard to the requested visitation; and

(13) Any other factor relevant to the best interests of the child.


WVC 48 - 10 - 601 PART 6. INTERVIEW OF CHILD BY JUDGE.
§48-10-601. Interview of child in chambers.
In considering the factors listed in section 10-502 for purposes of determining whether to grant visitation, establishing a specific visitation schedule, and resolving any issues related to the making of any determination with respect to visitation or the establishment of any specific visitation schedule, the court, in its discretion, may interview in chambers any or all involved children regarding their wishes and concerns. No person shall be present other than the court, the child, the child's attorney or guardian ad litem, if any, and any necessary court personnel.


WVC 48 - 10 - 602 §48-10-602. Prohibitions on use of child's written or recorded statement or affidavit; child not to be called as a witness.
(a) No person shall obtain or attempt to obtain from a child a written or recorded statement or affidavit setting forth the wishes and concerns of the child regarding grandparent visitation matters, and the court, in considering the factors listed in section 10-502 of this article for purposes of determining whether to grant any visitation, establishing a visitation schedule, or resolving any issues related to the making of any determination with respect to visitation or the establishment of any specific visitation schedule, shall not accept or consider such a written or recorded statement or affidavit.

(b) A child shall not be called as a witness in any proceeding to determine whether grandparent visitation should be awarded.


WVC 48 - 10 - 701 PART 7. PROOF REQUIRED FOR GRANT
OF GRANDPARENT VISITATION.
§48-10-701. Proof required when action is pending for divorce, custody, legal separation, annulment or establishment of paternity.
If a motion for grandparent visitation is filed in a pending action for divorce, custody, legal separation, annulment or establishment of paternity pursuant to section 21-401, the grandparent shall be granted visitation if a preponderance of the evidence shows that visitation is in the best interest of the child and that:

(1) The party to the divorce through which the grandparent is related to the minor child has failed to answer or otherwise appear and defend the cause of action; or

(2) The whereabouts of the party through which the grandparent is related to the minor child are unknown to the party bringing the action and to the grandparent who filed the motion for visitation.


WVC 48 - 10 - 702 §48-10-702. Proof required when action is not pending for divorce, custody, legal separation, annulment or establishment of paternity.
(a) If a petition is filed pursuant to section 10-402 when the parent through whom the grandparent is related to the grandchild does not: (1) Have custody of the child; (2) share custody of the child; or (3) exercise visitation privileges with the child that would allow participation in the visitation by the grandparent if the parent so chose, the grandparent shall be granted visitation if a preponderance of the evidence shows that visitation is in the best interest of the child.

(b) If a petition is filed pursuant to section 10-402, there is a presumption that visitation privileges need not be extended to the grandparent if the parent through whom the grandparent is related to the grandchild has custody of the child, shares custody of the child, or exercises visitation privileges with the child that would allow participation in the visitation by the grandparent if the parent so chose. This presumption may be rebutted by clear and convincing evidence that an award of grandparent visitation is in the best interest of the child.


WVC 48 - 10 - 801 PART 8. ORDERS GRANTING OR REFUSING
GRANDPARENT VISITATION.
§48-10-801. Order granting or refusing grandparent visitation must state findings of fact and conclusions of law.
An order granting or refusing the grandparent's motion or petition for visitation must state in writing the court's findings of fact and conclusions of law.


WVC 48 - 10 - 802 §48-10-802. Supervised visitation; conditions on visitation.
In the court's discretion, an order granting visitation privileges to a grandparent may require supervised visitation or may place such conditions on visitation that it finds are in the best interests of the child, including, but not limited to, the following:

(1) That the grandparent not attempt to influence any religious beliefs or practices of the children in a manner contrary to the preferences of the child's parents;

(2) That the grandparent not engage in, permit or encourage activities, or expose the grandchild to conditions or circumstances, that are contrary to the preferences of the child's parents; or

(3) That the grandparent not otherwise act in a manner to contradict or interfere with child-rearing decisions made by the child's parents.


WVC 48 - 10 - 901 §48-10-901. Effect of remarriage of the custodial parent.
The remarriage of the custodial parent of a child does not affect the authority of a circuit court or family court to grant reasonable visitation to any grandparent.


WVC 48 - 10 - 902 §48-10-902. Effect of adoption of the child.
If a child who is subject to a grandparent visitation order under this article is later adopted, the order for grandparent visitation is automatically vacated when the order for adoption is entered, unless the adopting parent is a stepparent, grandparent or other relative of the child.


WVC 48 - 10 -1001 §48-10-1001. Continuing jurisdiction of circuit court or family court.
Any circuit court or family court that grants visitation rights to a grandparent shall retain jurisdiction throughout the minority of the minor child with whom visitation is granted to modify or terminate such rights as dictated by the best interests of the minor child.


WVC 48 - 10 -1002 §48-10-1002. Termination of grandparent visitation.
A circuit court or family court shall, based upon a petition brought by an interested person, terminate any grant of the right of grandparent visitation upon presentation of a preponderance of the evidence that a grandparent granted visitation has materially violated the terms and conditions of the order of visitation.


WVC 48 - 10 -1101 §48-10-1101. Attorney's fees; reasonable costs.
In an action brought under the provisions of this article, a circuit court or family court may order payment of reasonable attorney's fees and costs based upon the equities of the positions asserted by the parties to pay such fees and costs.


WVC 48 - 10 -1201 PART 12. OFFENSES.
§48-10-1201. Misdemeanor offense for allowing contact between child and person who has been precluded visitation rights; penalties.
Any grandparent who knowingly allows contact between a minor grandchild and a parent or other person who has been precluded visitation rights with the child by court order is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in the county or regional jail not more than thirty days or fined not less than one hundred dollars nor more than one thousand dollars.


WVC 48 - 11 - ARTICLE 11. SUPPORT OF CHILDREN.


WVC 48 - 11 - 101 §48-11-101. General provisions relating to child support.
(a) It is one of the purposes of the Legislature in enacting this chapter to improve and facilitate support enforcement efforts in this state, with the primary goal being to establish and enforce reasonable child support orders and thereby improve opportunities for children. It is the intent of the Legislature that to the extent practicable, the laws of this state should encourage and require a child's parents to meet the obligation of providing that child with adequate food, shelter, clothing, education, and health and child care.

(b) When the domestic relations action involves a minor child or children, the court shall require either party to pay child support in the form of periodic installments for the maintenance of the minor children of the parties in accordance with support guidelines promulgated pursuant to article 13-101, et seq., of this chapter. Payments of child support are to be ordinarily made from a party's income, but in cases when the income is not sufficient to adequately provide for those payments, the court may, upon specific findings set forth in the order, order the party required to make those payments to make them from the corpus of his or her separate estate.


WVC 48 - 11 - 102 §48-11-102. Required information in support orders.
(a) Any order which provides for the custody or support of a minor child shall include:

(1) The name of the custodian;

(2) The amount of the support payments;

(3) The date the first payment is due;

(4) The frequency of the support payments;

(5) The event or events which trigger termination of the support obligation;

(6) A provision regarding wage withholding;

(7) The address where payments shall be sent;

(8) A provision for medical support;

(9) When child support guidelines are not followed, a specific written finding pursuant to section 13-702.

(b) Effective the first day of October, one thousand nine hundred ninety-nine, any order entered that provides for the payment of child support shall also include a statement that requires both parties to report any changes in gross income, either in source of employment or in the amount of gross income, to the bureau for child support enforcement and to the other party. The notice shall not be required if the change in gross income is less than a fifteen percent change in gross income.

(c) All child support orders shall contain a notice which contains language substantially similar to the following: "The amount of the monthly child support can be modified as provided by law based upon a change in the financial or other circumstances of the parties if those circumstances are among those considered in the child support formula. In order to make the modification a party must file a motion to modify the child support amount. Unless a motion to modify is filed, the child support amount will continue to be due and cannot later be changed retroactively even though there has been a change of circumstances since the entry of the order. Self help forms for modification can be found at the circuit clerk's office." The failure of an order to have such a provision does not alter the effectiveness of the order.


WVC 48 - 11 - 103 §48-11-103. Child support beyond age eighteen.
(a) An order for child support shall provide that payments of such support continue beyond the date when the child reaches the age of eighteen, so long as the child is unmarried and residing with a parent, guardian or custodian and is enrolled as a full-time student in a secondary educational or vocational program and making substantial progress towards a diploma: Provided, That such payments may not extend past the date that the child reaches the age of twenty.

(b) Nothing herein shall be construed to abrogate or modify existing case law regarding the eligibility of handicapped or disabled children to receive child support beyond the age of eighteen.

(c) The reenactment of this section during the regular session of the Legislature in the year one thousand nine hundred ninety-four shall not, by operation of law, have any effect upon or vacate any order or portion thereof entered under the prior enactment of this section which awarded educational and related expenses for an adult child accepted or enrolled and making satisfactory progress in an educational program at a certified or accredited college. Any such order or portion thereof shall continue in full force and effect until the court, upon motion of a party, modifies or vacates the order upon a finding that:

(1) The facts and circumstances which supported the entry of the original order have changed, in which case the order may be modified;

(2) The facts and circumstances which supported the entry of the original order no longer exist because the child has not been accepted or is not enrolled in and making satisfactory progress in an educational program at a certified or accredited college or the parent ordered to pay such educational and related expenses is no longer able to make such payments, in which case the order shall be vacated;

(3) The child, at the time the order was entered, was under the age of sixteen years, in which case the order shall be vacated;

(4) The amount ordered to be paid was determined by an application of child support guidelines in accordance with the provisions of section one hundred one, article thirteen, et seq., of this chapter, or legislative rules promulgated thereunder, in which case the order may be modified or vacated; or

(5) The order was entered after the fourteenth day of March, one thousand nine hundred ninety-four, in which case the order shall be vacated.


WVC 48 - 11 - 104 §48-11-104. Payments out of disposable retired or retainer pay.
Whenever under the terms of article 5-601, et seq., or article 5-501, et seq., a court enters an order requiring the payment of child support, if the court anticipates the payment of such child support or any portion thereof to be paid out of "disposable retired or retainer pay" as that term is defined in 10 U.S.C. §1408, relating to members or former members of the uniformed services of the United States, the court shall specifically provide for the payment of an amount, expressed in dollars or as a percentage of disposable retired or retainer pay, from the disposable retired or retainer pay of the payor party to the payee party.


WVC 48 - 11 - 105 §48-11-105. Modification of child support order.
(a) The court may modify a child support order, for the benefit of the child, when a motion is made that alleges a change in the circumstances of a parent or another proper person or persons. A motion for modification of a child support order may be brought by a custodial parent or any other lawful custodian or guardian of the child, by a parent or other person obligated to pay child support for the child or by the Bureau for Child Support Enforcement of the Department of Health and Human Resources of this state.

(b) The provisions of the order may be modified if there is a substantial change in circumstances. If application of the guideline would result in a new order that is more than fifteen percent different, then the circumstances are considered a substantial change.

(c) An order that modifies the amount of child support to be paid shall conform to the support guidelines set forth in section one hundred one, article thirteen, et seq., of this chapter unless the court disregards the guidelines or adjusts the award as provided in section seven hundred two of said article.

(d) The Supreme Court of Appeals shall make available to the courts a standard form for a petition for modification of an order for support, which form will allege that the existing order should be altered or revised because of a loss or change of employment or other substantial change affecting income or that the amount of support required to be aid is not within fifteen percent of the child support guidelines. The clerk of the circuit court and the secretary-clerk of the family court shall make the forms available to persons desiring to represent themselves in filing a motion for modification of the support award.

(e) Upon entry of an order modifying a child support amount the court shall, no later than five days from entry of the order, provide a copy of the modified order to the Bureau for Child Support Enforcement. If an overpayment to one of the parties occurs as a result of the modified terms of the order, funds properly withheld by the Bureau for Child Support Enforcement pursuant the terms of the original order shall not be returned until such time as the Bureau for Child Support Enforcement receives repayment from the party in possession of the overpayment.


WVC 48 - 11 - 106 §48-11-106. Expedited process for modification.
(a) An expedited process for modification of a child support order may be utilized if:

(1) Either parent experiences a substantial change of circumstances resulting in a decrease in income due to loss of employment or other involuntary cause;

(2) An increase in income due to promotion, change in employment or reemployment;

(3) Other such change in employment status; or

(4) If a military parent is called to military service.

(b) The party seeking the recalculation of support and modification of the support order shall file a description of the decrease or increase in income and an explanation of the cause of the decrease or increase on a standardized form to be provided by the secretary-clerk or other employee of the family court. The standardized form shall be verified by the filing party. Any available documentary evidence shall be filed with the standardized form. Based upon the filing and information available in the case record, the amount of support shall be tentatively recalculated.

(c) The secretary-clerk shall serve a notice of the filing, a copy of the standardized form and the support calculations upon the other party by certified mail, return receipt requested, with delivery restricted to the addressee, in accordance with rule 4(d)(1)(D) of the West Virginia rules of civil procedure. The secretary-clerk shall also mail a copy, by first-class mail, to the local office of the bureau for child support enforcement for the county in which the family court is located in the same manner as original process under rule 4(d) of the rules of civil procedure.

(d) The notice shall fix a date fourteen days from the date of mailing and inform the party that unless the recalculation is contested and a hearing request is made on or before the date fixed, the proposed modification will be made effective. If the filing is contested, the proposed modification shall be set for hearing; otherwise, the court shall enter an order for a judgment by default. Either party may move to set aside a judgment by default, pursuant to the provisions of rule 55 or rule 60(b) of the rules of civil procedure.

(e) If an obligor uses the provisions of this section to expeditiously reduce his or her child support obligation, the order that effected the reduction shall also require the obligor to notify the obligee of reemployment, new employment or other such change in employment status that results in an increase in income. If an obligee uses the provisions of this section to expeditiously increase his or her child support obligation, the order that effected the increase shall also require the obligee to notify the obligor of reemployment, new employment or other such change in employment status that results in an increase in income of the obligee.

(f) The supreme court of appeals shall develop the standardized form required by this section.


WVC 48 - 11 - 106 A §48-11-106a. Modification of support order with the assistance of Bureau for Child Support Enforcement.
In addition to any other procedure which may exist by law, any party seeking the recalculation of support and modification under a child support order due to a substantial change in circumstances pursuant to the provisions of section one hundred six of this article may seek and obtain the assistance of the Bureau of Child Support Enforcement, pursuant to the procedures established under the provisions of sections two hundred one through two hundred six, inclusive, article eighteen of this chapter, in the preparation, assessment and presentation of an appropriate petition for modification of a support order, including the identification and narrowing of issues associated with a requested recalculation of support prior to filing the petition and the preparation and presentation of an appropriate petition and proposed order for modification for consideration by the family court.


WVC 48 - 11 - 107 §48-11-107. Modification resulting in reduction and overpayment of support.
In any proceeding filed after the first day of January, two thousand one, where a petition to modify child support is granted which results in a reduction of child support owed so that the obligor has overpaid child support, the court shall grant a decretal judgment to the obligor for the amount of the overpayment. The court shall inquire as to whether a support arrearage was owed by the obligor for support due prior to the filing of the petition for modification. If an arrearage exists, the court shall order an offset of the overpayment against the child support arrearages. If no prior arrearage exists or if the arrearage is not sufficient to offset the overpayment, then the court may direct the bureau for child support enforcement to collect the overpayment through income withholding, if the person has, in the court's opinion, sufficient income other than the child support received. The income withholding shall be in all respects as provided for in part 14-401, et seq., except that in no circumstances may the amount withheld exceed thirty-five percent of the disposable earnings for the period, regardless of the length of time that the overpayment has been owed.


WVC 48 - 11 - 108 §48-11-108. Modification of support based on military service.
(a) If a military parent is called to military service, either parent may file a notice of activation of military service and a request for an expedited modification of a support order pursuant to section one hundred six of this article. In the petition, the parent must cite the basis for modifying the support order and the military parent's change in financial circumstances supporting the petition.

(b) The court shall temporarily modify the amount of child support for the duration of the military parent's military service pursuant to the provisions of section fifteen of this article if there is a substantial change in circumstances based upon changes in income and earning capacity of the military parent during military service. An increase or decrease in income or earning capacity of a military parent due to military service may only be used to calculate support during the period of military service and must not be considered a permanent increase or decrease in income or earning capacity. The effective date for a temporary modification must be the date the military parent begins military service.

(c) Upon return from military service, the military parent's child support obligation prior to a temporary modification is automatically reinstated, effective on the date the military parent is released from service. Within ninety days of the military parent's release from service, either parent may make a request for a modification of child support to correspond to a change in the military parent's nonservice related income or earning capacity. A modification of child support must be based solely upon the income or earning capacity the military parent has following his or her period of military service.


WVC 48 - 11 - 201 PART 2. PARENTING PLANS.
§48-11-201. Parenting agreements.
(a) If the parents agree to one or more provisions of a parenting plan, the court shall so order, unless it makes specific findings that:

(1) The agreement is not knowing or voluntary; or

(2) The plan would be harmful to the child.

(b) The court, at its discretion and on any basis it deems sufficient, may conduct an evidentiary hearing to determine whether there is a factual basis for a finding under subdivision (1) or (2), subsection (a) of this section. When there is credible information that child abuse as defined by section three, article one, chapter forty-nine of this code or domestic violence as defined by section two, article two-a, chapter forty-eight-a of this code has occurred, a hearing is mandatory and if the court determines that abuse has occurred, appropriate protective measures shall be ordered.

(c) If an agreement, in whole or in part, is not accepted by the court under the standards set forth in subsection (a) of this section, the court shall allow the parents the opportunity to negotiate another agreement.


WVC 48 - 11 - 202 §48-11-202. Court-ordered services.
(a) (1) The court shall inform the parents, or require them to be informed, about:

(A) How to prepare a parenting plan;

(B) The impact of family dissolution on children and how the needs of children facing family dissolution can best be addressed;

(C) The impact of domestic abuse on children, and resources for addressing domestic abuse; and

(D) Mediation or other nonjudicial procedures designed to help them achieve an agreement.

(2) The court shall require the parents to attend parent education classes.

(3) If parents are unable to resolve issues and agree to a parenting plan, the court shall require mediation, unless application of the procedural rules promulgated pursuant to the provisions of subsection (b) of this section indicates that mediation is inappropriate in the particular case.

(b) The supreme court of appeals shall make and promulgate rules that will provide for premediation screening procedures to determine whether domestic violence, child abuse or neglect, acts or threats of duress or coercion, substance abuse, mental illness or other such elements would adversely affect the safety of a party, the ability of a party to meaningfully participate in the mediation, or the capacity of a party to freely and voluntarily consent to any proposed agreement reached as a result of the mediation. Such rules shall authorize a family law master or judge to consider alternatives to mediation which may aid the parties in establishing a parenting plan. Such rules shall not establish a per se bar to mediation if domestic violence, child abuse or neglect, acts or threats of duress or coercion, substance abuse, mental illness or other such elements exist, but may be the basis for the court, in its discretion, not to order services under subsection (a) of this section, or not to require a parent to have face-to-face meetings with the other parent.

(c) A mediator shall not make a recommendation to the court and may not reveal information that either parent has disclosed during mediation under a reasonable expectation of confidentiality, except that a mediator may reveal to the court credible information that he or she has received concerning domestic violence or child abuse.

(d) Mediation services authorized under subsection (a) of this section shall be ordered at an hourly cost that is reasonable in light of the financial circumstances of each parent, assessed on a uniform sliding scale. Where one parent's ability to pay for such services is significantly greater than the other, the court may order that parent to pay some or all of the expenses of the other. State revenues shall not be used to defray the costs for the services of a mediator: Provided, That the supreme court of appeals may use a portion of its budget to pay administrative costs associated with establishing and operating mediation programs: Provided, however, That grants and gifts to the state that may be used to fund mediation are not to be considered as state revenues for purposes of this subsection.

(e) The supreme court of appeals shall establish standards for the qualification and training of mediators.


WVC 48 - 11 - 203 §48-11-203. Proposed temporary parenting plan; temporary order; amendment; vacation of order.
(a) A parent seeking a temporary order relating to parenting shall file and serve a proposed temporary parenting plan by motion. The other parent, if contesting the proposed temporary parenting plan, shall file and serve a responsive proposed parenting plan. Either parent may move to have a proposed temporary parenting plan entered as part of a temporary order. The parents may enter an agreed temporary parenting plan at any time as part of a temporary order. The proposed temporary parenting plan may be supported by relevant evidence and shall be verified and shall state at a minimum the following:

(1) The name, address and length of residence with the person or persons with whom the child has lived for the preceding twelve months;

(2) The performance by each parent during the last twelve months of the parenting functions relating to the daily needs of the child;

(3) The parents' work and child-care schedules for the preceding twelve months;

(4) The parents' current work and child-care schedules; and

(5) Any of the circumstances set forth in section two hundred nine of this article that are likely to pose a serious risk to the child and that warrant limitation on the award to a parent of temporary residence or time with the child pending entry of a permanent parenting plan.

(b) At the hearing, the court shall enter a temporary parenting order incorporating a temporary parenting plan which includes:

(1) A schedule for the child's time with each parent when appropriate;

(2) Designation of a temporary residence for the child;

(3) Allocation of decision-making authority, if any. Absent allocation of decision-making authority consistent with section two hundred seven of this article, neither party shall make any decision for the child other than those relating to day-to-day or emergency care of the child, which shall be made by the party who is present with the child;

(4) Provisions for temporary support for the child; and

(5) Restraining orders, if applicable.

(c) A parent may make a motion for an order to show cause and the court may enter a temporary order, including a temporary parenting plan, upon a showing of necessity.

(d) A parent may move for amendment of a temporary parenting plan, and the court may order amendment to the temporary parenting plan, if the amendment conforms to the limitations of section two hundred nine of this article and is in the best interest of the child.


WVC 48 - 11 - 204 §48-11-204. Criteria for temporary parenting plan.
(a) After considering the proposed temporary parenting plan filed pursuant to section two hundred three of this article and other relevant evidence presented, the court shall make a temporary parenting plan that is in the best interest of the child. In making this determination, the court shall give particular consideration to:

(1) Which parent has taken greater responsibility during the last twelve months for performing caretaking functions relating to the daily needs of the child; and

(2) Which parenting arrangements will cause the least disruption to the child's emotional stability while the action is pending.

(b) The court shall also consider the factors used to determine residential provisions in the permanent parenting plan.

(c) Upon credible evidence of one or more of the circumstances set forth in subsection (a), section two hundred nine of this article, the court shall issue a temporary order limiting or denying access to the child as required by that section, in order to protect the child or the other party, pending adjudication of the underlying facts.

(d) Expedited procedures shall be instituted to facilitate the prompt issuance of a parenting plan.


WVC 48 - 11 - 205 §48-11-205. Permanent parenting plan.
(a) A party seeking a judicial allocation of custodial responsibility or decision-making responsibility under this article shall file a proposed parenting plan with the court. Parties may file a joint plan. A proposed plan shall be verified and shall state, to the extent known or reasonably discoverable by the filing party or parties:

(1) The name, address and length of residence of any adults with whom the child has lived for one year or more, or in the case of a child less than one year old, any adults with whom the child has lived since the child's birth;

(2) The name and address of each of the child's parents and any other individuals with standing to participate in the action under section one hundred three of this article;

(3) A description of the allocation of caretaking and other parenting responsibilities performed by each person named in subdivisions (1) and (2) of this subsection during the twenty-four months preceding the filing of an action under this article;

(4) A description of the work and child-care schedules of any person seeking an allocation of custodial responsibility, and any expected changes to these schedules in the near future;

(5) A description of the child's school and extracurricular activities;

(6) A description of any of the limiting factors as described in section two hundred nine of this article that are present, including any restraining orders against either parent to prevent domestic or family violence, by case number and jurisdiction;

(7) Required financial information; and

(8) A description of the known areas of agreement and disagreement with any other parenting plan submitted in the case.

The court shall maintain the confidentiality of any information required to be filed under this section when the person giving that information has a reasonable fear of domestic abuse and disclosure of the information would increase that fear.

(b) The court shall develop a process to identify cases in which there is credible information that child abuse or neglect, as defined in section three, article one, chapter forty-nine of this code, or domestic or family violence as defined in section one hundred twenty-one, article two of this chapter has occurred. The process shall include assistance for possible victims of domestic abuse in complying with subdivision (6), subsection (a) of this section, and referral to appropriate resources for safe shelter, counseling, safety planning, information regarding the potential impact of domestic abuse on children, and information regarding civil and criminal remedies for domestic abuse. The process shall also include a system for ensuring that jointly submitted parenting plans that are filed in cases in which there is credible information that child abuse or domestic abuse has occurred receive the court review that is mandated by subdivision (b), section two hundred one of this article.

(c) Upon motion of a party and after consideration of the evidence, the court shall order a parenting plan consistent with the provisions of sections two hundred six through two hundred nine of this article, containing:

(1) A provision for the child's living arrangements and each parent's custodial responsibility, which shall include either:

(A) A custodial schedule that designates in which parent's home each minor child will reside on given days of the year; or

(B) A formula or method for determining such a schedule in sufficient detail that, if necessary, the schedule can be enforced in subsequent proceedings by the court;

(2) An allocation of decision-making responsibility as to significant matters reasonably likely to arise with respect to the child; and

(3) A provision consistent with section two hundred two of this article for resolution of disputes that arise under the plan, and remedies for violations of the plan.

(d) A parenting plan may, at the court's discretion, contain provisions that address matters that are expected to arise in the event of a party's relocation, or provide for future modifications in the parenting plan if specified contingencies occur.


WVC 48 - 11 - 206 §48-11-206. Allocation of custodial responsibility.
(a) Unless otherwise resolved by agreement of the parents under section two hundred one of this article or unless manifestly harmful to the child, the court shall allocate custodial responsibility so that the proportion of custodial time the child spends with each parent approximates the proportion of time each parent spent performing caretaking functions for the child prior to the parents' separation or, if the parents never lived together, before the filing of the action, except to the extent required under section two hundred nine of this article or necessary to achieve any of the following objectives:

(1) To permit the child to have a relationship with each parent who has performed a reasonable share of parenting functions;

(2) To accommodate the firm and reasonable preferences of a child who is fourteen years of age or older, and with regard to a child under fourteen years of age, but sufficiently matured that he or she can intelligently express a voluntary preference for one parent, to give that preference such weight as circumstances warrant;

(3) To keep siblings together when the court finds that doing so is necessary to their welfare;

(4) To protect the child's welfare when, under an otherwise appropriate allocation, the child would be harmed because of a gross disparity in the quality of the emotional attachments between each parent and the child or in each parent's demonstrated ability or availability to meet a child's needs;

(5) To take into account any prior agreement of the parents that, under the circumstances as a whole including the reasonable expectations of the parents in the interest of the child, would be appropriate to consider;

(6) To avoid an allocation of custodial responsibility that would be extremely impractical or that would interfere substantially with the child's need for stability in light of economic, physical or other circumstances, including the distance between the parents' residences, the cost and difficulty of transporting the child, the parents' and child's daily schedules, and the ability of the parents to cooperate in the arrangement;

(7) To apply the principles set forth in subsection (d), section four hundred three of this article if one parent relocates or proposes to relocate at a distance that will impair the ability of a parent to exercise the amount of custodial responsibility that would otherwise be ordered under this section; and

(8) To consider the stage of a child's development.

(b) In determining the proportion of caretaking functions each parent previously performed for the child under subsection (a) of this section, the court shall not consider the divisions of functions arising from temporary arrangements after separation, whether those arrangements are consensual or by court order. The court may take into account information relating to the temporary arrangements in determining other issues under this section.

(c) If the court is unable to allocate custodial responsibility under subsection (a) of this section because the allocation under that subsection would be manifestly harmful to the child, or because there is no history of past performance of caretaking functions, as in the case of a newborn, or because the history does not establish a pattern of caretaking sufficiently dispositive of the issues of the case, the court shall allocate custodial responsibility based on the child's best interest, taking into account the factors in considerations that are set forth in this section and in section two hundred nine and subsection (d), section four hundred three of this article and preserving to the extent possible this section's priority on the share of past caretaking functions each parent performed.

(d) In determining how to schedule the custodial time allocated to each parent, the court shall take account of the economic, physical and other practical circumstances such as those listed in subdivision (6), subsection (a) of this section.


WVC 48 - 11 - 207 §48-11-207. Allocation of significant decision-making

responsibility.
(a) Unless otherwise resolved by agreement of the parents under section two hundred one of this article, the court shall allocate responsibility for making significant life decisions on behalf of the child, including the child's education and health care, to one parent or to two parents jointly, in accordance with the child's best interest, in light of:

(1) The allocation of custodial responsibility under section two hundred six of this article;

(2) The level of each parent's participation in past decisionmaking on behalf of the child;

(3) The wishes of the parents;

(4) The level of ability and cooperation the parents have demonstrated in decisionmaking on behalf of the child;

(5) Prior agreements of the parties; and

(6) The existence of any limiting factors, as set forth in section two hundred nine of this article.

(b) If each of the child's legal parents has been exercising a reasonable share of parenting functions for the child, the court shall presume that an allocation of decision-making responsibility to both parents jointly is in the child's best interests. The presumption is overcome if there is a history of domestic abuse, or by a showing that joint allocation of decision-making responsibility is not in the child's best interest.

(c) Unless otherwise provided or agreed by the parents, each parent who is exercising custodial responsibility shall be given sole responsibility for day-to-day decisions for the child, while the child is in that parent's care and control, including emergency decisions affecting the health and safety of the child.


WVC 48 - 11 - 208 §48-11-208. Criteria for parenting plan; dispute resolution.
(a) If provisions for resolving parental disputes are not ordered by the court pursuant to parenting agreement under section two hundred one of this article, the court shall order a method of resolving disputes that serves the child's best interest in light of:

(1) The parents' wishes and the stability of the child;

(2) Circumstances, including, but not limited to, financial circumstances, that may affect the parents ability to participate in a prescribed dispute resolution process; and

(3) The existence of any limiting factor, as set forth in section two hundred nine of this article.

(b) The court may order a nonjudicial process of dispute resolution by designating with particularity the person or agency to conduct the process or the method for selecting such a person or agency. The disposition of a dispute through a nonjudicial method of dispute resolution that has been ordered by the court without prior parental agreement is subject to de novo judicial review. If the parents have agreed in a parenting plan or by agreement thereafter to a binding resolution of their dispute by nonjudicial means, a decision by such means is binding upon the parents and must be enforced by the court, unless it is shown to be contrary to the best interests of the child, beyond the scope of the parents' agreement, or the result of fraud, misconduct, corruption or other serious irregularity.

(c) This section is subject to the limitations imposed by section two hundred two of this article.


WVC 48 - 11 - 209 §48-11-209. Parenting plan; limiting factors.
(a) If either of the parents so requests, or upon receipt of credible information thereof, the court shall determine whether a parent who would otherwise be allocated responsibility under a parenting plan:

(1) Has abused, neglected or abandoned a child, as defined by state law;

(2) Has sexually assaulted or sexually abused a child as those terms are defined in articles eight-b and eight-d, chapter sixty-one of this code;

(3) Has committed domestic violence, as defined in section two, article two-a of this chapter;

(4) Has interfered persistently with the other parent's access to the child, except in the case of actions taken for the purpose of protecting the safety of the child or the interfering parent or another family member, pending adjudication of the facts underlying that belief; or

(5) Has repeatedly made fraudulent reports of domestic violence or child abuse.

(b) If a parent is found to have engaged in any activity specified by subsection (a) of this section, the court shall impose limits that are reasonably calculated to protect the child or child's parent from harm. The limitations that the court shall consider include, but are not limited to:

(1) An adjustment of the custodial responsibility of the parents, including the allocation of exclusive custodial responsibility to one of them;

(2) Supervision of the custodial time between a parent and the child;

(3) Exchange of the child between parents through an intermediary, or in a protected setting;

(4) Restraints on the parent from communication with or proximity to the other parent or the child;

(5) A requirement that the parent abstain from possession or consumption of alcohol or nonprescribed drugs while exercising custodial responsibility and in the twenty-four hour period immediately preceding such exercise;

(6) Denial of overnight custodial responsibility;

(7) Restrictions on the presence of specific persons while the parent is with the child;

(8) A requirement that the parent post a bond to secure return of the child following a period in which the parent is exercising custodial responsibility or to secure other performance required by the court;

(9) A requirement that the parent complete a program of intervention for perpetrators of domestic violence, for drug or alcohol abuse, or a program designed to correct another factor; or

(10) Any other constraints or conditions that the court deems necessary to provide for the safety of the child, a child's parent or any person whose safety immediately affects the child's welfare.

(c) If a parent is found to have engaged in any activity specified in subsection (a) of this section, the court may not allocate custodial responsibility or decision-making responsibility to that parent without making special written findings that the child and other parent can be adequately protected from harm by such limits as it may impose under subsection (b) of this section. The parent found to have engaged in the behavior specified in subsection (a) of this section has the burden of proving that an allocation of custodial responsibility or decision-making responsibility to that parent will not endanger the child or the other parent.


WVC 48 - 11 - 301 PART III. FACT FINDING.
§48-11-301. Court-ordered investigation.
(a) In its discretion, the court may order a written investigation and report to assist it in determining any issue relevant to proceedings under this article. The investigation and report may be made by the guardian ad litem, the staff of the court or other professional social service organization experienced in counseling children and families. The court shall specify the scope of the investigation or evaluation and the authority of the investigator.

(b) In preparing the report concerning a child, the investigator may consult any person who may have information about the child and the potential parenting or custodian arrangements. Upon order of the court, the investigator may refer the child to professional personnel for diagnosis. The investigator may consult with and obtain information from medical, psychiatric or other expert persons who have served the child in the past without obtaining the consent of the parent or the child's custodian; but the child's consent must be obtained if the child has reached the age of twelve, unless the court finds that the child lacks mental capacity to consent. If the requirements of subsection (c) of this section are fulfilled, the investigator's report may be received in evidence at the hearing.

(c) The investigator shall deliver the investigator's report to counsel and to any party not represented by counsel at least ten days prior to the hearing unless a shorter time is ordered by the court for good cause shown. The investigator shall make available to counsel and to any party not represented by counsel the investigator's file of underlying data and reports, complete texts of diagnostic reports made to the investigator pursuant to the provisions of subsection (b) of this section, and the names and addresses of all persons whom the investigator has consulted. Any party to the proceeding may call the investigator and any person whom the investigator has consulted for cross-examination. A party may not waive the right of cross-examination prior to the hearing.

(d) Services and tests ordered under this section shall be ordered only if at no cost to the individuals involved, or at a cost that is reasonable in light of the available financial resources.


WVC 48 - 11 - 302 §48-11-302. Appointment of guardian.
(a) In its discretion, the court may appoint a guardian ad litem to represent the child's best interests. The court shall specify the terms of the appointment, including the guardian's role, duties and scope of authority.

(b) In its discretion, the court may appoint a lawyer to represent the child, if the child is competent to direct the terms of the representation and court has a reasonable basis for finding that the appointment would be helpful in resolving the issues of the case. The court shall specify the terms of the appointment, including the lawyer's role, duties and scope of authority.

(c) When substantial allegations of domestic abuse have been made, the court shall order an investigation under section three hundred one of this article or make an appointment under subsection (a) or (b) of this section, unless the court is satisfied that the information necessary to evaluate the allegations will be adequately presented to the court without such order or appointment.

(d) Subject to whatever restrictions the court may impose or that may be imposed by the attorney-client privilege or by subsection (d), section two hundred two of this article, the court may require the child or parent to provide information to an individual or agency appointed by the court under section three hundred one of this article or subsection (a) or (b) of this section, and it may require any person having information about the child or parent to provide that information, even in the absence of consent by a parent or by the child, except if the information is otherwise protected by law.

(e) The investigator who submits a report or evidence to the court that has been requested under section three hundred one of this article and a guardian ad litem appointed under subsection (a) of this section who submits information or recommendations to the court are subject to cross-examination by the parties. A lawyer appointed under subsection (b) of this section may not be a witness in the proceedings, except as allowed under standards applicable in other civil proceedings.

(f) Services and tests ordered under this section shall be ordered only if at no cost to the individuals involved, or at a cost that is reasonable in light of the available financial resources.


WVC 48 - 11 - 303 §48-11-303. Interview of the child by the court.
The court, in its discretion, may interview the child in chambers or direct another person to interview the child, in order to obtain information relating to the issues of the case. The interview shall be conducted in accordance with rule 16 of the rules of practice and procedure for family law, as promulgated by the supreme court of appeals.


WVC 48 - 11 - 401 PART IV. MODIFICATION OF PARENTING PLAN.
§48-11-401. Modification upon showing of changed circumstances or harm.
(a) Except as provided in section four hundred two or four hundred three of this article, a court shall modify a parenting plan order if it finds, on the basis of facts that were not known or have arisen since the entry of the prior order and were not anticipated therein, that a substantial change has occurred in the circumstances of the child or of one or both parents and a modification is necessary to serve the best interests of the child.

(b) In exceptional circumstances, a court may modify a parenting plan if it finds that the plan is not working as contemplated and in some specific way is manifestly harmful to the child, even if a substantial change of circumstances has not occurred.

(c) Unless the parents have agreed otherwise, the following circumstances do not justify a significant modification of a parenting plan except where harm to the child is shown:

(1) Circumstances resulting in an involuntary loss of income, by loss of employment or otherwise, affecting the parent's economic status;

(2) A parent's remarriage or cohabitation; and

(3) Choice of reasonable caretaking arrangements for the child by a legal parent, including the child's placement in day care.

(d) For purposes of subsection (a) of this section, the occurrence or worsening of a limiting factor, as defined in subsection (a), section two hundred nine of this article, after a parenting plan has been ordered by the court, constitutes a substantial change of circumstances and measures shall be ordered pursuant to section two hundred nine of this article to protect the child or the child's parent.


WVC 48 - 11 - 402 §48-11-402. Modification without showing of changed circumstances.
(a) The court shall modify a parenting plan in accordance with a parenting agreement, unless it finds that the agreement is not knowing and voluntary or that it would be harmful to the child.

(b) The court may modify any provisions of the parenting plan without the showing of change circumstances required by subsection (a), section four hundred one of this article if the modification is in the child's best interests, and the modification:

(1) Reflects the de facto arrangements under which the child has been receiving care from the petitioner, without objection, in substantial deviation from the parenting plan, for the preceding six months before the petition for modification is filed, provided the arrangement is not the result of a parent's acquiescence resulting from the other parent's domestic abuse;

(2) Constitutes a minor modification in the plan; or

(3) Is necessary to accommodate the reasonable and firm preferences of a child who has attained the age of fourteen.

(c) Evidence of repeated filings of fraudulent reports of domestic violence or child abuse is admissible in a domestic relations action between the involved parties when the allocation of custodial responsibilities is in issue, and the fraudulent accusations may be a factor considered by the court in making the allocation of custodial responsibilities.


WVC 48 - 11 - 403 §48-11-403. Relocation of a parent.
(a) The relocation of a parent constitutes a substantial change in the circumstances under subsection (a), section four hundred one of this article of the child only when it significantly impairs either parent's ability to exercise responsibilities that the parent has been exercising.

(b) Unless otherwise ordered by the court, a parent who has responsibility under a parenting plan who changes, or intends to change, residences for more than ninety days must give a minimum of sixty days' advance notice, or the most notice practicable under the circumstances, to any other parent with responsibility under the same parenting plan. Notice shall include:

(1) The relocation date;

(2) The address of the intended new residence;

(3) The specific reasons for the proposed relocation;

(4) A proposal for how custodial responsibility shall be modified, in light of the intended move; and

(5) Information for the other parent as to how he or she may respond to the proposed relocation or modification of custodial responsibility.

Failure to comply with the notice requirements of this section without good cause may be a factor in the determination of whether the relocation is in good faith under subsection (d) of this section, and is a basis for an award of reasonable expenses and reasonable attorneys fees to another parent that are attributable to such failure.

The supreme court of appeals shall make available through the offices of the circuit clerks and the family law masters a form notice that complies with the provisions of this subsection. The supreme court of appeals shall promulgate procedural rules that provide for an expedited hearing process to resolve issues arising from a relocation or proposed relocation.

(c) When changed circumstances are shown under subsection (a) of this section, the court shall, if practical, revise the parenting plan so as to both accommodate the relocation and maintain the same proportion of custodial responsibility being exercised by each of the parents. In making such revision, the court may consider the additional costs that a relocation imposes upon the respective parties for transportation and communication, and may equitably allocate such costs between the parties.

(d) When the relocation constituting changed circumstances under subsection (a) of this section renders it impractical to maintain the same proportion of custodial responsibility as that being exercised by each parent, the court shall modify the parenting plan in accordance with the child's best interests and in accordance with the following principles:

(1) A parent who has been exercising a significant majority of the custodial responsibility for the child should be allowed to relocate with the child so long as that parent shows that the relocation is in good faith for a legitimate purpose and to a location that is reasonable in light of the purpose. The percentage of custodial responsibility that constitutes a significant majority of custodial responsibility is seventy percent or more. A relocation is for a legitimate purpose if it is to be close to significant family or other support networks, for significant health reasons, to protect the safety of the child or another member of the child's household from significant risk of harm, to pursue a significant employment or educational opportunity, or to be with one's spouse who is established, or who is pursuing a significant employment or educational opportunity, in another location. The relocating parent has the burden of proving of the legitimacy of any other purpose. A move with a legitimate purpose is reasonable unless its purpose is shown to be substantially achievable without moving, or by moving to a location that is substantially less disruptive of the other parent's relationship to the child.

(2) If a relocation of the parent is in good faith for legitimate purpose and to a location that is reasonable in light of the purpose, and if neither has been exercising a significant majority of custodial responsibility for the child, the court shall reallocate custodial responsibility based on the best interest of the child, taking into account all relevant factors including the effects of the relocation on the child.

(3) If a parent does not establish that the purpose for that parent's relocation is in good faith for a legitimate purpose into a location that is reasonable in light of the purpose, the court may modify the parenting plan in accordance with the child's best interests and the effects of the relocation on the child. Among the modifications the court may consider is a reallocation of primary custodial responsibility, effective if and when the relocation occurs, but such a reallocation shall not be ordered if the relocating parent demonstrates that the child's best interests would be served by the relocation.

(4) The court shall attempt to minimize impairment to a parent-child relationship caused by a parent's relocation through alternative arrangements for the exercise of custodial responsibility appropriate to the parents' resources and circumstances and the developmental level of the child.

(e) In determining the proportion of caretaking functions each parent previously performed for the child under the parenting plan before relocation, the court shall not consider a division of functions arising from any arrangements made after a relocation but before a modification hearing on the issues related to relocation.

(f) In determining the effect of the relocation or proposed relocation on a child, any interviewing or questioning of the child shall be conducted in accordance with the provisions of rule 16 of the rules of practice and procedure for family law, as promulgated by the supreme court of appeals.


WVC 48 - 11 - 501 PART V. ENFORCEMENT OF PARENTING PLANS.
§48-11-501. Enforcement of parenting plans.

(a) If, upon a parental complaint, the court finds a parent intentionally and without good cause violated a provision of the court-ordered parenting plan, it shall enforce the remedy specified in the plan or, if no remedies are specified or they are clearly inadequate, it shall find the plan has been violated and order an appropriate remedy, which may include:

(1) In the case of interference with the exercise of custodial responsibility for a child by the other parent, substitute time for that parent to make up for time missed with the child;

(2) In the case of missed time by a parent, costs in recognition of lost opportunities by the other parent, in child care costs and other reasonable expenses in connection with the missed time;

(3) A modification of the plan, if the requirements for a modification are met under section two hundred nine, four hundred one, four hundred two or four hundred three of this article, including an adjustment of the custodial responsibility of the parents or an allocation of exclusive custodial responsibility to one of them;

(4) An order that the parent who violated the plan obtain appropriate counseling;

(5) A civil penalty, in an amount of not more than one hundred dollars for a first offense, not more than five hundred dollars for a second offense, or not more than one thousand dollars for a third or subsequent offense, to be paid to the parent education fund as established under section one hundred four of this article;

(6) Court costs, reasonable attorney's fees and any other reasonable expenses in enforcing the plan; and

(7) Any other appropriate remedy.

(b) Except as provided in a jointly submitted plan that has been ordered by the court, obligations established in a parenting plan are independent obligations, and it is not a defense to an action under this section by one parent that the other parent failed to meet obligations under a parenting plan or child support order.

(c) An agreement between the parents to depart from the parenting plan can be a defense to a claim that the plan has been violated, even though the agreement was not made part of a court order, but only as to acts or omissions consistent with the agreement that occur before the agreement is disaffirmed by either parent.


WVC 48 - 11 - 601 PART VI. MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS.
§48-11-601. Access to a child's records.

(a)(1) Each parent has full and equal access to a child's educational records absent a court order to the contrary. Neither parent may veto the access requested by the other parent. Educational records are academic, attendance and disciplinary records of public and private schools in all grades kindergarten through twelve and any form of alternative school. Educational records are any and all school records concerning the child that would otherwise be properly released to the primary custodial parent, including, but not limited to, report cards and progress reports, attendance records, disciplinary reports, results of the child's performance on standardized tests and statewide tests and information on the performance of the school that the child attends on standardized statewide tests; curriculum materials of the class or classes in which the child is enrolled; names of the appropriate school personnel to contact if problems arise with the child; information concerning the academic performance standards, proficiencies, or skills the child is expected to accomplish; school rules, attendance policies, dress codes and procedures for visiting the school; and information about any psychological testing the school does involving the child.

(2) In addition to the right to receive school records, the nonresidential parent has the right to participate as a member of a parent advisory committee or any other organization comprised of parents of children at the school that the child attends.

(3) The nonresidential parent or noncustodial parent has the right to question anything in the child's record that the parent feels is inaccurate or misleading or is an invasion of privacy and to receive a response from the school.

(4) Each parent has a right to arrange appointments for parent-teacher conferences absent a court order to the contrary. Neither parent can be compelled against their will to exercise this right by attending conferences jointly with the other parent.

(b)(1) Each parent has full and equal access to a child's medical records absent a court order to the contrary. Neither parent may veto the access requested by the other parent. If necessary, either parent is required to authorize medical providers to release to the other parent copies of any and all information concerning medical care provided to the child which would otherwise be properly released to either parent.

(2) If the child is in the actual physical custody of one parent, that parent is required to promptly inform the other parent of any illness of the child which requires medical attention.

(3) Each parent is required to consult with the other parent prior to any elective surgery being performed on the child, and in the event emergency medical procedures are undertaken for the child which require the parental consent of either parent, if time permits, the other parent shall be consulted, or if time does not permit such consultation, the other parent shall be promptly informed of the emergency medical procedures: Provided, That nothing contained herein alters or amends the law of this state as it otherwise pertains to physicians or health care facilities obtaining parental consent prior to providing medical care or performing medical procedures.

(c) Each parent has full and equal access to a child's juvenile court records, process and pleadings, absent a court order to the contrary. Neither parent may veto any access requested by the other parent. Juvenile court records are limited to those records which are normally available to a parent of a child who is a subject of the juvenile justice system.


WVC 48 - 11 - 602 §48-11-602. Designation of custody for the purpose of other state and federal statutes.
Solely for the purposes of all other state and federal statutes which require a designation or determination of custody, a parenting plan shall designate the parent with whom the child is scheduled to reside the majority of the time as the custodian of the child. However, this designation shall not affect either parent's rights and responsibilities under a parenting plan. In the absence of such a designation, the parent with whom the child is scheduled to reside the majority of the time shall be deemed to be the custodian of the child for the purposes of such federal and state statutes.


WVC 48 - 11 - 603 §48-11-603. Effect of enactment; operative dates.
(a) The enactment of this article during the second extraordinary session of the Legislature, one thousand nine hundred ninety-nine, is prospective in operation unless otherwise expressly indicated.

(b) The provisions of section two hundred two of this article, insofar as they provide for parent education and mediation, become operative on the first day of January, two thousand. Until that date, parent education and mediation with regard to custody issues are discretionary unless made mandatory under a particular program or pilot project by rule or direction of the supreme court of appeals or a circuit court.

(c) The provisions of this article that authorize a circuit court in the absence of an agreement of the parents to order an allocation of custodial responsibility and an allocation of significant decision-making responsibility, become operative on the first day of January, two thousand, at which time the primary caretaker doctrine shall be replaced with a system that allocates custodial and decision-making responsibility to the parents in accordance with this article.


WVC 48 - 11 - 604 §48-11-604. Effect of enactment; modification of child visitation privileges in certain cases.
(a) Parents who are parties to an order that establishes visitation privileges with a child and that is in existence on the first day of January, two thousand, may move for a modification of the order, even without a change of circumstances, in accordance with the provisions of this section, if the motion for modification is made before the first day of July, two thousand, moving the court to establish a parenting plan in accordance with the provisions of this article.

(b) Modification of an order that awards visitation privileges may be reconsidered on a motion for modification if the court first makes a preliminary finding that the following factors are present:

(1) Visitation was based, in whole or in part, on a schedule or guidelines;

(2) The party petitioning for modification has consistently exercised or attempted to exercise the ordered visitation;

(3) The visitation provisions of the order sought to be modified have been in effect for less than five years; and

(4) The facts as alleged in the motion, if taken as true, would result in a parenting plan that is substantially different from the result reached by application of the visitation schedule or guidelines that the prior order was based on.

(c) If the court makes a preliminary finding that the factors described in subsection (b) of this section are present, the case shall proceed under the provisions of this article to establish a parenting plan: Provided, That in no case shall the parent petitioning for modification of a prior order of visitation be allocated more than fifty percent of the custodial responsibility. Nothing contained in this subsection shall be construed to authorize the continued application of the primary caretaker standard to modifications made under this section.


WVC 48 - 12 - ARTICLE 12. MEDICAL SUPPORT.


WVC 48 - 12 - 101 §48-12-101. Definitions applicable to medical support enforcement.
For the purposes of this article:

(1) "Appropriate health insurance coverage" means insurance coverage that is reasonable in cost, comprehensive in nature and reasonably accessible to the child to be covered.

(2) "Cash medical support" means an amount ordered to be paid toward the cost of health insurance provided by a public entity or by another person through employment or otherwise, or for other medical costs not covered by insurance.

(3) "Custodian for the children" means a parent, legal guardian, committee or other third party appointed by court order as custodian of a child or children for whom child support is ordered.

(4) Obligated parent" means a natural or adoptive parent who is required by agreement or order to pay for insurance coverage and medical care, or some portion thereof, for his or her child.

(5) "Insurance coverage" means coverage for medical, dental, including orthodontic, optical, prescription pharmaceuticals, psychological, psychiatric or other health care services.

(6) "Child" means a child to whom a duty of child support is owed.

(7) "Medical care" means medical, dental, optical, prescription pharmaceuticals, psychological, psychiatric or other health care service for children in need of child support.

(8) "Insurer" means any company, health maintenance organization, self-funded group, multiple employer welfare arrangement, hospital or medical services corporation, trust, group health plan, as defined in 29 U.S.C. §1167, Section 607(1) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 or other entity which provides insurance coverage or offers a service benefit plan.

(9) "National medical support notice" means the written notice described in 29 U.S.C. §1169 (a)(5)(C) and 42 U.S.C. §666(a)(19) and issued as a means of enforcing the health care coverage provisions in a child support order for children whose parent or parents are required to provide health-care coverage through an employment-related group health plan. This notice is consider under ERISA to be a qualified medical child support order (QMSO).

(10) "Qualified medical child support order" means a medical child support order which creates or recognizes the existence of an alternate recipient's right to, or assigns to an alternate recipient the right to, receive benefits from which a participant or beneficiary is eligible under a group health plan. A qualified medical child support order must include the name and the last known mailing address, if any, of the participant and the name and mailing address of each alternate recipient covered by the order, except that, to the extent provided in the order, the name and mailing address of an official of the IV-D agency may be substituted for the mailing address of any alternate recipient, a reasonable description of the type of coverage provided to each alternate recipient or the manner in which the type of coverage is determined and the time period for which the order applies.

(11) "Reasonably accessible health insurance coverage" means that the coverage will provide payment for the primary health care services within a reasonable distance from the child's primary residence.

(12) "Reasonable costs" means the child's portion of the medical insurance premiums not exceeding five percent of the gross income of the parent who provides the coverage.


WVC 48 - 12 - 102 §48-12-102. Court-ordered medical support.
In every action to establish or modify an order which requires the payment of child support, the court shall ascertain the ability of each parent to provide medical care for the children of the parties. In any temporary or final order establishing an award of child support or any temporary or final order modifying a prior order establishing an award of child support, the court shall address the provision of medical support through one or more of the following methods:

(1) The court shall determine whether appropriate medical insurance coverage as defined in section one hundred one of this article is available to either parent. If such insurance coverage exists, the court shall order the appropriate parent to enroll the child in that coverage and the cost of providing appropriate medical insurance shall be entered on line 5b of worksheet A for the basic shared parenting child support calculation as provided in section two hundred four, article thirteen of this code or line 12b of worksheet B for the extended shared parenting child support calculation as provided in said section.

(2) If the court does not include the cost of the medical insurance in the child support calculation, the court may order the other parent to contribute to the cost of the premium through an award of medical support. If the amount of the award of child support in the order is determined using the child support guidelines, the court shall order that nonrecurring or subsequently occurring uninsured medical expenses in excess of two hundred fifty dollars per year per child shall be separately divided between the parties in proportion to their adjusted gross incomes.

(3) If neither parent currently has access to appropriate medical insurance coverage, the court shall take the following actions:

(a) The court shall order the parties to provide appropriate medical insurance coverage if it becomes available in the future; and

(b) The court shall order the payment of cash medical support by either or both parties. The amount of the cash medical support to be awarded is within the discretion of the court but the total of the cash medical support and cost of the insurance premiums shall not exceed five percent of the payor's gross income.

(c) In setting a cash medical support award, the court may consider the costs of uncovered medical expenses for the child, the relative percentages of the parties' incomes or the cost to the government to provide medical coverage for the child.

(d) If the support obligor's adjusted gross income is less than two hundred percent of the federal poverty level, the court shall set the cash medical support amount at zero.

(e) Cash medical support shall be collected and enforced in the same manner as child support payments.

(4) The order shall require the obligor to continue to provide the Bureau for Child Support Enforcement with information as to his or her employer's name and address and information as to the availability of employer-related insurance programs providing medical care coverage so long as the child continues to be eligible to receive support.


WVC 48 - 12 - 103 §48-12-103. Cost of medical support considered in applying support guidelines.
The Bureau for Child Support Enforcement or the parties to the case may bring a petition to modify the medical support obligations upon notification of any new source of insurance coverage or any change in circumstances as set forth in section one hundred six, article fourteen of this chapter.


WVC 48 - 12 - 104 §48-12-104. Use of national medical support notice; employer to enroll child and withhold premium.
(a) All child support orders which include a provision for health care coverage of a child shall be enforced, where appropriate, through the use of the national medical support notice, as set forth in 42 U.S.C. §666 (a)(19) and 29 U.S.C. §1169 (a)(5)(C) et seq.

(b) Unless alternative coverage is permitted in any order by a court of competent jurisdiction, in any case in which a parent is required pursuant to a child support order to provide the health care coverage and the employer of the parent is known to the IV-D agency, the IV-D agency shall use the national medical support notice to give notice of the provision for the health care coverage of the child to the employer. The employer shall enroll the child as a beneficiary in the group insurance plan and withhold any required premium from the obligated parent's income or wages, and remit any amount withheld for the premium directly to the plan.


WVC 48 - 12 - 105 §48-12-105. Employer's obligation to transfer notice to appropriate plan.
Within twenty business days after the date of receipt of the national medical support notice, the employer shall transfer the notice, excluding the severable employer withholding notice described in section 401 (b)(2)(C) of the Child Support Performance and Incentive Act of 1998, to the appropriate plan providing any health care coverage for which the child is eligible.


WVC 48 - 12 - 106 §48-12-106. Notice requirements for certain newly-hired employees.
In any case in which the parent is a newly hired employee who is reported to the state directory of new hires pursuant to section 18-125 of this chapter, and if the bureau for child support enforcement is currently providing services for this case, the agency shall issue, where appropriate, the national medical support notice, together with an income withholding notice issued pursuant to section 14-405 of this chapter, within two days after the date of the entry of the employee in the directory.


WVC 48 - 12 - 107 §48-12-107. Notice requirement upon termination of parent.
In any case in which the employment of the parent with any employer who received a national medical support notice is terminated, the employer is required to notify the IV-D agency of the termination, within fourteen days of the termination, and shall provide the bureau for child support enforcement with the obligor's last known address at the time of termination.


WVC 48 - 12 - 108 §48-12-108. Certain liabilities of parent for contributions under the plan subject to enforcement; exceptions.
Any liability a parent may have for employee contributions required under the plan for enrollment of the child is subject to appropriate enforcement unless the parent contests the enforcement based upon a mistake of fact, except that if enforcement of both the full amount of cash child support and the full amount of medical support violates the application provisions of 15 U.S.C. §1673, Section 303(b) of the Consumer Credit Protection Act, then the current month's cash child support shall receive priority, and shall be deducted in full prior to any deduction being made for payment of either current medical support or health insurance premiums. If the employee contests the withholding in the manner prescribed within the notice, the employer must initiate withholding until such time as the employer receives notice that the contest is resolved.


WVC 48 - 12 - 109 §48-12-109. Custodial parent to receive coverage information, documents.
Within forty business days after the date of the national medical support notice, the plan administrator shall provide to the custodial parent a description of the coverage available and any forms or documents, including an insurance enrollment card, to effectuate the coverage.


WVC 48 - 12 - 110 §48-12-110. Employer, union to notify IV-D agency within forty days of receipt of notice.
Within forty days of receipt of a national medical support notice, the obligated parent's employer, multiemployer trust or union shall notify the IV-D agency with respect to whether coverage for the child is available, and if so, whether the child is covered under the plan, the effective date of the coverage and the name of the insurer.


WVC 48 - 12 - 111 §48-12-111. Employer's duties upon service of national medical support notice; notice from another state.
(a) Upon service of the national medical support notice requiring insurance coverage for the children, the employer, multiemployer trust or union shall enroll the child as a beneficiary in the group insurance plan and withhold any required premium from the obligated parent's income or wages, unless the child is already enrolled in this plan.

(b) If more than one plan is offered by the employer, multiemployer trust or union, the child shall be enrolled in the same plan as the obligated parent. If the obligated parent is not enrolled for insurance coverage, the employer shall promptly report the availability of plans to the IV-D agency. The IV-D agency, in consultation with parent, shall promptly select the most appropriate plan, considering both the health needs of the child and the cost to the parents, and shall notify the plan administrator and the parties of the selection.

(c) Insurance coverage for the child which is ordered pursuant to the provisions of this section shall not be terminated except as provided in section one hundred fifteen of this article.

(d) A medical support notice issued by the appropriate IV-D agency of another state may be sent directly to an employer in this state without the necessity of first filing a petition or similar pleading or registering the order with the IV-D agency of this state. The medical support notice shall have the same force and effect as if the notice had been issued by the IV-D agency of this state. Upon receipt of a medical support notice from the IV-D agency of another state, the employer shall immediately provide a copy of the notice to the obligor.


WVC 48 - 12 - 112 §48-12-112. Employer's duties where court-ordered coverage available.
(a) Where a parent is required by a court or administrative order to provide health coverage, which is available through an employer doing business in this state, the employer is required:

(1) To permit the parent to enroll under family coverage any child who is otherwise eligible for coverage without regard to any enrollment season restrictions;

(2) If the parent is enrolled but fails to make application to obtain coverage of the child, to enroll the child under family coverage upon application by the child's other parent, by the state agency administering the medicaid program or by the bureau for child support enforcement;

(3) Not to disenroll or eliminate coverage of the child unless the employer is provided satisfactory written evidence that:

(A) The court or administrative order is no longer in effect;

(B) The child is or will be enrolled in comparable coverage which will take effect no later than the effective date of disenrollment; or

(C) The employer eliminated family health coverage for all of its employees; and

(4) To withhold from the employee's compensation the employee's share, if any, of premiums for health coverage and to pay this amount to the insurer: Provided, That the amount so withheld may not exceed the maximum amount permitted to be withheld under 15 U.S.C. §1673, Section 303(b) of the consumer credit protection act.


WVC 48 - 12 - 113 §48-12-113. Signature of custodian of child is valid authorization to insurer; insurer's obligations.
(a) The signature of the custodian for the child shall constitute a valid authorization to the insurer for the purposes of processing an insurance payment to the provider of medical care for the child.

(b) No insurer, employer or multiemployer trust in this state may refuse to honor a claim for a covered service when the custodian for the child or the obligated parent submits proof of payment for medical bills for the child.

(c) The insurer shall reimburse the custodian for the child or the obligated parent who submits copies of medical bills for the child with proof of payment.

(d) All insurers in this state shall comply with the provisions of section 33-15-16 and section 33-16-11 of this code and shall provide insurance coverage for the child of a covered employee notwithstanding the amount of support otherwise ordered by the court and regardless of the fact that the child may not be living in the home of the covered employee.


WVC 48 - 12 - 114 §48-12-114. Notice to be transferred on parent's change of employment.
Where an obligated parent changes employment and the new employer provides the obligated parent's health care coverage, the bureau for child support enforcement shall transfer to the new employer notice of the obligated parent's duty to provide health care coverage by use of the national medical support notice.


WVC 48 - 12 - 115 §48-12-115. Insurer to notify custodian when obligated parent's employment is terminated or coverage is denied, modified or terminated; explanation of conversion privileges; employer to notify bureau of termination.
When an order for insurance coverage for a child pursuant to this article is in effect and the obligated parent's employment is terminated or the insurance coverage for the child is denied, modified or terminated, the insurer shall in addition to complying with the requirements of article sixteen-a, chapter thirty-three of this code, within ten days after the notice of change in coverage is sent to the covered employee, notify the custodian for the child and provide an explanation of any conversion privileges available from the insurer. In any case in which the employment of the obligated parent to provide insurance is terminated, the employer shall notify the bureau for child support enforcement of the termination.


WVC 48 - 12 - 116 §48-12-116. Child is eligible for coverage until emancipated; remedies available if obligated parent fails to provide ordered coverage; failure to maintain coverage is basis for modification of support order.
(a) A child of an obligated parent shall remain eligible for insurance coverage until the child is emancipated or until the insurer under the terms of the applicable insurance policy terminates said child from coverage, whichever is later in time, or until further order of the court.

(b) If the obligated parent fails to comply with the order to provide insurance coverage for the child, the court shall:

(1) Hold the obligated parent in contempt for failing or refusing to provide the insurance coverage or for failing or refusing to provide the information required in subdivision (4) of this subsection;

(2) Enter an order for a sum certain against the obligated parent for the cost of medical care for the child and any insurance premiums paid or provided for the child during any period in which the obligated parent failed to provide the required coverage;

(3) In the alternative, other enforcement remedies available under sections 14-2, 14-3 and 14-4 of this chapter, or otherwise available under law, may be used to recover from the obligated parent the cost of medical care or insurance coverage for the child;

(4) In addition to other remedies available under law, the bureau for child support enforcement may initiate an income withholding against the wages, salary or other employment income of, and withhold amounts from state tax refunds to any person who:

(A) Is required by court or administrative order to provide coverage of the cost of health services to a child; and

(B) Has received payment from a third party for the costs of the services but has not used the payments to reimburse either the other parent or guardian of the child or the provider of the services, to the extent necessary to reimburse the state medicaid agency for its costs: Provided, That claims for current and past due child support shall take priority over these claims.

(c) Proof of failure to maintain court ordered insurance coverage for the child constitutes a showing of substantial change in circumstances or increased need, and provides a basis for modification of the child support order.


WVC 48 - 12 - 117 §48-12-117. Mandatory date for use of the national medical support notice.
Provisions of this article which require the use of the national medical support notice are not mandatory until April 1, 2002.


WVC 48 - 12 - 118 §48-12-118. Failure of employer to comply with medical insurance coverage; penalties.
For the failure of any employer, multiemployer trust or employee's union to comply with the requirements of this article the bureau for child support enforcement may assess a civil penalty of not more than one hundred dollars. If a court of competent jurisdiction determines that the employer, multiemployer trust or the employee's union wilfully failed to comply with the provisions of this article the employer, multiemployer trust or employee's union shall be found guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than five hundred dollars nor more than one thousand dollars.


WVC 48 - 13 - ARTICLE 13. GUIDELINES FOR CHILD SUPPORT AWARDS.


WVC 48 - 13 - 101 PART 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS.
§48-13-101. Guidelines to ensure uniformity and increase predictability; presumption of correctness.
This article establishes guidelines for child support award amounts so as to ensure greater uniformity by those persons who make child support recommendations and enter child support orders and to increase predictability for parents, children and other persons who are directly affected by child support orders. There is a rebuttable presumption, in any proceeding before a court for the award of child support, that the amount of the award which would result from the application of these guidelines is the correct amount of child support to be awarded.


WVC 48 - 13 - 102 §48-13-102. Right of children to share in parents' level of living.
The Legislature recognizes that children have a right to share in their natural parents' level of living. Expenditures in families are not made in accordance with subsistence level standards, but are made in proportion to household income, and as parental incomes increase or decrease, the actual dollar expenditures for children also increase or decrease correspondingly. In order to ensure that children properly share in their parents' resources, regardless of family structure, these guidelines are structured so as to provide that after a consideration of respective parental incomes, child support will be related, to the extent practicable, to the standard of living that children would enjoy if they were living in a household with both parents present.


WVC 48 - 13 - 103 §48-13-103. Financial contributions of both parents to be considered.
The guidelines promulgated under the provisions of this article take into consideration the financial contributions of both parents. The Legislature recognizes that expenditures in households are made in aggregate form and that total family income is pooled to determine the level at which the family can live. These guidelines consider the financial contributions of both parents in relationship to total income, so as to establish and equitably apportion the child support obligation.


WVC 48 - 13 - 201 PART 2. CALCULATION OF CHILD SUPPORT ORDER.
§48-13-201. Use of both parents' income in determining child support.
A child support order is determined by dividing the total child support obligation between the parents in proportion to their income. Both parents' adjusted gross income is used to determine the amount of child support.


WVC 48 - 13 - 202 PART 2. CALCULATION OF CHILD SUPPORT ORDER.
§48-13-202. Application of expenses and credits in determining child support.
In determining the total child support obligation, the court shall:

(1) Add to the basic child support obligation any unreimbursed child health care expenses, work-related child care expenses and any other extraordinary expenses agreed to by the parents or ordered by the court; and

(2) Subtract any extraordinary credits agreed to by the parents or ordered by the court.


WVC 48 - 13 - 203 §48-13-203. Amount determined by guidelines presumed to be correct.
The amount of support resulting from the application of the guidelines is presumed to be the correct amount, unless the court, in a written finding or a specific finding on the record, disregards the guidelines or adjusts the award as provided for in section 13-702.


WVC 48 - 13 - 204 §48-13-204. Use of worksheets.
The calculation of the amount awarded by the support order requires the use of one of two worksheets which must be completed for each case. Worksheet A is used for a basic shared parenting arrangement. Worksheet B is used for an extended shared parenting arrangement.


WVC 48 - 13 - 205

§48-13-205. Present income as monthly amounts.


To the extent practicable, all information relating to income shall be presented to the court based on monthly amounts. For example, when a party is paid wages weekly, the pay should be multiplied by fifty-two and divided by twelve to arrive at a correct monthly amount. If the court deems appropriate, such information may be presented in such other forms as the court directs.


WVC 48 - 13 - 302 PART 3. BASIC CHILD SUPPORT ORDER.
§48-13-301. Determining the basic child support obligation.
The basic child support obligation is determined from the following table of monthly basic child support obligations:

West Virginia

Monthly Basic Child Support Obligations

(Adjusted for West Virginia’s Income Relative to U.S. Averages)

COMBINED

 

GROSS

ONE

TWO

THREE

FOUR

FIVE

SIX

MONTHLY

CHILD

CHILDREN

CHILDREN

CHILDREN

CHILDREN

CHILDREN

INCOME

 

 

 

 

 

 

550

127

185

219

242

263

281

600

137

200

237

262

284

304

650

147

214

253

280

303

325

700

156

227

268

296

321

344

750

163

238

282

311

337

361

800

171

249

295

326

353

378

850

179

261

309

341

370

395

900

188

273

323

357

387

414

950

197

286

338

374

405

433

1000

205

299

353

390

423

452

1050

214

311

368

406

440

471

1100

223

324

382

423

458

490

1150

231

336

397

439

476

509

1200

240

349

412

455

493

528

1250

248

361

426

471

511

547

1300

257

373

441

487

528

565

1350

265

386

456

503

546

584

1400

274

398

470

519

563

602

1450

282

410

484

534

579

620

1500

291

422

498

550

596

638

1550

299

434

512

565

613

656

1600

307

446

526

581

630

674

1650

316

458

540

596

646

692

1700

324

470

554

612

663

709

1750

332

482

568

627

680

727

1800

341

494

581

643

697

745

1850

349

506

595

658

713

763

1900

357

517

609

673

730

781

1950

366

529

623

689

747

799

2000

373

540

636

703

762

816

2050

381

551

649

717

778

832

2100

388

562

662

731

793

848

2150

395

573

674

745

808

864

2200

403

583

687

759

823

881

2250

410

594

700

773

838

897

2300

417

605

712

787

853

913

2350

425

616

725

801

869

929

2400

432

626

738

815

884

946

2450

440

637

750

829

899

962

2500

447

648

763

843

914

978

2550

454

658

776

857

929

994

2600

460

667

786

868

941

1007

2650

465

674

794

877

951

1018

2700

471

682

803

887

962

1029

2750

475

688

810

895

970

1038

2800

479

694

816

902

978

1046

2850

484

700

823

909

986

1055

2900

488

705

830

917

994

1063

2950

492

711

836

924

1002

1072

3000

496

717

843

931

1010

1080

3050

500

723

850

939

1018

1089

3100

504

729

856

946

1026

1097

3150

509

735

863

953

1033

1106

3200

513

740

869

961

1041

1114

3250

517

746

876

968

1049

1123

3300

521

752

882

975

1057

1131

3350

524

757

888

981

1064

1138

3400

527

761

893

987

1070

1145

3450

531

766

899

993

1077

1152

3500

534

771

904

999

1083

1159

3550

537

775

910

1006

1090

1166

3600

541

780

916

1012

1097

1173

3650

544

785

921

1018

1103

1180

3700

547

790

927

1024

1110

1187

3750

550

794

932

1030

1116

1194

3800

554

799

937

1036

1123

1201

3850

557

803

943

1041

1129

1208

3900

560

808

948

1047

1135

1215

3950

563

812

953

1053

1142

1222

4000

566

817

959

1059

1148

1229

4050

570

822

964

1065

1155

1236

4100

574

828

972

1074

1164

1245

4150

579

834

979

1082

1172

1254

4200

583

841

986

1090

1181

1264

4250

588

847

993

1098

1190

1273

4300

592

853

1001

1106

1199

1283

4350

597

860

1008

1114

1207

1292

4400

601

866

1015

1122

1216

1301

4450

606

873

1023

1130

1225

1311

4500

610

879

1030

1138

1234

1320

4550

615

885

1037

1146

1242

1329

4600

619

892

1044

1154

1251

1339

4650

624

898

1052

1162

1260

1348

4700

628

904

1059

1170

1269

1357

4750

633

911

1066

1178

1277

1367

4800

637

917

1074

1186

1286

1376

4850

642

924

1082

1195

1296

1386

4900

647

931

1090

1204

1305

1397

4950

651

938

1098

1213

1315

1407

5000

656

945

1106

1222

1325

1418

5050

661

951

1114

1231

1335

1428

5100

666

958

1123

1240

1345

1439

5150

670

965

1131

1249

1354

1449

5200

675

972

1139

1259

1364

1460

5250

680

979

1147

1268

1374

1470

5300

685

986

1155

1277

1384

1481

5350

689

993

1163

1285

1393

1491

5400

694

999

1171

1294

1403

1501

5450

698

1006

1179

1302

1412

1511

5500

703

1012

1186

1311

1421

1521

5550

707

1019

1194

1319

1430

1530

5600

712

1025

1201

1328

1439

1540

5650

716

1031

1208

1335

1447

1548

5700

719

1036

1214

1341

1454

1556

5750

723

1042

1220

1348

1462

1564

5800

727

1047

1226

1355

1469

1572

5850

731

1052

1233

1362

1477

1580

5900

735

1058

1239

1369

1484

1588

5950

739

1063

1245

1376

1492

1596

6000

743

1069

1251

1383

1499

1604

6050

747

1074

1258

1390

1506

1612

6100

751

1080

1265

1397

1515

1621

6150

755

1086

1272

1405

1523

1630

6200

760

1093

1279

1413

1531

1639

6250

764

1099

1286

1420

1540

1648

6300

768

1105

1292

1428

1548

1657

6350

773

1111

1299

1436

1556

1665

6400

777

1117

1306

1444

1565

1674

6450

781

1123

1313

1451

1573

1683

6500

785

1129

1320

1459

1582

1692

6550

789

1135

1327

1467

1590

1701

6600

793

1140

1334

1474

1598

1710

6650

797

1146

1341

1482

1607

1719

6700

801

1152

1348

1490

1615

1728

6750

806

1158

1355

1498

1623

1737

6800

810

1164

1362

1505

1632

1746

6850

814

1170

1369

1513

1640

1755

6900

818

1176

1376

1521

1649

1764

6950

822

1182

1383

1529

1657

1773

7000

826

1188

1390

1536

1665

1782

7050

830

1194

1397

1544

1674

1791

7100

834

1200

1404

1552

1682

1800

7150

838

1206

1411

1560

1691

1809

7200

842

1212

1418

1567

1699

1818

7250

847

1218

1425

1575

1707

1827

7300

851

1224

1432

1583

1716

1836

7350

855

1230

1439

1591

1724

1845

7400

859

1236

1446

1598

1733

1854

7450

863

1242

1453

1606

1741

1863

7500

867

1248

1460

1614

1749

1872

7550

871

1253

1468

1622

1758

1881

7600

875

1259

1475

1629

1766

1890

7650

879

1265

1482

1637

1775

1899

7700

883

1271

1489

1645

1783

1908

7750

887

1277

1496

1653

1792

1917

7800

891

1283

1503

1661

1800

1926

7850

895

1289

1510

1669

1809

1935

7900

899

1295

1517

1676

1817

1944

7950

903

1300

1524

1684

1826

1954

8000

907

1306

1531

1692

1834

1963

8050

911

1312

1538

1700

1843

1972

8100

915

1318

1545

1708

1851

1981

8150

919

1324

1553

1716

1860

1990

8200

923

1330

1560

1723

1868

1999

8250

927

1336

1567

1731

1877

2008

8300

931

1342

1574

1739

1885

2017

8350

935

1348

1581

1747

1894

2026

8400

939

1353

1588

1755

1902

2035

8450

943

1359

1595

1763

1911

2044

8500

947

1365

1602

1770

1919

2053

8550

951

1371

1609

1778

1928

2062

8600

954

1377

1616

1786

1936

2072

8650

958

1383

1623

1794

1944

2081

8700

962

1389

1630

1802

1953

2090

8750

966

1395

1638