§22-15-12. Performance bonds; amount and method of bonding; bonding requirements; period of bond liability.
(a) After a solid waste permit application has been approved pursuant to this article, or once operations have commenced pursuant to a compliance order, but before a permit has been issued, each operator of a commercial solid waste facility shall furnish bond, on a form to be prescribed and furnished by the director, payable to the state of West Virginia and conditioned upon the operator faithfully performing all of the requirements of this article, rules promulgated hereunder and the permit. The amount of the bond required shall be determined by the director based upon the total estimated cost to the state of completing final closure according to the permit granted to such facility and such measures as are necessary to prevent adverse effects upon the environment; such measures include, but are not limited to, satisfactory monitoring, post-closure care, leachate treatment and remedial measures: Provided, That the amount of the bond shall be sufficient to conform to and be consistent with the financial assurance requirements set forth under Subtitle D of the federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, 42 U. S. C. §§6901 et seq. and the regulations promulgated thereunder. All bonds required to be posted shall be consistent, whether the facility is publicly or privately owned or operated. All permits shall be bonded for at least ten thousand dollars. The bond shall cover either: (1) The entire area to be used for the disposal of solid waste; or (2) that increment of land within the permit area upon which the operator will initiate and conduct commercial solid waste facility operations within the initial term of the permit pursuant to legislative rules promulgated by the director pursuant to chapter twenty-nine-a of this code. If the operator chooses to use incremental bonding, as succeeding increments of commercial solid waste facility operations are to be initiated and conducted within the permit area, the operator shall file with the director an additional bond or bonds to cover such increments in accordance with this section: Provided, however, That once the operator has chosen to proceed with bonding either the entire area to be used for the disposal of solid waste or with incremental bonding, the operator shall continue bonding in that manner for the term of the permit.

(b) The period of liability for performance bond coverage shall commence with issuance of a permit and continue for the full term of the permit and for a period of up to thirty full years after final closure of the permit site: Provided, That any further time period necessary to achieve compliance with the requirements in the closure plan of the permit is considered an additional liability period.

(c) The form of the performance bond shall be approved by the director and may include, at the option of the director, surety bonding, collateral bonding (including cash and securities), establishment of an escrow account, letters of credit, performance bonding fund participation (as established by the director), self-bonding or a combination of these methods.

If collateral bonding is used, the operator may elect to deposit cash, or collateral securities or certificates as follows: Bonds of the United States or its possessions, of the federal land bank, or of the homeowners' loan corporation; full faith and credit general obligation bonds of the state of West Virginia, or other states, and of any county, district or municipality of the state of West Virginia or other states; or certificates of deposit in a bank in this state, which certificates shall be in favor of the division. The cash deposit or market value of such securities or certificates shall be equal to or greater than the sum of the bond. The director shall, upon receipt of any such deposit of cash, securities or certificates, promptly place the same with the treasurer of the state of West Virginia whose duty it is to receive and hold the same in the name of the state in trust for the purpose for which the deposit is made when the permit is issued. The operator making the deposit is entitled from time to time to receive from the state treasurer, upon the written approval of the director, the whole or any portion of any cash, securities or certificates so deposited, upon depositing with the treasurer in lieu thereof, cash or other securities or certificates of the classes herein specified having value equal to or greater than the sum of the bond.

(d) Within twelve months prior to the expiration of the thirty-year period following final closure, the division will conduct a final inspection of the facility. The purpose of the inspection is to determine compliance with this article, the division's rules, the terms and conditions of the permit, orders of the division and the terms and conditions of the bond. Based upon this determination, the division will either forfeit the bond prior to the expiration of the thirty-year period following final closure, or release the bond at the expiration of the thirty-year period following final closure. Bond release requirements shall be provided in rules promulgated by the director.

(e) If the operator of a commercial solid waste facility abandons the operation of a solid waste disposal facility for which a permit is required by this article or if the permittee fails or refuses to comply with the requirements of this article in any respect for which liability has been charged on the bond, the director shall declare the bond forfeited and shall certify the same to the attorney general who shall proceed to enforce and collect the amount of liability forfeited thereon, and where the operation has deposited cash or securities as collateral in lieu of corporate surety, the director shall declare said collateral forfeited and shall direct the state treasurer to pay said funds into a waste management fund to be used by the director to effect proper closure and to defray the cost of administering this article. Should any corporate surety fail to promptly pay, in full, forfeited bond, it is disqualified from writing any further surety bonds under this article.