(1) Any provision in the articles of incorporation authorized by subdivision (4), subsection (b), section two hundred two, article two of this chapter or the protections afforded by section eight hundred sixty of this article or article seven-c, chapter fifty-five of this code, if interposed as a bar to the proceeding by the director, does not preclude liability; and
(2) The challenged conduct consisted or was the result of:
(A) Action not in good faith; or
(B) A decision: (i) Which the director did not reasonably believe to be in the best interests of the corporation; or (ii) as to which the director was not informed to an extent the director reasonably believed appropriate in the circumstances; or
(C) A lack of objectivity due to the director's familial, financial or business relationship with, or a lack of independence due to the director's domination or control by, another person having a material interest in the challenged conduct: (i) Which relationship or which domination or control could reasonably be expected to have affected the director's judgment respecting the challenged conduct in a manner adverse to the corporation; and (ii) after a reasonable expectation has been established, the director does not establish that the challenged conduct was reasonably believed by the director to be in the best interests of the corporation; or
(D) A sustained failure of the director to devote attention to ongoing oversight of the affairs of the corporation, or a failure to devote timely attention, by making or causing to be made appropriate inquiry, when particular facts and circumstances of significant concern materialize that would alert a reasonably attentive director to the need to make inquiry; or
(E) Receipt of a financial benefit to which the director was not entitled or any other breach of the director's duties to deal fairly with the corporation and its members that is actionable under applicable law.
(b) The party seeking to hold the director liable:
(1) For money damages, has the burden of establishing that:
(A) Harm to the corporation or its members has been suffered; and
(B) The harm suffered was proximately caused by the director's challenged conduct; or
(2) For other money payment under a legal remedy, including compensation for the unauthorized use of corporate assets, has whatever persuasion burden may be called for to establish that the payment sought is appropriate in the circumstances; or
(3) For other money payment under an equitable remedy, including profit recovery by or disgorgement to the corporation, has whatever persuasion burden may be called for to establish that the equitable remedy sought is appropriate in the circumstances.
(c) Nothing contained in this section may: (1) In any instance where fairness is at issue, including consideration of the fairness of a transaction to the corporation under section eight hundred sixty of this article, alter the burden of proving the fact or lack of fairness otherwise applicable; (2) alter the fact or lack of liability of a director under another section of this chapter, including the provisions governing the consequences of an unlawful distribution under section eight hundred thirty-three of this article or a transactional interest under section eight hundred sixty of this article; or (3) affect any rights to which the corporation or a member may be entitled under another provision of this code or the United States code.
Note: WV Code updated with legislation passed through the 2015 Regular Session
The WV Code Online is an unofficial copy of the annotated WV Code, provided as a convenience. It has NOT been edited for publication, and is not in any way official or authoritative.