(1) Consummation of a merger to which the corporation is a party: (A) If shareholder approval is required for the merger by section one thousand one hundred four, article eleven of this chapter and the shareholder is entitled to vote on the merger, except that appraisal rights may not be available to any shareholder of the corporation with respect to shares of any class or series that remain outstanding after consummation of the merger; or (B) if the corporation is a subsidiary and the merger is governed by section one thousand one hundred five, article eleven of this chapter;
(2) Consummation of a share exchange to which the corporation is a party as the corporation whose shares will be acquired if the shareholder is entitled to vote on the exchange, except that appraisal rights may not be available to any shareholder of the corporation with respect to any class or series of shares of the corporation that is not exchanged;
(3) Consummation of a disposition of assets pursuant to section one thousand two hundred two, article twelve of this chapter if the shareholder is entitled to vote on the disposition;
(4) An amendment of the articles of incorporation with respect to a class or series of shares that reduces the number of shares of a class or series owned by the shareholder to a fraction of a share if the corporation has the obligation or right to repurchase the fractional share so created; or
(5) Any other amendment to the articles of incorporation, merger, share exchange or disposition of assets to the extent provided by the articles of incorporation, bylaws or a resolution of the board of directors.
(b) Notwithstanding subsection (a) of this section, the availability of appraisal rights under subdivisions (1), (2), (3) and (4), subsection (a) of this section are limited in accordance with the following provisions:
(1) Appraisal rights may not be available for the holders of shares of any class or series of shares which is:
(A) Listed on the New York stock exchange or the American stock exchange or designated as a national market system security on an interdealer quotation system by the national association of securities dealers, inc.; or
(B) Not so listed or designated, but has at least two thousand shareholders and the outstanding shares of a class or series has a market value of at least twenty million dollars, exclusive of the value of the shares held by its subsidiaries, senior executives, directors and beneficial shareholders owning more than ten percent of the shares.
(2) The applicability of subdivision (1), subsection (b) of this section is to be determined as of:
(A) The record date fixed to determine the shareholders entitled to receive notice of, and to vote at, the meeting of shareholders to act upon the corporate action requiring appraisal rights; or
(B) The day before the effective date of the corporate action if there is no meeting of shareholders.
(3) Subdivision (1), subsection (b) of this section is not applicable and appraisal rights are to be available pursuant to subsection (a) of this section for the holders of any class or series of shares who are required by the terms of the corporate action requiring appraisal rights to accept for the shares anything other than cash or shares of any class or any series of shares of any corporation, or any other proprietary interest of any other entity, that satisfies the standards set forth in subdivision (1), section (b) of this section at the time the corporate action becomes effective.
(4) Subdivision (1), subsection (b) of this section is not applicable and appraisal rights are to be available pursuant to subsection (a) of this section for the holders of any class or series of shares where any of the shares or assets of the corporation are being acquired or converted, whether by merger, share exchange or otherwise, pursuant to the corporate action by a person, or by an affiliate of a person, who: (A) Is, or at any time in the one-year period immediately preceding approval by the board of directors of the corporate action requiring appraisal rights was, the beneficial owner of twenty percent or more of the voting power of the corporation, excluding any shares acquired pursuant to an offer for all shares having voting power if the offer was made within one year prior to the corporate action requiring appraisal rights for consideration of the same kind and of a value equal to or less than that paid in connection with the corporate action; or (B) for purpose of voting their shares of the corporation, each member of the group formed is deemed to have acquired beneficial ownership, as of the date of the agreement, of all voting shares of the corporation beneficially owned by any member of the group.
(c) Notwithstanding any other provision of section one thousand three hundred two of this article, the articles of incorporation as originally filed or any amendment to the articles of incorporation may limit or eliminate appraisal rights for any class or series of preferred shares, but any limitation or elimination contained in an amendment to the articles of incorporation that limits or eliminates appraisal rights for any of the shares that are outstanding immediately prior to the effective date of the amendment or that the corporation is or may be required to issue or sell pursuant to any conversion, exchange or other right existing immediately before the effective date of the amendment does not apply to any corporate action that becomes effective within one year of that date if the action would otherwise afford appraisal rights.
(d) A shareholder entitled to appraisal rights under this article may not challenge a completed corporate action for which appraisal rights are available unless the corporate action:
(1) Was not effectuated in accordance with the applicable provisions of article ten, eleven or twelve of this chapter or the corporation's articles of incorporation, bylaws or board of directors' resolution authorizing the corporate action; or
(2) Was procured as a result of fraud or material misrepresentation.