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Chapter 24     Entire Code
‹ Chapter 23  |  Chapter 24A › Printer Friendly Versions
Chapter 24  |  Article 24 - 1  |  Section 7
WVC 24- CHAPTER 24. PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION.
WVC 24 - 1 - ARTICLE 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS.

WVC 24 - 1 - 1 §24-1-1. Legislative purpose and policy; plan for internal reorganization; promulgation of plan as rule; cooperation with joint committee on government and finance.
(a) It is the purpose and policy of the Legislature in enacting this chapter to confer upon the public service commission of this state the authority and duty to enforce and regulate the practices, services and rates of public utilities in order to:

(1) Ensure fair and prompt regulation of public utilities in the interest of the using and consuming public;

(2) Provide the availability of adequate, economical and reliable utility services throughout the state;

(3) Encourage the well-planned development of utility resources in a manner consistent with state needs and in ways consistent with the productive use of the state's energy resources, such as coal;

(4) Ensure that rates and charges for utility services are just, reasonable, applied without unjust discrimination or preference, applied in a manner consistent with the purposes and policies set forth in article two-a of this chapter, and based primarily on the costs of providing these services;

(5) Encourage energy conservation and the effective and efficient management of regulated utility enterprises; and

(6) Encourage and support open and competitive marketing of rail carrier services by providing to all rail carriers access to tracks as provided in section three-b, article three of this chapter. It is the purpose of the Legislature to remove artificial barriers to rail carrier service, stimulate competition, stimulate the free flow of goods and passengers throughout the state and promote the expansion of the tourist industry, thereby improving the economic condition of the state.

(b) The Legislature creates the public service commission to exercise the legislative powers delegated to it. The public service commission is charged with the responsibility for appraising and balancing the interests of current and future utility service customers, the general interests of the state's economy and the interests of the utilities subject to its jurisdiction in its deliberations and decisions.

(c) The Legislature directs the public service commission to identify, explore and consider the potential benefits or risks associated with emerging and state-of-the-art concepts in utility management, rate design and conservation. The commission may conduct inquiries and hold hearings regarding such concepts in order to provide utilities subject to its jurisdiction and other interested persons the opportunity to comment, and shall report to the governor and the Legislature regarding its findings and policies to each of these areas not later than the first day of the regular session of the Legislature in the year one thousand nine hundred eighty-five, and every two years thereafter.

(d) It is legislative policy to ensure that the Legislature and the general public become better informed regarding the regulation of public utilities in this state and the conduct of the business of the public service commission. To aid in the achievement of this policy, the public service commission annually shall present to the joint committee on government and finance, created by article three, chapter four of this code, or a subcommittee designated by the joint committee, a management summary report which describes in a concise manner:

(1) The major activities of the commission for the year especially as such activities relate to the implementation of the provisions of this chapter;

(2) Important policy decisions reached and initiatives undertaken during the year;

(3) The current balance of supply and demand for natural gas and electric utility services in the state and forecast of the probable balance for the next ten years; and

(4) Other information considered by the commission to be important including recommendations for statutory reform and thereasons for such recommendations.

(e) In addition to any other studies and reports required to be conducted and made by the public service commission pursuant to any other provision of this section, the commission shall study and initially report to the Legislature no later than the first day of the regular session of the Legislature in the year one thousand nine hundred eighty, upon:

(1) The extent to which natural gas wells or wells heretofore supplying gas utilities in this state have been capped off or shut in; the number of such wells, their probable extent of future production and the reasons given and any justification for, capping off or shutting in such wells, the reasons, if any, why persons engaged or heretofore engaged in the development of gas wells in this state or the Appalachian areas have been discouraged from drilling, developing or selling the production of such wells and whether there are fixed policies by any utility or group of utilities to avoid the purchase of natural gas produced in the Appalachian region of the United States generally and in West Virginia specifically.

(2) The extent of the export and import of natural gas utility supplies in West Virginia.

(3) The cumulative effect of the practices mentioned in subdivisions (1) and (2) of this subsection upon rates theretofore and hereafter charged gas utility customers in West Virginia.

In carrying out the provisions of this section the commission shall have jurisdiction over such persons, whether public utilities or not, as may be in the opinion of the commission necessary to the exercise of its mandate and may compel attendance before it, take testimony under oath and compel the production of papers or other documents. Upon reasonable request by the commission, all other state agencies shall cooperate with the commission in carrying out the provisions and requirements of this subsection.

(f) No later than the first day of the regular session of the Legislature in the year one thousand nine hundred eighty, the public service commission shall submit to the Legislature a plan for internal reorganization which plan shall specifically address the following:

(1) A division within the public service commission which shall include the office of the commissioners, the hearing examiners and such support staff as may be necessary to carry out the functions of decision making and general supervision of the commission, which functions shall not include advocacy in cases before the commission;

(2) The creation of a division which shall act as an advocate for the position of and in the interest of all customers;

(3) The means and procedures by which the division to be created pursuant to the provisions of subdivision (2) of this subsection shall protect the interests of each class of customers and the means by which the commission will assure that such division will be financially and departmentally independent of the division created by subdivision (1) of this subsection;

(4) The creation of a division within the public service commission which shall assume the duties and responsibilities now charged to the commissioners with regard to motor carriers which division shall exist separately from those divisions set out in subdivisions (1) and (2) of this subsection and which shall relieve the commissioners of all except minimal administrative responsibilities as to motor carriers and which plan shall provide for a hearing procedure to relieve the commissioners from hearing motor carrier cases;

(5) Which members of the staff of the public service commission shall be exempted from the salary schedules or pay plan adopted by the civil service commission and identify such staff members by job classification or designation, together with the salary or salary ranges for each such job classification or designation;

(6) The manner in which the commission will strengthen its knowledge and independent capacity to analyze key conditions and trends in the industries it regulates extending from general industry analysis and supply-demand forecasting to continuing and more thorough scrutiny of the capacity planning, construction management, operating performance and financial condition of the major companies within these industries.

Such plan shall be based on the concept that each of the divisions mentioned in subdivisions (1), (2) and (4) of this subsection shall exist independently of the others and the plan shall discourage ex parte communications between them by such means as the commission shall direct, including, but not limited to, separate clerical and professional staffing for each division. Further, the public service commission is directed to incorporate within the said plan to the fullest extent possible the recommendations presented to the subcommittee on the public service commission of the joint committee on government and finance in a final report dated February, one thousand nine hundred seventy-nine, and entitled "A Plan for Regulatory Reform and Management Improvement."

The commission shall before the fifth day of January, one thousand nine hundred eighty, adopt said plan by order, which order shall promulgate the same as a rule of the commission to be effective upon the date specified in said order, which date shall be no later than the thirty-first day of December, one thousand nine hundred eighty. Certified copies of such order and rule shall be filed on the first day of the regular session of the Legislature, one thousand nine hundred eighty, by the chairman of the commission with the clerk of each house of the Legislature, the governor and the secretary of state. The chairman of the commission shall also file with the office of the secretary of state the receipt of the clerk of each house and of the governor, which receipt shall evidence compliance with this section.

Upon the filing of a certified copy of such order and rule, the clerk of each house of the Legislature shall report the same to their respective houses and the presiding officer thereof shall refer the same to appropriate standing committee or committees.

Within the limits of funds appropriated therefor, the rule of the public service commission shall be effective upon the date specified in the order of the commission promulgating it unless an alternative plan be adopted by general law or unless the rule is disapproved by a concurrent resolution of the Legislature adopted prior to adjournment sine die of the regular session of the Legislature to be held in the year one thousand nine hundred eighty: Provided, That if such rule is approved in part and disapproved in part by a concurrent resolution of the Legislature adopted prior to such adjournment, such rule shall be effective to the extent and only to the extent that the same is approved by such concurrent resolution.

The rules promulgated and made effective pursuant to this section shall be effective notwithstanding any other provisions of this code for the promulgation of rules or regulations.

(g) The public service commission is hereby directed to cooperate with the joint committee on government and finance of the Legislature in its review, examination and study of the administrative operations and enforcement record of the railroad safety division of the public service commission and any similar studies.

(h) (1) The Legislature hereby finds that rates for natural gas charged to customers of all classes have risen dramatically in recent years to the extent that such increases have adversely affected all customer classes. The Legislature further finds that it must take action necessary to mitigate the adverse consequences of these dramatic rate increases.

(2) The Legislature further finds that the practices of natural gas utilities in purchasing high-priced gas supplies, in purchasing gas supplies from out-of-state sources when West Virginia possesses abundant natural gas, and in securingsupplies, directly or indirectly by contractual agreements including take-or-pay provisions, indefinite price escalators, or most-favored nation clauses have contributed to the dramatic increase in natural gas prices. It is therefore the policy of the Legislature to discourage such purchasing practices in order to protect all customer classes.

(3) The Legislature further finds that it is in the best interests of the citizens of West Virginia to encourage the transportation of natural gas in intrastate commerce by interstate or intrastate pipelines or by local distribution companies in order to provide competition in the natural gas industry and in order to provide natural gas to consumers at the lowest possible price.

(i) The Legislature further finds that transactions between utilities and affiliates are a contributing factor to the increase in natural gas and electricity prices and tend to confuse consideration of a proper rate of return calculation. The Legislature therefore finds that it is imperative that the public service commission have the opportunity to properly study the issue of proper rate of return for lengthy periods of time and to limit the return of a utility to a proper level when compared to return or profit that affiliates earn on transactions with sister utilities.

WVC 24 - 1 - 1 A §24-1-1a. Supplemental rule for reorganization; certain reports to be made to the Legislature; filing of such rule and reports and the procedure therefor.

(a) The public service commission shall submit to the Legislature a supplemental rule for reorganization to supplement General Order No. 195, Rule for Reorganization, previously submitted to the Legislature on the first day of the regular session one thousand nine hundred eighty. Such supplemental rule shall specifically address and incorporate to the fullest extent possible each matter disapproved in a concurrent resolution of the Legislature adopted at its regular session in the year one thousand nine hundred eighty approving in part and disapproving in part the said General Order No. 195, Rule for Reorganization.

(b) The commission shall before the second day of January, one thousand nine hundred eighty-one, adopt such supplemental rule by order, which order shall promulgate the same as a rule of the commission to be effective upon the date specified in said order, which date shall be no later than the thirty-first day of December, one thousand nine hundred eighty-one. Certified copies of such order and rule shall be filed on the first day of the regular session of the Legislature, one thousand nine hundred eighty-one, by the chairman of the commission with the clerk of each house of the Legislature, the governor and the secretary of state. The chairman of the commission shall also file with the office of the secretary of state the receipt of the clerk of each house and of the governor, which receipt shall evidence compliance with this section.

Upon the filing of a certified copy of such order and rule, the clerk of each house of the Legislature shall report the same to their respective houses and the presiding officer thereof shall refer the same to appropriate standing committee or committees.

Within the limits of funds appropriated therefor, the rule of the public service commission adopted pursuant to this section shall be effective upon the date specified in the order of the commission promulgating it unless an alternative plan be adopted by general law or unless the rule is disapproved by a concurrent resolution of the Legislature adopted prior to adjournment sine die of the regular session of the Legislature to be held in the year one thousand nine hundred eighty-one: Provided, That if such rule is approved in part and disapproved in part by a concurrent resolution of the Legislature adopted prior to such adjournment, such rule shall be effective to the extent and only to the extent that the same is approved by such concurrent resolution.

The rule promulgated and made effective pursuant to this section shall be effective notwithstanding any other provision of this code for the promulgation of rules or regulations.

(c) In addition to filing the supplemental rule for reorganization as provided for in subsection (a) of this section, the chairman of the public service commission shall also file, according to procedure provided in subsection (b) of this section, those additional reports set forth in the concurrent resolution referred to in subsection (a) of this section.

(d) The public service commission may include in such supplemental rule an itemization of which members of the staff of the public service commission required for the consumer advocate division shall be exempted from the salary schedules or any plan adopted by the civil service commission and identify such staff members by job classification or designation, together with the salary or salary ranges for each job classification or designation.

WVC 24 - 1 - 1 B §24-1-1b. Supplemental rule for reorganization.

The public service commission shall, by general order, create a division within its staff which shall provide legal, engineering, financial and accounting advice and assistance to public service districts and Class III cities and Class IV towns or villages in operational, financial and regulatory matters, and may perform or participate in the studies required under section one-b, article thirteen-a, chapter sixteen of this code: Provided, That advice and assistance to a Class III city or Class IV town or village shall only be given if such advice or assistance is specifically requested by the Class III city or the Class IV town or village. The request may be withdrawn by the city or town at any time, after which the commission shall not provide further assistance or advice.

WVC 24 - 1 - 2 §24-1-2. Definitions.
Except where a different meaning clearly appears from the context the words "public utility" when used in this chapter shall mean and include any person or persons, or association of persons, however associated, whether incorporated or not, including municipalities, engaged in any business, whether herein enumerated or not, which is, or shall hereafter be held to be, a public service. Whenever in this chapter the words "commission" or "public service commission" occur such word or words shall, unless a different intent clearly appears from the context, be taken to mean the public service commission of West Virginia. Whenever used in this chapter, "customer" shall mean and include any person, firm, corporation, municipality, public service district or any other entity who purchases a product or services of any utility and shall include any such person, firm, corporation, municipality, public service district or any other entity who purchases such services or product for resale.

WVC 24 - 1 - 3 §24-1-3. Commission continued; membership; chairman; compensation;  quorum.
 (a) The Public Service Commission of West Virginia is continued and directed as provided by this chapter, chapter twenty- four-a, chapter twenty-four-b and chapter twenty-four-d of this code. The Public Service Commission may sue and be sued by that name.

 (b) The Public Service Commission shall consist of three members who shall be appointed by the Governor, with the advice and consent of the Senate. The commissioners shall be citizens and residents of this state and at least one of them shall be duly licensed to practice law in West Virginia, with not less than ten years' actual work experience in the legal profession as a member of a state bar.

 (c) No more than two of the commissioners shall be members of the same political party.

 (d) Each commissioner shall, before entering upon the duties of his or her office, take and subscribe to the oath provided by section five, article IV of the Constitution of this state. The oath shall be filed in the office of the Secretary of State.

 (e) The Governor shall designate one of the commissioners to serve as chairman at the Governor's will and pleasure. The chairman shall be the chief administrative officer of the commission. The Governor may remove any commissioner only for incompetency, neglect of duty, gross immorality, malfeasance in office or violation of subsections (g) and (h) of this section.

 (f) Upon expiration of the terms, appointments are for terms of six years, except that an appointment to fill a vacancy is for the unexpired term only.

 (g) No person while in the employ of, or holding any official relation to, any public utility subject to the provisions of this chapter or holding any stocks or bonds of a public utility subject to the provisions of this chapter or who is pecuniarily interested in a public utility subject to the provisions of this chapter may serve as a member of the commission or as an employee of the commission.

 (h) Nor may any commissioner be a candidate for or hold public office or be a member of any political committee while acting as a commissioner; nor may any commissioner or employee of the commission receive any pass, free transportation or other thing of value, either directly or indirectly, from any public utility or motor carrier subject to the provisions of this chapter. In case any of the commissioners becomes a candidate for any public office or a member of any political committee, the Governor shall remove him or her from office and shall appoint a new commissioner to fill the vacancy created.

 (i) The annual salary of each commissioner provided in section two-a, article seven, chapter six of this code shall be paid in monthly installments from the special funds in the percentages that follow:

 (1) From the Public Service Commission Fund collected under the provisions of section six, article three of this chapter, eighty percent;

 (2) From the Public Service Commission Motor Carrier Fund collected under the provisions of section six, article six, chapter twenty-four-a of this code, seventeen percent; and

 (3) From the Public Service Commission Gas Pipeline Safety Fund collected under the provisions of section three, article five, chapter twenty-four-b of this code, three percent.

 (j) In addition to the salary provided for all commissioners in section two-a, article seven, chapter six of this code, the chairman of the commission shall receive $5,000 per annum to be paid in monthly installments from the Public Service Commission Fund collected under the provisions of section six, article three of this chapter. WVC 24 - 1 - 4 §24-1-4. Appointment, duties and compensation of secretary and other employees; hearings generally; public comment; outside employment by certain employees prohibited. .
 The commission shall appoint a secretary and such other employees as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of this chapter and shall fix their respective salaries or compensations. It shall be the duty of the secretary to keep a full and true record of all proceedings, acts, orders and judgments of the commission, to issue all necessary process, returns and notices, to keep all books, maps, documents and papers ordered filed by the commission, and all orders made by the commission or approved and confirmed by it and ordered to be filed; and he shall be responsible to the commission for the safe custody and preservation of all such documents in his office. He may administer oaths in all parts of the state, so far as the exercise of such power is properly incidental to the performance of his duty or that of the commission.

 The commission may designate such of its employees as it deems necessary to hold hearings, held or required by this chapter, and to take evidence at such hearings, which employees are hereby empowered to subpoena witnesses, administer oaths, take testimony, require the production of documentary evidence and exercise such other powers and perform such other duties as may be delegated to them and required by the commission, in any proceeding or examination instituted or conducted by the commission under this chapter, at any designated place of hearing within the state.

 The commission shall provide a web site to accept comments from West Virginia residents regarding any matter under the auspices of the commission or before the commission. The commission staff shall report to the full commission all comments and suggestions received through the web site.

 Any commissioner or person employed by the commission other than on a part-time basis shall devote full time to the performance of his duties as such commissioner or employee during the regular working hours as set by the commission. WVC 24 - 1 - 5 §24-1-5. Seal to be adopted; collection and disposition of fees.
The commission shall adopt a seal which shall be affixed to all papers under such regulations as the commission may prescribe. The commission shall likewise prescribe a schedule of fees to be charged for the certification of all records and papers, and sums to be paid witnesses and other costs necessary and incident to hearings before it and order the same paid by the unsuccessful party. All sums collected by the secretary, except witness fees, shall be paid by him into the state treasury and be credited to the public service commission fund provided for in section six, article three of this chapter. The witness fee shall be paid to the person to whom they are allowed. The sums to be paid into the public service commission fund representing the collection of any month shall be so paid on or before the tenth of the following month.

WVC 24 - 1 - 6 §24-1-6. Office of commission; time and place of hearings; number of commissioners required for taking action. .
 The general office of the commission shall be kept at the seat of government and in charge of the secretary or his or her deputy. Hearings and the taking of evidence may be had at such times and places and in such manner in each particular case as the commission may designate. If the sole purpose of the hearing is to receive public comment or protest, then not less than one commissioner is required to be present.

 The concurrent judgment of two of the commissioners, when in session as the commission, shall be deemed the action of the commission, and a vacancy in the commission shall not affect the right or duty of the remaining commissioners to function as a commission. WVC 24 - 1 - 7 §24-1-7. Rules of procedure; commission not bound by rules of evidence or pleadings; inscription on, use of and judicial notice of seal.

The commission shall prescribe such rules and regulations as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of this chapter, including rules of procedure and for taking evidence in all matters that may come before it, and enter such orders as may be just and lawful: Provided, That no such rule or regulation shall be effective unless promulgated pursuant to the provisions of sections one through ten, article three, chapter twenty-nine-a of this code: Provided, however, That no such rule or regulation shall become effective until sixty days after its final adoption or until the effective date proposed by the commission, whichever is later: Provided further, That any rules and regulations promulgated prior to the effective date of this section shall remain in full force and effect unless changed, modified or repealed in accordance herewith. The rules and regulations promulgated hereunder by the public service commission shall not be subject to the legislative rule-making review procedures established in sections eleven through fifteen, article three, chapter twenty-nine-a of this code. In the investigations, preparations and hearings of cases, the commission shall not be bound by the technical rules of pleading and evidence, but in that respect it may exercise such discretion as will facilitate its efforts to understand and learn all the facts bearing upon the right and justice to the matters before it.

Meetings of the commission wherein the sole purpose is to decide or deliberate toward a decision on any matter are exempt from the requirements of article nine-a, chapter six of this code, any other provision of this code to the contrary notwithstanding.

All orders of the commission shall set forth separately findings of facts and conclusions of law, which findings of fact shall make specific reference to the evidence in the record which supports such findings.

The commission shall have a seal bearing the following inscription: "The Public Service Commission of West Virginia." The seal shall be affixed to all writs and authentications of copies of records, and to such other instruments as the commission shall direct. All courts shall take judicial notice of said seal.

WVC 24 - 1 - 8 §24-1-8. Legal counsel for the commission.
The commission may employ counsel to represent it in proceedings before it on application, complaint, or otherwise, and proceedings of any nature in any and all courts or before administrative or executive boards and to act as legal advisers to the commission in all matters for which their services, in the opinion of the commission, are required. The compensation of such counsel shall be fixed by the commission and shall be paid as are other employees of the commission. The commission shall notify the attorney general of any action or suit brought against the commission.

WVC 24 - 1 - 9 §24-1-9. Recommended decision by hearing commissioner, hearing examiner or panel.
(a) Any order recommended by a single hearing commissioner, a hearing examiner or a panel consisting of a hearing examiner and a single commissioner with respect to any matter referred for hearing shall be in writing and shall set forth separately findings of fact and conclusions of law, which findings of fact shall make specific reference to the evidence in the record which supports such findings and shall be filed with the commission. A copy of such recommended order shall be served upon the parties who have appeared in the proceeding.

(b) Before any order is recommended, the parties shall be afforded an opportunity to submit, within the time prescribed by the hearing commissioner, hearing examiner or panel, proposed findings of fact and conclusions of law and briefs.

(c) The commission shall serve a copy of the recommended order on the parties by one of the following means:

(1) By certified U.S. mail, return receipt requested; or

(2) By electronic transmission: Provided, That the party has the capability to receive the electronic transmission, has furnished an electronic address and has agreed in writing to accept recommended orders electronically. Electronic transmissions shall contain a "return receipt" or "read receipt" mechanism to assure that a recommended order was received by the party: Provided, however, That if the commission does not receive a confirmatory electronic transmission acknowledging the recommended order was received by the party, via return receipt, read receipt or electronic mail, within three business days of service, the commission shall serve the recommended order by certified U.S. mail, return receipt requested.

(d) Service is complete when the recommended order is placed in the mail or transmitted electronically to the party.

(e) Within the time prescribed, the parties shall be afforded an opportunity to file exceptions to the recommended order and a brief in support, provided the time fixed is not less than fifteen days from the date of service of such recommended order.

(f) In all proceedings in which exceptions have been filed to a recommended order, the commission, before issuing its final order, may afford the parties an opportunity for oral argument. When exceptions are filed, the commission shall consider the exceptions. If sufficient reason appears for the exceptions, the commission may grant the review or make an order or hold or authorize further hearings or proceedings. The commission, after review, upon the whole record, or as supplemented by a further hearing, shall decide the matter in controversy and make appropriate order thereon.

(g) When no exceptions are filed within the time specified, the recommended order shall become the order of the commission five days following the expiration of the period for filing exceptions unless the order is stayed or postponed by the commission: Provided, That the commission may, on its own motion before the order becomes the order of the commission, review any matter and take action as if exceptions had been filed.

(h) The commission, a hearing commissioner, a hearing examiner or panel to whom a matter is referred may expedite the hearing and decision of any case, if the public interest requires, by the use of pretrial conferences, stipulations and agreements, prepared testimony, depositions, daily transcripts of evidence, trial briefs and oral argument in lieu of briefs.

WVC 24 - 1 - 10 §24-1-10.
Repealed.

Acts, 2010 Reg. Sess., Ch. 32.

Note: WV Code updated with legislation passed through the 2013 1st Special Session
The WV Code Online is an unofficial copy of the annotated WV Code, provided as a convenience. It has NOT been edited for publication, and is not in any way official or authoritative.


Recent legislation affecting the Code

Citation Year/Session Short Title
§24 - 2 G- 1 - (New Code)
§24 - 2 G- 2 - (New Code)
SENATE BILL - 373
PASSED - Regular Session

SB373 SUB2 ENR  (Uploaded - 03/25/2014)
Relating to water resources protection
§24 - 1 - 1 - (Amended Code)
§24 - 3 - 3 B - (Repealed Code)
SENATE BILL - 585
PASSED - Regular Session

SB585 ENR  (Uploaded - 03/25/2014)
Removing unconstitutional language regarding access to rail lines
§24 - 2 - 19 - (New Code)
HOUSE BILL - 2803
PASSED - Regular Session

HB2803 SUB ENR  (Uploaded - 03/25/2014)
Requiring electric utilities to implement integrated resource plans
§24 - 2 - 4 A - (Amended Code)
§24 - 2 - 4 B - (Amended Code)
HOUSE BILL - 4601
PASSED - Regular Session

HB4601 ENR  (Uploaded - 03/25/2014)
Relating to fiscal management and regulation of publicly-owned utilities
Note: WV Code updated with legislation passed through the 2013 1st Special Session
The WV Code Online is an unofficial copy of the annotated WV Code, provided as a convenience. It has NOT been edited for publication, and is not in any way official or authoritative.
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