(b) Where directors or officers are to be elected by members or any other action is to be voted upon by members, the articles of incorporation or bylaws may provide that the elections may be conducted and the actions voted upon by mail or electronic means in a manner provided in the articles of incorporation or bylaws. The vote of members, or of the members of any particular class, is to be determined from the total number of members who actually vote by mail, rather than from the total number of members entitled to vote, unless the articles of incorporation otherwise provide. A ballot signed under this section has the same force and effect as a vote of the member who signed it at a meeting duly held, and may be stated as having the same force and effect in any certificate or document filed under this chapter.
(c) If not otherwise fixed under section seven hundred three or seven hundred seven of this article, the record date for determining members entitled to take action without a meeting is the date the first member signs the consent or ballot under subsection (a) or (b) of this section.
(d) The absence from the minutes of any indication that a member objected to holding the meeting prima facie establishes that no objection was made.
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