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Chapter 61     Entire Code
‹ Chapter 60A  |  Chapter 62 › Printer Friendly Versions
Chapter 61  |  Article 61 - 2  |  Section 30

1 - CRIMES AGAINST THE GOVERNMENT

3 - CRIMES AGAINST PROPERTY

3A - SHOPLIFTING

3B - TRESPASS

3C - WEST VIRGINIA COMPUTER CRIME A

3D - THEFT OF CABLE TELEVISION SERV

3E - OFFENSES INVOLVING EXPLOSIVES

4 - FORGERY AND CRIMES AGAINST THE

5 - CRIMES AGAINST PUBLIC JUSTICE

5A - BRIBERY AND CORRUPT PRACTICES

6 - CRIMES AGAINST THE PEACE

7 - DANGEROUS WEAPONS

7A - STATE MENTAL HEALTH REGISTRY

8 - CRIMES AGAINST CHASTITY, MORALI

8A - PREPARATION, DISTRIBUTION OR E

8B - SEXUAL OFFENSES

8C - FILMING OF SEXUALLY EXPLICIT C

8D - CHILD ABUSE

8E - DISPLAY OF VIDEO RATINGS OR LA

8F - SEX OFFENDER REGISTRATION ACT

9 - EQUITABLE REMEDIES IN AID OF CH

10 - CRIMES AGAINST PUBLIC POLICY

11 - GENERAL PROVISIONS CONCERNING

11A - VICTIM PROTECTION ACT OF 198

12 - POSTMORTEM EXAMINATIONS

12A - FATALITY AND MORTALITY REVIE

13 - ANTI-ORGANIZED CRIMINAL ENTER

WVC 61- CHAPTER 61. CRIMES AND THEIR PUNISHMENT.
WVC -2- ARTICLE 2. CRIMES AGAINST THE PERSON.

WVC 61-2-1 §61-2-1. First and second degree murder defined; allegations in indictment for homicide.
Murder by poison, lying in wait, imprisonment, starving, or by any willful, deliberate and premeditated killing, or in the commission of, or attempt to commit, arson, kidnapping, sexual assault, robbery, burglary, breaking and entering, escape from lawful custody, or a felony offense of manufacturing or delivering a controlled substance as defined in article four, chapter sixty-a of this code, is murder of the first degree. All other murder is murder of the second degree.

In an indictment for murder and manslaughter, it shall not be necessary to set forth the manner in which, or the means by which, the death of the deceased was caused, but it shall be sufficient in every such indictment to charge that the defendant did feloniously, willfully, maliciously, deliberately and unlawfully slay, kill and murder the deceased.

WVC 61-2-2 §61-2-2. Penalty for murder of first degree.
Murder of the first degree shall be punished by confinement in the penitentiary for life.

WVC 61-2-3 §61-2-3. Penalty for murder of second degree.
Murder of the second degree shall be punished by a definite term of imprisonment in the penitentiary which is not less than ten nor more than forty years. A person imprisoned pursuant to the provisions of this section is not eligible for parole prior to having served a minimum of ten years of his or her sentence or the minimum period required by the provisions of section thirteen, article twelve, chapter sixty-two, whichever is greater.

WVC 61-2-4 §61-2-4. Voluntary manslaughter; penalty.
Voluntary manslaughter shall be punished by a definite term of imprisonment in the penitentiary which is not less than three nor more than fifteen years. A person imprisoned pursuant to the provisions of this section is not eligible for parole prior to having served a minimum of three years of his or her sentence or the minimum period required by the provisions of section thirteen, article twelve, chapter sixty-two, whichever is greater.

WVC 61-2-5 §61-2-5. Involuntary manslaughter; penalty.
Involuntary manslaughter is a misdemeanor, and any person convicted thereof shall be confined in jail not to exceed one year, or fined not to exceed one thousand dollars, or both, in the discretion of the court.

WVC 61 - 2 - 5 A §61-2-5a. Concealment of deceased human body; penalty.
(a) Any person who, by any means, knowingly and willfully conceals, attempts to conceal or who otherwise aids and abets any person to conceal a deceased human body where death occurred as a result of criminal activity is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in a correctional facility for not less than one year nor more than five years and fined not less than one thousand dollars, nor more than five thousand dollars.

(b) It shall be a complete defense in a prosecution pursuant to subsection (a) of this section that the defendant affirmatively brought to the attention of law enforcement within forty-eight hours of concealing the body and prior to being contacted regarding the death by law enforcement the existence and location of the concealed deceased human body.

(c) The provisions of subsection (a) of this section do not apply to practitioners regulated by the provisions of article six, chapter thirty of this code or their agents while acting in their lawful professional capacities.

WVC 61-2-6 §61-2-6. Homicide punishable within state if injury occurs within and death without, or vice versa.
If any person be stricken, wounded or poisoned in, and die by reason thereof out of, this state, the offender shall be as guilty, and be prosecuted and punished, as if the death had occurred in the county in which the stroke, wound or poison was given or administered. And if any person be stricken, wounded or poisoned out of this state, and die by reason thereof within this state, the offender shall be as guilty, and may be prosecuted and punished, as if the mortal stroke or wound had been given, or poison administered, in the county in which the person so stricken, wounded or poisoned may so die.

WVC 61-2-7 §61-2-7. Attempt to kill or injure by poison; penalty.
If any person administer, or attempt to administer, any poison or other destructive thing in food, drink, medicine or otherwise, or poison any spring, well, reservoir, conduit or pipe of water, with intent to kill or injure another person, he shall be guilty of a felony, and upon conviction, shall be confined in the penitentiary not less than three nor more than eighteen years.

WVC 61-2-8 §61-2-8. Abortion; penalty.
Any person who shall administer to, or cause to be taken by, a woman, any drug or other thing, or use any means, with intent to destroy her unborn child, or to produce abortion or miscarriage, and shall thereby destroy such child, or produce such abortion or miscarriage, shall be guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction, shall be confined in the penitentiary not less than three nor more than ten years; and if such woman die by reason of such abortion performed upon her, such person shall be guilty of murder. No person, by reason of any act mentioned in this section, shall be punishable where such act is done in good faith, with the intention of saving the life of such woman or child.

WVC 61 - 2 - 9 §61-2-9. Malicious or unlawful assault; assault; battery; penalties.
(a) If any person maliciously shoot, stab, cut or wound any person, or by any means cause him bodily injury with intent to maim, disfigure, disable or kill, he shall, except where it is otherwise provided, be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction, shall be punished by confinement in the penitentiary not less than two nor more than ten years. If such act be done unlawfully, but not maliciously, with the intent aforesaid, the offender shall be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction, shall, in the discretion of the court, either be confined in the penitentiary not less than one nor more than five years, or be confined in jail not exceeding twelve months and fined not exceeding five hundred dollars.

(b) Assault. -- If any person unlawfully attempts to commit a violent injury to the person of another or unlawfully commits an act which places another in reasonable apprehension of immediately receiving a violent injury, he shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction, shall be confined in jail for not more than six months, or fined not more than one hundred dollars, or both such fine and imprisonment.

(c) Battery. -- If any person unlawfully and intentionally makes physical contact of an insulting or provoking nature with the person of another or unlawfully and intentionally causes physical harm to another person, he shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction, shall be confined in jail for not more than twelve months, or fined not more than five hundred dollars, or both such fine and imprisonment.

(d) Any person convicted of a violation of subsection (b) or (c) of this section who has, in the ten years prior to said conviction, been convicted of a violation of either subsection (b) or (c) of this section where the victim was a current or former spouse, current or former sexual or intimate partner, a person with whom the defendant has a child in common, a person with whom the defendant cohabits or has cohabited, a parent or guardian, the defendant's child or ward or a member of the defendant's household at the time of the offense or convicted of a violation of section twenty-eight of this article or has served a period of pretrial diversion for an alleged violation of subsection (b) or (c) of this section or section twenty-eight of this article when the victim has such present or past relationship shall upon conviction be subject to the penalties set forth in section twenty-eight of this article for a second, third or subsequent criminal act of domestic violence offense, as appropriate.

WVC 61 - 2 - 9 A §61-2-9a. Stalking; harassment; penalties; definitions.
(a) Any person who repeatedly follows another knowing or having reason to know that the conduct causes the person followed to reasonably fear for his or her safety or suffer significant emotional distress, is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be incarcerated in the county or regional jail for not more than six months or fined not more than one thousand dollars, or both.

(b) Any person who repeatedly harasses or repeatedly makes credible threats against another is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be incarcerated in the county or regional jail for not more than six months or fined not more than one thousand dollars, or both.

(c) Notwithstanding any provision of this code to the contrary, any person who violates the provisions of subsection (a) or (b) of this section in violation of an order entered by a circuit court, magistrate court or family court judge, in effect and entered pursuant to part 48-5-501, et seq., part 48-5-601, et seq. or 48-27-403 of this code is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be incarcerated in the county jail for not less than ninety days nor more than one year or fined not less than two thousand dollars nor more than five thousand dollars, or both.

(d) A second or subsequent conviction for a violation of this section occurring within five years of a prior conviction is a felony punishable by incarceration in a state correctional facility for not less than one year nor more than five years or fined not less than three thousand dollars nor more than ten thousand dollars, or both.

(e) Notwithstanding any provision of this code to the contrary, any person against whom a protective order for injunctive relief is in effect pursuant to the provisions of section five hundred one, article twenty-seven, chapter forty-eight of this code who has been served with a copy of said order or section six hundred eight, article five, chapter forty-eight of this code who is convicted of a violation of the provisions of this section shall be guilty of a felony and punishable by incarceration in a state correctional facility for not less than one year nor more than five years or fined not less than three thousand dollars nor more than ten thousand dollars, or both.

(f) For the purposes of this section:

(1) "Bodily injury" means substantial physical pain, illness or any impairment of physical condition;

(2) "Credible threat" means a threat of bodily injury made with the apparent ability to carry out the threat and with the result that a reasonable person would believe that the threat could be carried out;

(3) "Harasses" means willful conduct directed at a specific person or persons which would cause a reasonable person mental injury or emotional distress

(4) "Immediate family" means a spouse, parent, stepparent, mother-in-law, father-in-law, child, stepchild, sibling, or any person who regularly resides in the household or within the prior six months regularly resided in the household; and

(5) "Repeatedly" means on two or more occasions.

(g) Nothing in this section shall be construed to prevent lawful assembly and petition for the lawful redress of grievances, including, but not limited to: Any labor or employment relations issue; demonstration at the seat of federal, state, county or municipal government; activities protected by the West Virginia constitution or the United States Constitution or any statute of this state or the United States.

(h) Any person convicted under the provisions of this section who is granted probation or for whom execution or imposition of a sentence or incarceration is suspended is to have as a condition of probation or suspension of sentence that he or she participate in counseling or medical treatment as directed by the court.

(i) Upon conviction, the court may issue an order restraining the defendant from any contact with the victim for a period not to exceed ten years. The length of any restraining order shall be based upon the seriousness of the violation before the court, the probability of future violations, and the safety of the victim or his or her immediate family. The duration of the restraining order may be longer than five years only in cases when a longer duration is necessary to protect the safety of the victim or his or her immediate family.

(j) It is a condition of bond for any person accused of the offense described in this section that the person is to have no contact, direct or indirect, verbal or physical, with the alleged victim.

(k) Nothing in this section may be construed to preclude a sentencing court from exercising its power to impose home confinement with electronic monitoring as an alternative sentence.

(l) The Governor's Committee on Crime, Delinquency and Correction, after consultation with representatives of labor, licensed domestic violence programs and rape crisis centers which meet the standards of the West Virginia Foundation for Rape Information and Services, is authorized to promulgate legislative rules and emergency rules pursuant to article three, chapter twenty-nine-a of this code, establishing appropriate standards for the enforcement of this section by state, county, and municipal law-enforcement officers and agencies.

WVC 61-2-9B §61-2-9b. Penalties for malicious or unlawful assault or assault of a child near a school.
Any person who, under the provisions of section nine of this article, maliciously assaults a child sixteen years of age or under within one thousand feet of a school is guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction, shall be punished by confinement in the penitentiary not less than five nor more than fifteen years.

WVC 61 - 2 - 9 C §61-2-9c. Wanton endangerment involving the use of fire; penalty.
Any person who, during the manufacture or production of an illegal controlled substance uses fire, the use of which creates substantial risk of death or serious bodily injury to another due to the use of fire, is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction, shall be committed to the custody of the Division of Corrections for a definite term of years of not less than one nor more than five years or, in the discretion of the court, confined in the regional jail for not more than one year, or fined not less than two hundred fifty dollars or more than two thousand five hundred dollars, or both.

WVC 61 - 2 - 10 §61-2-10. Assault during commission of or attempt to commit a felony; penalty.
If any person in the commission of, or attempt to commit a felony, unlawfully shoot, stab, cut or wound another person, he shall be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction, shall, in the discretion of the court, either be confined in the penitentiary not less than two nor more than ten years, or be confined in jail not exceeding one year and be fined not exceeding one thousand dollars.

WVC 61-2-10a §61-2-10a. Violent crimes against the elderly; sentence not subject to suspension or probation.
(a) If any person be convicted and sentenced for an offense defined under the provisions of section nine or ten of this article, and if the person shall have committed such offense against a person who is sixty-five years of age or older, then the sentence shall be mandatory and shall not be subject to suspension or probation: Provided, That the court may, in its discretion, suspend the sentence and order probation to any person so convicted upon condition that such person perform public service for a period of time deemed appropriate by the court, which service shall be rendered in or about facilities or programs providing care or services for the elderly: Provided, however, That the court may apply the provisions of article eleven-a, chapter sixty-two of this code to a person committed to a term of one year or less.

(b) The existence of any fact which would make any person ineligible for probation under subsection (a) of this section because of the commission or attempted commission of a felony against a victim sixty-five years of age or older shall not be applicable unless such fact is (i) found by the court upon a plea of guilty or nolo contendere, or (ii) found by the jury, if the matter is tried before a jury or (iii) found by the court, if the matter is tried by the court, without a jury.

WVC 61 - 2 - 10 B §61-2-10b. Malicious assault; unlawful assault; battery; and assault on governmental representatives, health care providers, and emergency medical service personnel; definitions; penalties.
(a) For purposes of this section:

(1) "Government representative" means any officer or employee of the state or a political subdivision thereof, or a person under contract with a state agency or political subdivision thereof.

(2) "Health care worker" means any nurse, nurse practitioner, physician, physician assistant or technician practicing at, and all persons employed by or under contract to a hospital, county or district health department, long-term care facility, physician's office, clinic or outpatient treatment facility.

(3) "Emergency service personnel" means any paid or volunteer firefighter, emergency medical technician, paramedic, or other emergency services personnel employed by or under contract with an emergency medical service provider or a state agency or political subdivision thereof.

(b) Malicious assault. -- Any person who maliciously shoots, stabs, cuts or wounds or by any means causes bodily injury with intent to maim, disfigure, disable or kill a government representative, health care worker or emergency service personnel acting in his or her official capacity, and the person committing the malicious assault knows or has reason to know that the victim is acting in his or her official capacity is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in a correctional facility for not less than three nor more than fifteen years.

(c) Unlawful assault. -- Any person who unlawfully but not maliciously shoots, stabs, cuts or wounds or by any means causes a government representative, health care worker or emergency service personnel acting in his or her official capacity bodily injury with intent to maim, disfigure, disable or kill him or her and the person committing the unlawful assault knows or has reason to know that the victim is acting in his or her official capacity is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in a correctional facility for not less than two nor more than five years.

(d) Battery. -- Any person who unlawfully, knowingly and intentionally makes physical contact of an insulting or provoking nature with a government representative, health care worker or emergency service personnel acting in his or her official capacity, or unlawfully and intentionally causes physical harm to that person acting in such capacity, is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than $500 or confined in jail not less than one month nor more than twelve months or both fined and confined. If any person commits a second such offense, he or she is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned in a state correctional facility not less than one year nor more than three years, or both fined and imprisoned. Any person who commits a third violation of this subsection is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than $2,000 or imprisoned in a state correctional facility not less than two years nor more than five years, or both fined and imprisoned.

(e) Assault. -- Any person who unlawfully attempts to commit a violent injury to the person of a government representative, health care worker or emergency service personnel acting in his or her official capacity, or unlawfully commits an act which places that person acting in his or her official capacity in reasonable apprehension of immediately receiving a violent injury, is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in jail for not less than twenty-four hours nor more than six months, fined not more than $200, or both fined and confined.

WVC 61-2-11 §61-2-11. Unlawful shooting at another in street, alley or public resort; penalty.
If any person unlawfully shoot at another person in any street or alley in a city, town or village, or in any place of public resort, he shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction, shall be confined in jail not less than six months nor more than three years, and be fined not less than one hundred nor more than one thousand dollars.

WVC 61 - 2 - 12 §61-2-12. Robbery or attempted robbery; penalties.
(a) Any person who commits or attempts to commit robbery by: (1) Committing violence to the person, including, but not limited to, partial strangulation or suffocation or by striking or beating; or (2) uses the threat of deadly force by the presenting of a firearm or other deadly weapon, is guilty of robbery in the first degree and, upon conviction thereof, shall be imprisoned in a state correctional facility not less than ten years.

(b) Any person who commits or attempts to commit robbery by placing the victim in fear of bodily injury by means other than those set forth in subsection (a) of this section or any person who commits or attempts to commit robbery by the use of any means designed to temporarily disable the victim, including, but not limited to, the use of a disabling chemical substance or an electronic shock device, is guilty of robbery in the second degree and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in a correctional facility for not less than five years nor more than eighteen years.

(c) If any person: (1) By force and violence, or by putting in fear, feloniously takes, or feloniously attempts to take, from the person or presence of another any property or money or any other thing of value belonging to, or in the care, custody, control, management or possession of, any bank, he shall be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction, shall be confined in the penitentiary not less than ten nor more than twenty years; and (2) if any person in committing, or in attempting to commit, any offense defined in the preceding clause (1) of this subsection, assaults any person, or puts in jeopardy the life of any person by the use of a dangerous weapon or device, disabling chemical substance or an electronic shock device, he shall be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction, shall be confined in the penitentiary not less than ten years nor more than twenty-five years.

WVC 61-2-13 §61-2-13. Extortion or attempted extortion by threats; penalties.
If any person threaten injury to the character, person or property of another person, or to the character, person or property of his wife or child, or to accuse him or them of any offense, and thereby extort money, pecuniary benefit, or any bond, note or other evidence of debt, he shall be guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction, shall be confined in the penitentiary not less than one nor more than five years. And if any person make such threat of injury or accusation of an offense as herein set forth, but fail thereby to extort money, pecuniary benefit, or any bond, note or other evidence of debt, he shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction, shall be confined in jail not less than two nor more than twelve months and fined not less than fifty nor more than five hundred dollars.

WVC 61-2-14 §61-2-14. Abduction of person; kidnapping or concealing child; penalties.
(a) Any person who takes away another person, or detains another person against such person's will, with intent to marry or defile the person, or to cause the person to be married or defiled by another person; or takes away a child under the age of sixteen years from any person having lawful charge of such child, for the purpose of prostitution or concubinage, shall be guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in the penitentiary not less than three nor more than ten years.

(b) Any person, other than the father or mother, who illegally, or for any unlawful, improper or immoral purpose other than the purposes stated in subsection (a) of this section or section fourteen-a or fourteen-c of this article, seizes, take or secretes a child under sixteen years of age, from the person or persons having lawful charge of such child, shall be guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in the penitentiary not less than one nor more than ten years.

WVC 61 - 2 - 14 A §61-2-14a. Kidnaping; penalty.

     (a) Any person who unlawfully restrains another person with the intent:

     (1) To hold another person for ransom, reward, or concession;

     (2) To transport another person with the intent to inflict bodily injury or to terrorize the victim or another person; or

     (3) To use another person as a shield or hostage, shall be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction, shall be punished by confinement by the division of corrections for life, and, notwithstanding the provisions of article twelve, chapter sixty-two of this code, shall not be eligible for parole.

     (b) The following exceptions shall apply to the penalty contained in subsection (a):

     (1) A jury may, in their discretion, recommend mercy, and if such recommendation is added to their verdict, such person shall be eligible for parole in accordance with the provisions of said article twelve;

     (2) if such person pleads guilty, the court may, in its discretion, provide that such person shall be eligible for parole in accordance with the provisions of said article twelve, and, if the court so provides, such person shall be eligible for parole in accordance with the provisions of said article twelve in the same manner and with like effect as if such person had been found guilty by the verdict of a jury and the jury had recommended mercy;

     (3) in all cases where the person against whom the offense is committed is returned, or is permitted to return, alive, without bodily harm having been inflicted upon him, but after ransom, money or other thing, or any concession or advantage of any sort has been paid or yielded, the punishment shall be confinement by the division of corrections for a definite term of years not less than twenty nor more than fifty; or

     (4) in all cases where the person against whom the offense is committed is returned, or is permitted to return, alive, without bodily harm having been inflicted upon him or her, but without ransom, money or other thing, or any concession or advantage of any sort having been paid or yielded, the punishment shall be confinement by the division of corrections for a definite term of years not less than ten nor more than thirty.

     (c) For purposes of this section: "To use another as a hostage" means to seize or detain and threaten to kill or injure another in order to compel, a third person or a governmental organization to do or abstain from doing any legal act as an explicit or implicit condition for the release of the person detained.

     (d) Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, if a violation of this section is committed by a family member of a minor abducted or held hostage and he or she is not motivated by monetary purposes, but rather intends to conceal, take, remove the child or refuse to return the child to his or her lawful guardian in the belief, mistaken or not, that it is in the child's interest to do so, he or she shall be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, be confined in a correctional facility for not less than one or more than five years or fined not more than one thousand dollars, or both.

     (e) Notwithstanding any provision of this code to the contrary, where a law-enforcement agency of this state or a political subdivision thereof receives a complaint that a violation of the provisions of this section has occurred, the receiving law-enforcement agency shall notify any other law-enforcement agency with jurisdiction over the offense, including, but not limited to, the state police and each agency so notified, shall cooperate in the investigation forthwith.

     (f) It shall be a defense to a violation of subsection (d) of this section, that the accused's action was necessary to preserve the welfare of the minor child and the accused promptly reported his or her actions to a person with lawful custody of the minor, to law-enforcement or to Child Protective Services division of the Department of Health and Human Resources. WVC 61-2-14b §61-2-14b. Venue of offenses under §§61-2-14 and 61-2-14a.
In the case of every offense committed in violation of the provisions of section fourteen and section fourteen-(a) of this article, regardless of whether the offense originated within or without this state, the venue of the offense shall lie in the county where the person was taken, or induced to go away or otherwise kidnapped, in the county where such person was held or detained, or in the county through which such person was conducted or transported.

WVC 61-2-14c §61-2-14c. Penalty for threats to kidnap or demand ransom.
If any person, with intent to extort from any other person any ransom, money or other thing, or any concession or advantage of any sort, shall, by speech, writing, printing, drawing or any other method or means of communication, directly or indirectly threaten to take away forcibly or by stealth or otherwise kidnap any person, or shall directly or indirectly demand, orally or in writing, or by any other method or means of communication, any ransom, money or other thing, or any concession or advantage of any sort, on a threat to take away forcibly or by stealth or otherwise kidnap any person, he shall be guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction, shall be punished with confinement in the penitentiary for any term of years not less than five.

WVC 61-2-14d §61-2-14d. Concealment or removal of minor child from custodian or from person entitled to visitation; penalties; defenses.
(a) Any person who conceals, takes or removes a minor child in violation of any court order an with the intent to deprive another person of lawful custody or visitation right shall be guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be imprisoned in the penitentiary not less than one nor more than five years, or in the discretion of the court, shall be imprisoned in the county jail not more than one year of fined not more than one thousand dollars, or both fined and imprisoned.

(b) Any person who violates this section and in so doing removes the minor child from this state or conceals the minor child in another state shall be guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be imprisoned in the penitentiary not less than one nor more than five years, or fined not more than one thousand dollars, or both fined and imprisoned.

(c) It shall be a defense under this section that the accused reasonably believed such action was necessary to preserve the welfare of the minor child. The mere failure to return a minor child at the expiration of any lawful custody or visitation period without the intent to deprive another person of lawful custody or visitation rights shall not constitute an offense under this section.

WVC 61-2-14e §61-2-14e. One aiding or abetting in offense under §61-2-14, §61-2-14a, §61-2-14c or §61-2-14d guilty as principal; venue.
If any person in any way knowingly aid or abet any other person in the commission of any offense described in section fourteen, fourteen-a, fourteen-c or fourteen-d of this article, either as accessory before or an accessory after the fact, such person so aiding and abetting shall be guilty as a principal in the commission of such offense and shall be punished in the same manner and to the same extent as is provided in said sections for the person who committed the offense. The venue of any offense committed in violation of the provisions of this section shall be as provided in section seven, article eleven of this chapter.

WVC 61-2-14F §61-2-14f. Penalties for abduction of a child near a school.
Any person who, under the provisions of section fourteen of this article, abducts a child sixteen years of age or under within one thousand feet of a school is guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction, shall be punished by confinement in the penitentiary not less than five nor more than fifteen years.

WVC 61 - 2 - 14 G §61-2-14g. Unlawful restraint; penalties.

     (a) Any person who, without legal authority intentionally restrains another with the intent that the other person not be allowed to leave the place of restraint and who does so by physical force or by overt or implied threat of violence or by actual physical restraint but without the intent to obtain any other concession or advantage as those terms are used in section fourteen-a of this article is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction shall be confined in jail for not more than one year, fined not more than $1,000, or both.

     (b) In any prosecution under this section, it is an affirmative defense that:

     (1) The defendant acted reasonably and in good faith to protect the person from imminent physical danger; or

     (2) The person restrained was a child less than eighteen years old and that the actor was a parent or legal guardian, or a person acting under authority granted by a parent or legal guardian of such child, or by a teacher or other school personnel acting under authority granted by section one, article five, chapter eighteen-a of this code, and that his or her sole purpose was to assume control of such child.

     (c) As used in this section to "restrain" means to restrict a persons movement without his or her consent.

     (d) This section shall not apply to acts done by a law-enforcement officer in the lawful exercise of his or her duties. WVC 61 - 2 - 14 H §61-2-14h. Prohibition of purchase or sale of child; penalty; definitions; exceptions.

     (a) Any person or agency who knowingly offers, gives or agrees to give to another person money, property, service or other thing of value in consideration for the recipient's locating, providing or procuring a minor child for any purpose which entails a transfer of the legal or physical custody of said child, including, but not limited to, adoption or placement, is guilty of a felony and subject to fine and imprisonment as provided herein.

     (b) Any person who knowingly receives, accepts or offers to accept money, property, service or other thing of value to locate, provide or procure a minor child for any purpose which entails a transfer of the legal or physical custody of said child, including, but not limited to, adoption or placement, is guilty of a felony and subject to fine and imprisonment as provided herein.

     (c) Any person who violates the provisions of this section is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, may be confined in the state correctional facility for not less than one year nor more than ten years or, in the discretion of the court, be confined in jail not more than one year and fined not less than $2,000 nor more than $10,000.

     (d) A child whose parent, guardian or custodian has sold or attempted to sell said child in violation of the provisions of article twenty-two, chapter forty-eight may be deemed an abused child as defined by section three, article one, chapter forty-nine of this code. The court may place such a child in the custody of the department of health and human resources or with such other responsible person as the best interests of the child dictate.

     (e) This section does not prohibit the payment or receipt of the following:

     (1) Fees paid for reasonable and customary services provided by the department of health and human resources or any licensed or duly authorized adoption or child-placing agency.

     (2) Reasonable and customary legal, medical, hospital or other expenses incurred in connection with the pregnancy, birth and adoption proceedings.

     (3) Fees and expenses included in any agreement in which a woman agrees to become a surrogate mother.

     (4) Any fees or charges authorized by law or approved by a court in a proceeding relating to the placement plan, prospective placement or placement of a minor child for adoption.

     (f) At the final hearing on the adoption as provided in article twenty-two, chapter forty-eight of this code, an affidavit of any fees and expenses paid or promised by the adoptive parents shall be submitted to the court. WVC 61-2-15 §61-2-15. Assault, battery on school employees; penalties.
(a) If any person commits an assault: (1) By unlawfully attempting to commit a violent injury to the person of a school employee while he or she is engaged in the performance of his or her duties, is commuting to or from his or her place of employment or if the motive for the assault is retaliation for some action taken by the employee to supervise or discipline one or more pupils pursuant to sections one or one-a, article five, chapter eighteen-a of this code; or (2) by unlawfully committing an act which places a school employee in reasonable apprehension of immediately receiving a violent injury while the employee is engaged in the performance of his or her duties, is commuting to or from his or her place of employment or if the motive for the assault is retaliation for some action taken by the employee to supervise or discipline one or more pupils pursuant to sections one or one-a, article five, chapter eighteen-a of this code, he or she is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in the county or regional jail not less than five days nor more than six months and fined not less than fifty dollars nor more than one hundred dollars.

(b) If any person commits a battery: (1) By unlawfully and intentionally making physical contact of an insulting or provoking nature with the person of a school employee while he or she is engaged in the performance of his or her duties, is commuting to or from his or her place of employment or if the motive for the battery is retaliation for some action taken by the employee to supervise or discipline one or more pupils pursuant to sections one or one-a, article five, chapter eighteen-a of this code; or (2) by unlawfully and intentionally causing physical harm to a school employee while he or she is engaged in the performance of his or her duties, is commuting to or from his or her place of employment or if the motive for the battery is retaliation for some action taken by the employee to supervise or discipline one or more pupils pursuant to sections one or one-a, article five, chapter eighteen-a of this code, he or she is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in the county or regional jail not less than ten days nor more than twelve months and fined not less than one hundred dollars nor more than five hundred dollars.

(c) For the purposes of this section, "school employee" means a person employed by a county board of education whether employed on a regular full-time basis, an hourly basis or otherwise. For the purposes of this section, a "school employee" includes a student teacher.

WVC 61 - 2 - 15 A §61-2-15a. Assault, battery on athletic officials; penalties.

     (a) If any person commits an assault as defined in subsection (b), section nine of this article, to the person of an athletic official during the time the official is acting as an athletic official, the offender is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than $500, or confined in jail not more than six months, or both fined and confined.

     (b) If any person commits a battery, as defined in subsection (c), section nine of this article, against an athletic official during the time the official is acting as an athletic official, the offender is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than $1,000, or confined in jail not more than twelve months, or both fined and confined.

  (c) For the purpose of this section, "athletic official" means a person at a sports event who enforces the rules of that event, such as an umpire or referee, or a person who supervises the participants, such as a coach. WVC 61-2-16 §61-2-16. Injury to passenger by person in charge of public conveyance or boat; penalty.
If any driver, conductor, motorman, captain or other person in charge of any vehicle or boat, driven by steam, electricity, gasoline or other motive power and used for public conveyance, shall, in the management of such vehicle or boat, willfully or negligently inflict bodily injury on any person, he shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction, shall be confined in jail not less than two nor more than six months, or be fined not exceeding five hundred dollars, or both.

WVC 61 - 2 - 16 A §61-2-16a. Malicious assault; unlawful assault; battery and recidivism of battery; assault on a driver, conductor, motorman, captain, pilot or other person in charge of any vehicle used for public conveyance.
(a) Malicious assault. -- Any person who maliciously shoots, stabs, cuts or wounds or by any means causes bodily injury with intent to maim, disfigure, disable or kill any driver, conductor, motorman, captain or other person in charge of any vehicle or boat, driven by steam, electricity, gasoline or other motive power and used for public conveyance acting in his or her official capacity and the person committing the malicious assault knows or has reason to know that the victim is a driver, conductor, motorman, captain or other person in charge of any vehicle or boat used as a public conveyance, acting in his or her official capacity, is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in a correctional facility for not less than three nor more than fifteen years.

(b) Unlawful assault. -- Any person who unlawfully but not maliciously shoots, stabs, cuts or wounds or by any means causes any driver, conductor, motorman, captain or other person in charge of any vehicle, aircraft or boat, driven by steam, electricity, gasoline or other motive power and used for public conveyance acting in his or her official capacity, bodily injury with intent to maim, disfigure, disable or kill him or her and the person committing the unlawful assault knows or has reason to know that the victim is a driver, conductor, motorman, captain or other person in charge of any vehicle or boat used as a public conveyance, acting in his or her official capacity, is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in a correctional facility for not less than two nor more than five years.

(c) Battery. -- Any person who unlawfully, knowingly and intentionally makes physical contact of an insulting or provoking nature with a driver, conductor, motorman, captain or other person in charge of any vehicle or boat, driven by steam, electricity, gasoline or other motive power and used for public conveyance, acting in his or her official capacity, or unlawfully and intentionally causes physical harm to a driver, conductor, motorman, captain or other person in charge of any vehicle or boat, driven by steam, electricity, gasoline or other motive power and used for public conveyance, in such capacity, and the person committing the battery knows or has reason to know that the victim is a driver, conductor, motorman, captain or other person in charge of any vehicle or boat used as a public conveyance, acting in his or her official capacity is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in the county or regional jail for not less than one month nor more than twelve months, fined the sum of five hundred dollars, or both. If any person commits a second such offense, he or she is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in a correctional facility for not less than one year nor more than three years or fined the sum of one thousand dollars or both fined and confined. Any person who commits a third violation of this subsection is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in a correctional facility not less than two years nor more than five years or fined not more than two thousand dollars or both fined and confined.

(d) Assault. -- Any person who unlawfully attempts to commit a violent injury to the person of a driver, conductor, motorman, captain or other person in charge of any vehicle or boat, driven by steam, electricity, gasoline or other motive power and used for public conveyance, acting in his or her official capacity, or unlawfully commits an act which places a driver, conductor, motorman, captain or other person in charge of any vehicle or boat, driven by steam, electricity, gasoline or other motive power and used for public conveyance, acting in his or her official capacity, in reasonable apprehension of immediately receiving a violent injury, and the person committing the assault knows or has reason to know that the victim is a driver, conductor, motorman, captain or other person in charge of any vehicle or boat used as a public conveyance, acting in his or her official capacity is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in the county or regional jail for not less than twenty-four hours nor more than six months, fined not more than two hundred dollars, or both fined and confined.

WVC 61 - 2 - 17 §61-2-17. Human trafficking; criminal penalties.

     (a) As used in this section:

     (1) "Debt bondage" means the status or condition of a debtor arising from a pledge by the debtor of the debtor's personal services or those of a person under the debtor's control as a security for debt, if the value of those services as reasonably assessed is not applied toward the liquidation of the debt or the length and nature of those services are not respectively limited and defined.

     (2) "Forced labor or services" means labor or services that are performed or provided by another person and are obtained or maintained through a person's:

     (A) Threat, either implicit or explicit, deception or fraud, scheme, plan, or pattern, or other action intended to cause a person to believe that, if the person did not perform or provide the labor or services that person or another person would suffer serious bodily harm or physical restraint: Provided, That, this does not include work or services provided by a minor to the minor's parent or legal guardian so long as the legal guardianship or custody of the minor was not obtained for the purpose compelling the minor to participate in commercial sex acts or sexually explicit performance, or perform forced labor or services.

     (B) Physically restraining or threatening to physically restrain a person;

     (C) Abuse or threatened abuse of the legal process; or

     (D) Knowingly destroying, concealing, removing, confiscating, or possessing any actual or purported passport or other immigration document, or any other actual or purported government identification document, of another person.

     "Forced labor or services" does not mean labor or services required to be performed by a person in compliance with a court order or as a required condition of probation, parole, or imprisonment.

     (3) "Human trafficking" means the labor trafficking or sex trafficking involving adults or minors where two or more persons are trafficked within any one year period.

     (4) "Labor trafficking" means the promotion, recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring, enticement, provision, obtaining or receipt of a person by any means, whether a United States citizen or foreign national, for the purpose of:

     (A) Debt bondage or forced labor or services; or

     (B) Slavery or practices similar to slavery.

     (5) "Sex trafficking of minors" means the promotion, recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring, enticement, provision, obtaining or receipt of a person under the age of eighteen by any means, whether a United States citizen or foreign national, for the purpose of causing the minor to engage in sexual acts, or in sexual conduct violating the provisions of subsection (b), section five, article eight of this chapter or article eight-c of this chapter.

     (6) "Sex trafficking of adults" means the promotion, recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring, enticement, provision, obtaining, receipt of a person eighteen years of age or older, whether a United States citizen or foreign national for the purposes of engaging in violations of subsection (b), section five, article eight of this chapter by means of force, threat, coercion, deception, abuse or threatened abuse of the legal process, or any scheme, plan, pattern, or other action intended to cause a person to believe that, if the person did not engage in a violation of subsection (b), section five, article eight of this chapter, that person or another person would suffer serious bodily harm or physical restraint.

     (b) Any person who knowingly and wilfully engages in human trafficking is guilty of a felony and upon conviction shall be incarcerated in a state correctional facility for an indeterminate sentence of not less than three nor more than fifteen years or fined not more than $200,000, or both.

     (c) Any person who is a victim of human trafficking may bring a civil action in circuit court. The court may award actual damages, compensatory damages, punitive damages, injunctive relief and any other appropriate relief. A prevailing plaintiff is also entitled to attorneys fees and costs. Treble damages shall be awarded on proof of actual damages where defendant's acts were willful and malicious.

     (d) Notwithstanding the definition of victim in subsection (k), section three, article two-a, chapter fourteen of this code, a person who is a victim of human trafficking is a victim for all purposes of article two-a, chapter fourteen of this code.

     (e) This article and the rights and remedies provided in this article are cumulative and in addition to other existing rights.

     (f) Notwithstanding the age and criminal history limitations set forth in section twenty-six, article eleven of this chapter, any person convicted of prostitution in violation of subsection (b), section five, article eight of this chapter where the conviction was a result of the person being a victim of human trafficking as defined in this section, may petition the circuit court of the county of conviction for an order of expungement pursuant to section twenty-six, article eleven of this chapter.

     No victim of human trafficking seeking relief under this subsection shall be required to prove her or she has rehabilitated himself or herself in order to obtain expungement. WVC 61 - 2 - 18 §61-2-18.
Repealed.

Acts, 2010 Reg. Sess., Ch. 34. WVC 61 - 2 - 19 §61-2-19.
Repealed.

Acts, 2010 Reg. Sess., Ch. 34. WVC 61 - 2 - 20 §61-2-20.
Repealed.

Acts, 2010 Reg. Sess., Ch. 34. WVC 61 - 2 - 21 §61-2-21.
Repealed.

Acts, 2010 Reg. Sess., Ch. 34. WVC 61 - 2 - 22 §61-2-22.
Repealed.

Acts, 2010 Reg. Sess., Ch. 34. WVC 61 - 2 - 23 §61-2-23.
Repealed.

Acts, 2010 Reg. Sess., Ch. 34. WVC 61 - 2 - 24 §61-2-24.
Repealed.

Acts, 2010 Reg. Sess., Ch. 34. WVC 61 - 2 - 25 §61-2-25.
Repealed.

Acts, 2010 Reg. Sess., Ch. 34. WVC 61-2-26 §61-2-26. Doors to be removed from abandoned refrigerators, freezers and other appliances; penalties.
No person shall abandon any refrigerator or food freezer appliance or other airtight appliance having a height or length greater than two feet without first removing all entry doors therefrom.

Any person violating the provisions of this section shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than two hundred dollars, or imprisoned in the county jail not more than six months, or both fined and imprisoned.

Justices of the peace shall have jurisdiction of cases arising hereunder concurrent with courts of record.

WVC 61-2-27 §61-2-27. Required reporting of gunshot and other wounds.
(a) Any medical provider who provides medical treatment to a person suffering from a wound caused by a gunshot or a knife or other sharp or pointed instrument, under circumstances which would lead a reasonable person to believe resulted from a violation of the criminal laws of this state, shall report the same to a law-enforcement agency located within the county within which such wound is treated. The report shall be made initially by telephone and shall be followed by a written report delivered to such agency within forty-eight hours following the initial report: Provided, That where two or more persons participate in the medical treatment of such wound, the obligation to report imposed by this section shall apply only to the attending physician or, if none, to the person primarily responsible for providing the medical treatment.

(b) Any medical provider person who in good faith reports a wound described in subsection (a) of this section shall be immune from any civil liability which may otherwise result solely from reporting the same.

WVC 61-2-27A §61-2-27a. Required reporting of burns.
(a) Any health care provider who examines or renders medical treatment to a person suffering from an injury caused by a burn resulting from fire or a chemical, where the circumstances under which the examination is made or treatment is rendered, or where the condition of the injury gives the health care provider reasonable cause to suspect that the injury occurred during the commission, or attempted commission, of an arson as defined in article three of this chapter, shall report the same to the office of the state fire marshal. A written report shall be made by the provider, or by an employee or agent of the provider at the direction of the provider, to the office of the state fire marshal within forty-eight hours after the initial report: Provided, That where two or more health care providers participate in the examination or treatment of such injury, the obligation to report imposed by this section applies only to the attending physician or, if none, to the person primarily responsible for providing medical treatment for the injury.

(b) Any health care provider who in good faith makes or causes to be made a report pursuant to subsection (a) of this section is immune from any civil liability which may otherwise arise as the result of making such report.

(c) Within available funding and as may be determined necessary by the state fire marshal, the state fire marshal shall conduct educational programs for persons required to report injuries under this section.

WVC 61 - 2 - 28 §61-2-28. Domestic violence -- Criminal acts.
     (a) Domestic battery. -- Any person who unlawfully and intentionally makes physical contact of an insulting or provoking nature with his or her family or household member or unlawfully and intentionally causes physical harm to his or her family or household member, is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in a county or regional jail for not more than twelve months, or fined not more than five hundred dollars, or both.

     (b) Domestic assault. -- Any person who unlawfully attempts to commit a violent injury against his or her family or household member or unlawfully commits an act which places his or her family or household member in reasonable apprehension of immediately receiving a violent injury, is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in a county or regional jail for not more than six months, or fined not more than one hundred dollars, or both.

     (c) Second offense. -- Domestic assault or domestic battery.

     A person convicted of a violation of subsection (a) of this section after having been previously convicted of a violation of subsection (a) or (b) of this section, after having been convicted of a violation of subsection (b) or (c), section nine of this article or subsection (a), section fourteen-g of this article where the victim was his or her current or former spouse, current or former sexual or intimate partner, person with whom the defendant has a child in common, person with whom the defendant cohabits or has cohabited, a parent or guardian, the defendant's child or ward or a member of the defendant's household at the time of the offense or who has previously been granted a period of pretrial diversion pursuant to section twenty-two, article eleven of this chapter for a violation of subsection (a) or (b) of this section, or a violation of subsection (b) or (c), section nine of this article or subsection (a), section fourteen-g of this article where the victim was a current or former spouse, current or former sexual or intimate partner, person with whom the defendant has a child in common, person with whom the defendant cohabits or has cohabited, a parent or guardian, the defendant's child or ward or a member of the defendant's household at the time of the offense is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in a county or regional jail for not less than sixty days nor more than one year, or fined not more than one thousand dollars, or both.

     A person convicted of a violation of subsection (b) of this section after having been previously convicted of a violation of subsection (a) or (b) of this section, after having been convicted of a violation of subsection (b) or (c), section nine of this article or subsection (a), section fourteen-g of this article where the victim was a current or former spouse, current or former sexual or intimate partner, person with whom the defendant has a child in common, person with whom the defendant cohabits or has cohabited, a parent or guardian, the defendant's child or ward or a member of the defendant's household at the time of the offense or having previously been granted a period of pretrial diversion pursuant to section twenty-two, article eleven of this chapter for a violation of subsection (a) or (b) of this section or subsection (b) or (c), section nine of this article or subsection (a), section fourteen-g of this article where the victim was a current or former spouse, current or former sexual or intimate partner, person with whom the defendant has a child in common, person with whom the defendant cohabits or has cohabited, a parent or guardian, the defendant's child or ward or a member of the defendant's household at the time of the offense shall be confined in a county or regional jail for not less than thirty days nor more than six months, or fined not more than five hundred dollars, or both.

     (d) Any person who has been convicted of a third or subsequent violation of the provisions of subsection (a) or (b) of this section, a third or subsequent violation of the provisions of section nine of this article or subsection (a), section fourteen-g of this article where the victim was a current or former spouse, current or former sexual or intimate partner, person with whom the defendant has a child in common, person with whom the defendant cohabits or has cohabited, a parent or guardian, the defendant's child or ward or a member of the defendant's household at the time of the offense or who has previously been granted a period of pretrial diversion pursuant to section twenty-two, article eleven of this chapter for a violation of subsection (a) or (b) of this section or a violation of the provisions of section nine of this article or subsection (a), section fourteen-g of this article in which the victim was a current or former spouse, current or former sexual or intimate partner, person with whom the defendant has a child in common, person with whom the defendant cohabits or has cohabited, a parent or guardian, the defendant's child or ward or a member of the defendant's household at the time of the offense, or any combination of convictions or diversions for these offenses, is guilty of a felony if the offense occurs within ten years of a prior conviction of any of these offenses and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in a state correctional facility not less than one nor more than five years or fined not more than two thousand five hundred dollars, or both.

     (e) As used in this section, "family or household member" means "family or household member" as defined in §48-27-204 of this code.

     (f) A person charged with a violation of this section may not also be charged with a violation of subsection (b) or (c), section nine of this article for the same act.

     (g) No law-enforcement officer may be subject to any civil or criminal action for false arrest or unlawful detention for effecting an arrest pursuant to this section or pursuant to §48-27- 1002 of this code. WVC 61 - 2 - 29 §61-2-29. Abuse or neglect of incapacitated adult; definitions; penalties.
(a) The following words, when used in this section and sections twenty -nine-a and twenty-nine-b of this article, have the meaning ascribed, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise:

(1) "Abuse" means the intentional infliction of bodily injury on an incapacitated adult;

(2) "Bodily injury" means substantial physical pain, illness or any impairment of physical condition;

(3) "Caregiver" means any person who has assumed the legal responsibility or a contractual obligation for the care of an incapacitated adult, or has voluntarily assumed responsibility for the care of an incapacitated adult. The term includes a facility operated by any public or private agency, organization or institution which provides services to, and has assumed responsibility for the care of an incapacitated adult.

(4)"Incapacitated adult" means any person eighteen years of age or older who by reason of advanced age, physical, mental or other infirmity is unable to carry on the daily activities of life necessary to sustaining life and reasonable health;

(5) "Neglect" means the unreasonable failure by a caregiver to provide the care necessary to assure the physical safety or health of an incapacitated adult; and

(6) "Serious bodily injury" means bodily injury which creates a substantial risk of death, which causes serious or prolonged disfigurement, prolonged impairment of health or prolonged loss or impairment of the function of any bodily organ.

(b) A caregiver who neglects an incapacitated adult or who knowingly permits another person to neglect an incapacitated adult is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than $100 nor more than $500 or confined in jail for not more than one year, or both fined and confined.

(c) A caregiver who abuses an incapacitated adult or who knowingly permits another person to abuse an incapacitated adult is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than $100 nor more than $500 or confined in jail for not less than ninety days nor more than one year, or both fined and confined.

(d) A caregiver of an incapacitated adult who intentionally and maliciously abuses or neglects an incapacitated adult and causes the incapacitated adult bodily injury is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than $100 nor more than $1,000 and imprisoned in a state correctional facility not less than two years nor more than ten years.

(e) A caregiver of an incapacitated adult who intentionally and maliciously abuses or neglects an incapacitated adult and causes the incapacitated adult serious bodily injury is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than $1,000 nor more than $5,000 and imprisoned in a state correctional facility not less than three years nor more than fifteen years.

(f) Nothing in this section or in section twenty-nine-a of this article shall be construed to mean an adult is abused or neglected for the sole reason that his or her independent decision is to rely upon treatment by spiritual means in accordance with the tenets and practices of a recognized church or religious denomination or organization in lieu of medical treatment.

(g) Nothing in this section or in section twenty-nine-a of this article shall be construed to mean an incapacitated adult is abused or neglected if deprivation of life-sustaining treatment or other act has been provided for by the West Virginia Health Care Decisions Act, pursuant to article thirty, chapter sixteen of this code.

WVC 61 - 2 - 29 A §61-2-29a. Death of an incapacitated adult by a caregiver.
(a) A caregiver who intentionally and maliciously neglects an incapacitated adult causing death is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than $5000 and be imprisoned in a state correctional facility for a definite term of not less than five nor more than fifteen years.

(b) A caregiver of an incapacitated adult who causes the death of an incapacitated adult by knowingly allowing any other person to intentionally or maliciously neglect the incapacitated adult is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than $5000 and be imprisoned in a state correctional facility for a definite term of not less than five nor more than fifteen years.

(c) A caregiver of an incapacitated adult who intentionally and maliciously abuses an incapacitated adult which causes the death of the incapacitated adult is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be imprisoned in a state correctional facility for a definite term of not less than five nor more than forty years.

(d) A caregiver of an incapacitated adult who causes the death of an incapacitated adult by knowingly allowing any other person to intentionally and maliciously abuse an incapacitated adult is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be imprisoned in a state correctional facility for a definite term of not less than five nor more than forty years.

(e) The provisions of this section do not apply to any caregiver or health care provider who, without malice, fails or refuses, or allows another person to, without malice, fail or refuse, to supply an incapacitated adult with necessary medical care when the medical care conflicts with the tenets and practices of a recognized religious denomination or order of which the incapacitated adult is an adherent member.

WVC 61 - 2 - 29 B §61-2-29b. Financial exploitation of an elderly person, protected person or incapacitated adult; penalties; definitions.
     (a) Financial exploitation occurs when a person intentionally misappropriates or misuses the funds or assets of an elderly person, protected person or incapacitated adult. Any person who violates this section is guilty of larceny and shall be ordered to pay restitution.

     (b) In determining the value of the money, goods, property or services referred to in subsection (a) of the section, it shall be permissible to cumulate amounts or values where such money, goods, property or services were fraudulently obtained as part of a common scheme or plan.

     (c) Financial institutions and their employees, as defined by section one, article two-a, chapter thirty-one-a of this code and as permitted by section four, subsection thirteen of that article, others engaged in financially related activities as defined by section one, article eight-c, chapter thirty-one-a of this code, caregivers, relatives and other concerned persons are permitted to report suspected cases of financial exploitation to state or federal law enforcement authorities, the county prosecuting attorney and to the Department of Health and Human Resources, Adult Protective Services Division or Medicaid Fraud Division, as appropriate. Public officers and employees are required to report suspected cases of financial exploitation to the appropriate entities as stated above. The requisite agencies shall investigate or cause the investigation of the allegations.

     (d) When financial exploitation is suspected and to the extent permitted by federal law, financial institutions and their employees or other business entities required by federal law or regulation to file suspicious activity reports and currency transaction reports shall also be permitted to disclose suspicious activity reports or currency transaction reports to the prosecuting attorney of any county in which the transactions underlying the suspicious activity reports or currency transaction reports occurred.

     (e) Any person or entity that in good faith reports a suspected case of financial exploitation pursuant to this section is immune from civil liability founded upon making that report.

     (f) For the purposes of this section:

     (1) "Incapacitated adult" means a person as defined by section twenty-nine of this article;

     (2) "Elderly person" means a person who is sixty-five years

or older; and

     (3) "Protected person" means any person who is defined as a "protected person" in subsection thirteen, section four, article one, chapter forty-four-a of this code and who is subject to the protections of chapter forty-four-a or forty-four-c of this code. WVC 61 - 2 - 30 §61-2-30. Recognizing an embryo or fetus as a distinct unborn victim of certain crimes of violence against the person.
(a) This section may be known and cited as the Unborn Victims of Violence Act.

(b) For the purposes of this article, the following definitions shall apply: Provided, That these definitions only apply for purposes of prosecution of unlawful acts under this section and may not otherwise be used: (i) To create or to imply that a civil cause of action exists; or (ii) for purposes of argument in a civil cause of action, unless there has been a criminal conviction under this section.

(1) "Embryo" means the developing human in its early stages. The embryonic period commences at fertilization and continues to the end of the embryonic period and the beginning of the fetal period, which occurs eight weeks after fertilization or ten weeks after the onset of the last menstrual period.

(2) "Fetus" means a developing human that has ended the embryonic period and thereafter continues to develop and mature until termination of the pregnancy or birth.

(c) For purposes of enforcing the provisions of sections one, four and seven of this article, subsections (a) and (c), section nine of said article, sections ten and ten-b of said article and subsection (a), section twenty-eight of said article, a pregnant woman and the embryo or fetus she is carrying in the womb constitute separate and distinct victims.

(d) Exceptions. -- The provisions of this section do not apply to:

(1) Acts committed during a legal abortion to which the pregnant woman, or a person authorized by law to act on her behalf, consented or for which the consent is implied by law;

(2) Acts or omissions by medical or health care personnel during or as a result of medical or health-related treatment or services, including, but not limited to, medical care, abortion, diagnostic testing or fertility treatment;

(3) Acts or omissions by medical or health care personnel or scientific research personnel in performing lawful procedures involving embryos that are not in a stage of gestation in utero;

(4) Acts involving the use of force in lawful defense of self or another, but not an embryo or fetus; and

(5) Acts or omissions of a pregnant woman with respect to the embryo or fetus she is carrying.

(e) For purposes of the enforcement of the provisions of this section, a violation of the provisions of article two-i, chapter sixteen of this code shall not serve as a waiver of the protection afforded by the provisions of subdivision (1), subsection (d) of this section.

(f) Other convictions not barred. -- A prosecution for or conviction under this section is not a bar to conviction of or punishment for any other crime committed by the defendant arising from the same incident.

Note: WV Code updated with legislation passed through the 2013 1st Special Session
The WV Code Online is an unofficial copy of the annotated WV Code, provided as a convenience. It has NOT been edited for publication, and is not in any way official or authoritative.


Recent legislation affecting the Code

Citation Year/Session Short Title
§61 - 5 - 17 - (Amended Code)
SENATE BILL - 90
PASSED - Regular Session

SB90 SUB1 ENR  (Uploaded - 03/25/2014)
Creating criminal offense for interfering or preventing call for assistance of emergency service personnel
§61 - 4 - 9 - (New Code)
SENATE BILL - 395
PASSED - Regular Session

SB395 SUB2 ENR  (Uploaded - 03/25/2014)
Relating to operation and oversight of certain human services benefit programs
§61 - 2 - 29 B - (Amended Code)
SENATE BILL - 397
PASSED - Regular Session

SB397 SUB1 ENR  (Uploaded - 03/25/2014)
Expanding scope of activities considered financial exploitation of elderly
§61 - 8 D- 1 - (Amended Code)
§61 - 8 D- 3 - (Amended Code)
§61 - 8 D- 4 - (Amended Code)
§61 - 8 D- 9 - (Amended Code)
HOUSE BILL - 4005
PASSED - Regular Session

HB4005 SUB ENR  (Uploaded - 03/25/2014)
Relating to criminal offenses for child abuse and child neglect
§61 - 8 C- 3 - (Amended Code)
HOUSE BILL - 4006
PASSED - Regular Session

hb4006 ENR  (Uploaded - 03/26/2014)
Relating to the possession and distribution of child pornography
§61 - 7 - 4 - (Amended Code)
HOUSE BILL - 4186
PASSED - Regular Session

hb4186 ENR  (Uploaded - 03/25/2014)
Relating to the procedures for issuing a concealed weapon license
§61 - 11 - 23 - (New Code)
HOUSE BILL - 4210
PASSED - Regular Session

HB4210 SUB ENR  (Uploaded - 03/25/2014)
Juvenile sentencing reform
§61 - 2 - 9 - (Amended Code)
§61 - 2 - 28 - (Amended Code)
HOUSE BILL - 4445
PASSED - Regular Session

hb4445 ENR  (Uploaded - 03/25/2014)
hb4445 ENR 2  (Uploaded - 03/25/2014)
Modifying the definition of "battery" and "domestic battery"
Note: WV Code updated with legislation passed through the 2013 1st Special Session
The WV Code Online is an unofficial copy of the annotated WV Code, provided as a convenience. It has NOT been edited for publication, and is not in any way official or authoritative.
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