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Chapter 8     Entire Code
‹ Chapter 07A  |  Chapter 09 › Printer Friendly Versions
Chapter 8  |  Article 8 - 16  |  Section 28

1 - PURPOSE AND SHORT TITLE; DEFINI

2 - CREATION OF MUNICIPALITIES

3 - FRAMING AND ADOPTING AN ORIGINA

3A - GOVERNMENT OF CLASS IV TOWNS O

4 - FRAMING AND ADOPTING A CHARTER

5 - ELECTION, APPOINTMENT, QUALIFIC

6 - ANNEXATION

7 - DECREASE OF CORPORATE LIMITS

8 - CONSOLIDATION OF MUNICIPALITIES

9 - PROCEEDINGS OF GOVERNING BODIES

10 - POWERS AND DUTIES OF CERTAIN

11 - POWERS AND DUTIES WITH RESPEC

12 - GENERAL AND SPECIFIC POWERS,

13 - TAXATION AND FINANCE

13A - BUSINESS IMPROVEMENT DISTRIC

13B - DOWNTOWN REDEVELOPMENT DISTR

13C - MUNICIPAL TAX IN LIEU OF BUS

14 - LAW AND ORDER; POLICE FORCE O

14A - MUNICIPAL POLICE OFFICERS AN

15 - FIRE FIGHTING; FIRE COMPANIES

15A - STANDARDS FOR PROFESSIONAL F

17 - LOW COST IMPROVEMENTS

18 - ASSESSMENTS TO IMPROVE STREET

19 - MUNICIPAL AND COUNTY WATERWOR

20 - COMBINED SYSTEMS

20A - NEIGHBORHOOD REHABILITATION

21 - BOARD OF PARK AND RECREATION

22 - RETIREMENT BENEFITS GENERALLY

22 A - WEST VIRGINIA MUNICIPAL POL

23 - INTERGOVERNMENTAL RELATIONS -

24 - PLANNING AND ZONING

25 - INTERGOVERNMENTAL RELATIONS -

26 - INTERGOVERNMENTAL RELATIONS -

26A - MUNICIPAL AND COUNTY HISTORI

27 - INTERGOVERNMENTAL RELATIONS -

27A - INTERGOVERNMENTAL RELATIONS

28 - INTERGOVERNMENTAL RELATIONS -

29 - INTERGOVERNMENTAL RELATIONS -

29A - COUNTY AIRPORT AUTHORITIES

29B - AIRPORT SECURITY

30 - INTERGOVERNMENTAL RELATIONS -

31 - INTERGOVERNMENTAL RELATIONS -

32 - INTERGOVERNMENTAL RELATIONS -

33 - INTERGOVERNMENTAL RELATIONS -

34 - JUDICIAL REVIEW

35 - DISSOLUTION OF MUNICIPALITIES

36 - CONSTITUTIONALITY AND SEVERAB

37 - MUNICIPAL FINANCIAL STABILIZA

38 - MUNICIPAL ECONOMIC OPPORTUNIT

WVC 8- CHAPTER 8. MUNICIPAL CORPORATIONS.
WVC -16- ARTICLE 16. MUNICIPAL PUBLIC WORKS; REVENUE BOND FINANCING.

WVC 8 - 16 - 1 PART I. DEFINITIONS; AUTHORIZATION
OF MUNICIPAL PUBLIC WORKS.
§8-16-1. Definitions.
As used in this article, the following terms shall have the following meanings unless the text clearly indicates otherwise.

(a) "Municipal public works" or "works" or "projects" means the construction, reconstruction, establishment, acquisition, improvement, renovation, extension, enlargement, increase, equipment, maintenance, repair (including replacements) and operation of jails, jail facilities, municipal buildings, police stations, fire stations, libraries, museums, other public buildings, incinerator plants, land fill or other garbage disposal systems, hospitals, piers, docks, terminals, airports, drainage systems, flood control systems, stormwater systems and associated stormwater management program, flood walls, culverts, bridges (including approaches, causeways, viaducts, underpasses and connecting roadways), public markets, cemeteries, motor vehicle parking facilities (including parking lots, buildings, ramps, curb-line parking, meters and other facilities considered necessary, appropriate, useful, convenient or incidental to the regulation, control and parking of motor vehicles), farms, dormitories, apartments and other housing facilities for the students and faculties of institutions of higher education; facilities providing housing for the elderly, including, but not limited to, life care facilities, congregate living facilities and adult residential facilities, stadiums, gymnasiums, sports arenas, auditoriums, public recreation centers, public recreation parks, swimming pools, roller skating rinks, ice skating rinks, tennis courts, golf courses, polo grounds, or the grading, regrading, paving, repaving, surfacing, resurfacing, curbing, recurbing, widening or otherwise improving of any street, avenue, road, alley or way, or the building or renewing of sidewalks, where works or projects will be made self-supporting, and the cost thereof, together with the interest thereon, will be returned within a reasonable period, not exceeding forty years, by means of tolls, fees, rents, special assessments or charges other than taxation; and the terms shall also mean any works or project as a whole, and all integral parts thereof, including all necessary, appropriate, useful, convenient or incidental appurtenances and equipment in connection with any one or more of the above.

(b) "Stormwater systems" means a stormwater system in its entirety or any integral part thereof used to collect and dispose of stormwater and an associated stormwater management program. It includes all facilities, structures and natural water courses used for collecting and conducting stormwater to, through and from drainage areas to the points of final outlet including, but not limited to, any and all of the following: Inlets, conduits, outlets, channels, ponds, drainage easements, water quality facilities, catch basins, ditches, streams, gulches, flumes, culverts, siphons, retention or detention basins, dams, floodwalls, pipes, flood control systems, levies and pumping stations. The term "stormwater systems" shall not include highways, road and drainage easements, and/or stormwater facilities constructed, owned and/or operated by the West Virginia division of highways.

(c) "Stormwater management program" means those activities associated with the management, operation, maintenance and control of stormwater and stormwater systems, and shall include, but not be limited to, public education, stormwater and surface runoff water quality improvement, mapping, planning, flood control, inspection, enforcement and any other activities required by state and federal law. The term "stormwater management program" shall not include those activities associated with the management, operation, maintenance and control of highways, road and drainage easements, and/or stormwater facilities constructed, owned and/or operated by the West Virginia division of highways without the express agreement of the commissioner of highways.

WVC 8-16-2 §8-16-2. Municipalities authorized to construct, etc., public works and to acquire property; payment of costs.
Every municipality is and any two or more municipalities acting jointly, whether situate in the same county or different counties, are, hereby empowered and authorized to construct, reconstruct, establish, acquire, improve, renovate, extend, enlarge, increase, own, equip, repair (including replacements), maintain and operate any municipal public works, together with all appurtenances necessary, appropriate, useful, convenient or incidental for or to the maintenance and operation of such works, and shall have plenary power and authority to acquire by gift, grant, purchase, condemnation or otherwise, and thereafter hold, all necessary lands, rights, easements, right-of-ways, franchises and other property therefor within or without, or partly within and partly without, the corporate limits of any such municipality or municipalities, and to issue revenue bonds to pay the costs of such public works and properties: Provided, That this section shall not be construed to authorize any municipality to construct, reconstruct, establish, acquire, improve, renovate, extend, enlarge, increase, own, equip, repair (including replacements), maintain or operate any works which would render a service already being adequately rendered within such municipality. No obligation shall be incurred by any municipality in such construction, reconstruction, establishment, acquisition, improvement, renovation, extension, enlargement or increase, except such as is payable solely from the funds provided under the authority of this article.

WVC 8-16-3 §8-16-3. Special provisions as to certain municipal public works.
When the municipal public works is a motor vehicle parking facility, any municipality involved therein shall have the plenary power and authority, in order to help finance the same, to use any revenue derived from other parking meters or other parking facilities, unless such revenue is otherwise pledged to pay for such other parking meters or other parking facilities.

When the municipal public works is a jail facility used for municipal prisoners, any municipality involved therein shall have the power and authority, in order to help finance the same, to pledge, for a period not to exceed twenty years, the proceeds derived from the imposition of fines and fees.

When the cost of the municipal public works is to be paid by special assessment against the abutting property, represented by assessment certificates which constitute a lien upon such property and said assessment certificates are pledged by any municipality to retire revenue bonds issued and sold to pay the cost thereof, the payor of such assessment certificate shall have the right to pay the same at any time before maturity, together with interest thereon to date of payment, and upon the payment of such assessment certificate the treasurer of such municipality shall deliver to the payor a release for such lien, and the funds received therefrom shall by said treasurer be deposited in a special fund to be expended only in the payment of such revenue bonds.

WVC 8-16-4 PART II. CONTROL OF GOVERNING BODY OR BOARD.
§8-16-4. Construction, etc., to be under control of governing body or appointed board, etc.
The construction, reconstruction, establishment, acquisition, improvement, renovation, extension, enlargement, increase, equipment, repair (including replacements), custody, maintenance and operation of any such works, and the collection of revenues therefrom, shall be under the supervision and control of the governing body, or of a committee, by whatever name called, composed of all or a portion of the governing body when only one municipality is involved, or of a board or commission appointed by such governing body when only one municipality is involved or appointed by the governing bodies when two or more municipalities take joint action under the provisions of this article, as may be provided by the governing body or bodies.

When such supervision and control are vested in a committee, board or commission, the governing body or bodies, as the case may be, may provide, by ordinance or ordinances, for said committee, board or commission to exercise such of the functions of the governing body or bodies in connection with the matter as it or they deem proper, and may provide for said committee, board or commission to receive such compensation as such body or bodies may deem proper, all of which authority and compensation shall be specifically provided for by ordinance or ordinances. Any such committee, board or commission shall consist of the number of members fixed in the ordinance or ordinances creating the same, and the manner and mode of the selection and appointment of the members of any such board or commission shall be stated in such ordinance or ordinances. The members of any such board or commission appointed by the governing body or bodies shall be chosen without regard to their political affiliations, but with regard to their business and professional experience or standing as citizens in the community. All compensation and expenses, including attorney's fees, of such committee, board or commission shall be paid solely from funds provided under the authority of this article. Any such committee, board or commission shall have the power to establish bylaws, rules and regulations for its own government.

When hereinafter used in this article, the term "board" shall be construed to mean the governing body or committee composed of all or a portion of the governing body when only one municipality is involved, or a board or commission appointed by the governing body when only one municipality is involved or appointed by the governing bodies when two or more municipalities take joint action under the provisions of this article, as the case may be. When two or more municipalities take joint action under the provisions of this article each governing body shall appoint to the board the number of members which the governing bodies have agreed shall be appointed by each such governing body.

The governing body or bodies also, in its or their discretion, may provide by ordinance or ordinances for the leasing of a municipal public works and provide for the custody, maintenance and operation thereof by a lessee in accordance with the provisions of such ordinance or ordinances and lease contract executed pursuant thereto: Provided, That the lessee shall pay to the municipality or municipalities for the use and occupancy of such municipal public works so leased an amount sufficient to provide a sinking fund for the payment of the bonds and the interest thereon and all other charges mentioned in section seventeen of this article.

WVC 8-16-4a §8-16-4a. Additional special provisions as to motor vehicle parking facilities.
(a) The Legislature hereby finds that the greatly increased use by the public of motor vehicles of all kinds has caused serious traffic congestion on the streets of many municipalities in this state; that the lack of adequate planning and supervision of the location of parking facilities, the parking of motor vehicles of all kinds and the lack of adequate parking facilities for motor vehicles of all kinds substantially impede the free circulation of traffic in, through and from many municipalities in this state, impede the rapid and effective fighting of fires and disposition of police officers therein, contribute to the location and relocation of commercial and business enterprises outside of urban areas and retard the development of commerce and business within many municipalities in this state, thereby giving rise to urban blight and adversely affecting or threatening to adversely affect the tax base of such municipalities; that such parking crisis can be reduced by such municipalities providing adequate motor vehicle parking facilities strategically located there; that providing properly located terminal space for motor vehicles is a public responsibility; that fostering the development of commerce and business within municipalities, with the increased tax revenues resulting therefrom, is a public purpose; that fostering the availability of property for charitable use is a public purpose; that the closer the proximity between municipally owned motor vehicle parking facilities and commercial and business establishments the greater the development of commerce and business and the greater the level of revenue produced by such motor vehicle parking facilities; that the erection or construction of pedestrian viaducts, ramps, bridges, tunnels or other pedestrian facilities leading to and from motor vehicle parking facilities so as to facilitate the movement of pedestrians to and from such motor vehicle parking facilities fosters the development of commerce and business and increases the level of revenue produced by such motor vehicle parking facilities; that the leasing, particularly on a long-term basis, and the selling of space for commercial or business use in connection with a municipally owned motor vehicle parking facility will aid the development of commerce and business, increase the level of revenue produced by such motor vehicle parking facility and maintain and increase the tax base of such municipalities; that in many instances the authority for the leasing of space as provided for in this section would assist in financing the construction, reconstruction, establishment, acquisition, improvement, renovation, extension, enlargement, increase, equipment or repair (including replacements) of any such motor vehicle parking facility; that the enactment of this section is for the general welfare of the public and is a public necessity; and that the means and measures authorized in this section are, as a matter of public policy, for the public purposes of such municipalities. This section is enacted in view of these findings and shall be liberally construed in the light thereof.

(b) The governing body or bodies, in its or their discretion, may provide by ordinance or ordinances:

(1) For the leasing by the board as lessor of space in or on a municipal public works which is a motor vehicle parking facility for any business, commercial or charitable use to such person, for such fair and adequate consideration, for such period or periods of time and upon such other terms and conditions as such body or bodies or the board may agree to. In connection with the leasing of any such space, the board may agree to provide in or on such motor vehicle parking facility such structures, accommodations or improvements as may be necessary for such business, commercial or charitable use or such space may be leased upon condition that the lessee shall provide the same in or on the space so leased.

(2) For the leasing by the board as lessor or the selling of air space over a municipal public works which is a motor vehicle parking facility for any business, commercial or charitable use to such person, for such fair and adequate consideration, for such period or periods of time in the case of a lease and upon such other terms and conditions as such body or bodies or the board may agree to. Any lease or deed of sale of such air space may contain provisions (i) authorizing the use of such areas of the underlying motor vehicle parking facility as are essential for ingress and egress to and from such air space, (ii) relating to the support of any building or other structure to be erected in such air space, and (iii) relating to the connection of essential public or private utilities to any building or other structure in such air space.

(3) For the erection or construction by the board of any pedestrian viaduct, ramp, bridge, tunnel or other pedestrian facility leading to and from a municipal public works which is a motor vehicle parking facility; and any such pedestrian viaduct, ramp, bridge, tunnel or other pedestrian facility shall, for all purposes of this article, be considered to be a part of a municipal public works which is a motor vehicle parking facility with like effect as if the term "municipal public works" were expressly defined in section one of this article to include pedestrian viaducts, ramps, bridges, tunnels or other pedestrian facilities: Provided, That any cost incurred by any municipality or municipalities in erecting or constructing any such pedestrian viaduct, ramp, bridge, tunnel or other pedestrian facility which connects a municipal public works which is a motor vehicle parking facility with a privately owned building or buildings or other privately owned structure or structures shall be paid for by the owner or owners of such building or buildings or such other structure or structures.

Any such lease may be privately negotiated without any public notice or advertising, and any such sale may be a public sale pursuant to the provisions of section eighteen, article twelve of this chapter or such sale may be privately negotiated, notwithstanding the provisions of said section eighteen.

(c) The proceeds received from any lease, sale or payment as provided in this section shall be deemed revenue of the works and used as provided in section seventeen of this article.

(d) Notwithstanding the fact that any motor vehicle parking facility subject to the provisions of this article is municipally owned and the fact that a lease or sale under the provisions of subdivision (1) or subdivision (2), subsection (b) of this section is for a public purpose as declared in subsection (a) of this section, any leasehold interest under said subdivision (1), and any building, structure, accommodation or improvement erected, made or operated in any air space leased or sold under said subdivision (2) shall be subject to all property taxes, which shall be assessed and imposed against the lessee or grantee, as the case may be, unless the use of such leasehold interest, building, structure, accommodation or improvement is otherwise exempt from property taxation under the provisions of section nine, article three, chapter eleven of this code.

WVC 8-16-4b §8-16-4b. Additional special provision as to the use of space in motor vehicle parking facilities.
For all purposes of this article, the power and authority of any municipality to lease, as lessor, space in a motor vehicle parking facility to any person for business, commercial or charitable use shall be deemed to include the power and authority to lease such space to the United States of America, the state of West Virginia, the county court of any county of the state of West Virginia, and any agency, board or commission of any thereof, and the revenues derived from such leases may be pledged as security for and expended in payment of revenue bonds of such municipality in like manner and to the same extent as other revenues from such motor vehicle parking facility.

WVC 8 - 16 - 5

PART III. GENERAL POWERS AND AUTHORITY.

§8-16-5. Powers of board.

     (a) The board shall have plenary power and authority to take all steps and proceedings, and to make and enter into all contracts or agreements necessary, appropriate, useful, convenient or incidental to the performance of its duties and the execution of its powers and authority under this article: Provided, That any contract or agreement relating to the financing, or the construction, reconstruction, establishment, acquisition, improvement, renovation, extension, enlargement, increase, equipment, operation or maintenance of any such works, and any trust indenture with respect thereto as hereafter provided for, shall be approved by the governing body or bodies.

     (b) The board may employ engineers, architects, inspectors, superintendents, managers, collectors, attorneys and such other employees as in its judgment may be necessary in the execution of its powers and duties, and may fix their compensation, all of whom shall do such work as the board may direct. All compensation and expenses incurred in carrying out the provisions of this article shall be paid solely from funds provided under the authority of this article, and the board shall not exercise or carry out any power or authority herein given it so as to bind said board or any municipality beyond the extent to which money shall have been, or may be provided under the authority of this article.

     (c) No contract or agreement with any contractor or contractors for labor or materials, or both, exceeding in amount the sum of $25,000 shall be made without advertising for bids, which bids shall be publicly opened and an award made to the lowest responsible bidder, with power and authority in the board to reject any and all bids.

     (d) After the construction, reconstruction, establishment, acquisition, renovation or equipment of any such works, the board shall maintain, operate, manage and control the same, and may order and complete any improvements, extensions, enlargements, increase or repair (including replacements) of and to the works that the board may consider expedient, if funds therefor be available, or are made available, as provided in this article, and shall establish rules for the use, maintenance and operation of the works, and do all things necessary or expedient for the successful operation thereof, and for stormwater systems and associated stormwater management programs, those activities which include, but are not limited to, stormwater and surface runoff water quality improvement activities necessary to comply with all federal and state requirements. All public ways or public works damaged or destroyed by the board in carrying out its authority under this article shall be restored or repaired by the board and placed in their original condition, as nearly as practicable, if requested so to do by proper authority, out of the funds provided under the authority of this article. WVC 8-16-6 §8-16-6. Preliminary expenses.
All necessary preliminary expenses actually incurred by the board of any municipality or municipalities in the making of surveys or estimates of cost and of revenues, employment of engineers or other employees, the giving of notices, the taking of options, and all other expenses of whatsoever nature necessary to be paid prior to the issue, sale and delivery of the revenue bonds herein provided for, may be paid by the municipality or municipalities, to be reimbursed and repaid out of the proceeds of the sale of such revenue bonds to be used for the construction, reconstruction, establishment, acquisition, improvement, renovation, extension, enlargement, increase, equipment or repair (including replacements) of such works as hereinafter provided.

WVC 8-16-7 §8-16-7. Ordinance for construction, etc., of works.
Before any municipality or municipalities shall, under the provisions of this article, construct, reconstruct, establish, acquire, improve, renovate, extend, enlarge, increase, equip or repair (including replacements) any municipal public works, the governing body, or the governing body of each participating municipality, shall enact an ordinance or ordinances, which shall (a) set forth a brief and general description of the works, including a reference to the preliminary report or plans and specifications which shall theretofore have been prepared; (b) set forth the estimated cost thereof; (c) order the construction, reconstruction, establishment, acquisition, improvement, renovation, extension, enlargement, increase, equipment or repair (including replacements) of such works; (d) direct that municipal revenue bonds be issued pursuant to this article, in such amount as may be found necessary to pay the cost of the works; (e) contain such provisions as the governing body determines are necessary or desirable with regard to the establishment and setting aside of reserves from the proceeds of such revenue bonds or from the revenues of said works, or from both, and the administration and disposition thereof; and (f) contain such other provisions as may be necessary or proper in the premises. When two or more municipalities take joint action under the provisions of this article, a certified copy of each such ordinance shall be filed in the office of the clerk of the county commission of the county or counties in which the municipalities are located and in the office of the state tax commissioner, and when any such municipality is located in more than one county, the filing for that municipality shall be in the office of the clerk of the county commission in which the major portion of the territory of such municipality is located. Before any such ordinance shall become effective, an abstract of the ordinance, determined by the governing body or each governing body, as the case may be, to contain sufficient information as to give notice of the contents of such ordinance, together with the following described notice, shall be published as a Class II legal advertisement in compliance with the provisions of article three, chapter fifty-nine of this code, and the publication area for such publication shall be such municipality or each such municipality, as the case may be. The notice to be published with said abstract of the ordinance shall specify a date, time and place for a public hearing, the date being not less than ten days after the first publication of said abstract and notice and not prior to the last publication of said abstract and notice, at which time and place all parties and interests may appear before the governing body of the municipality or each such municipality and may be heard as to whether or not said ordinance shall be put into effect, and said notice shall also identify the office in which a certified copy of such ordinance shall be on file for review by interested persons during the office hours of such office. At such hearing all objections and suggestions shall be heard and the governing body or each such governing body shall take such action as it or they shall deem proper in the premises: Provided, That if at any such hearing written protest is filed by thirty percent or more of the freeholders of the municipality for which the hearing is held, then the governing body of said municipality shall not take further action unless four fifths of the members of said governing body assent thereto: Provided, however, That in case written protest is filed by thirty percent or more of the freeholders as herein provided, any such governing body shall have authority to appoint a committee to consist of one proponent, one opponent, and the third to be selected by these two, to determine whether or not thirty percent of the freeholders have in fact protested and said committee shall report its findings to any such governing body.

WVC 8-16-8 PART IV. RIGHT OF EMINENT DOMAIN.
§8-16-8. Right of eminent domain.
Every such municipality shall have plenary power and authority to condemn any such municipal public works to be acquired, and any land, rights, easements, rights-of-way, franchises and other property, real or personal, deemed necessary, appropriate, useful or convenient for, and incidental to, the construction, reconstruction or establishment of any such works and space for business, commercial or charitable use in connection therewith, or for the improvement, renovation, extension, enlargement, increase or equipment thereof or thereto, and in connection therewith shall have and may exercise all the rights, power, authority and privileges of eminent domain granted to municipalities under the laws relating thereto. Title to property shall be taken in the name of the municipality or jointly in the names of the participating municipalities. Proceedings for such appropriation of property shall be under and pursuant to chapter fifty-four of this code: Provided, That any such municipality shall be under no obligation to accept and pay for any property condemned, and shall in no event pay for any property condemned or purchased, except from funds provided under the authority of this article; and in any proceedings to condemn, such orders may be made as may be just to any such municipality and to the owners of the property to be condemned; and an understanding or other security may be required securing such owners against any loss or damage which may be sustained by reason of the failure of any such municipality to accept and pay for the property, but such undertaking or security shall impose no liability upon any such municipality, except such as may be paid from the funds provided under the authority of this article.

In the event of acquisition by purchase, the board may obtain and exercise an option from the owners of said property for the purchase thereof, and may enter into a contract for the purchase thereof, and such purchase may be made upon such terms and conditions, and in such manner as the board may deem proper: Provided, however, That the exercise of such option, or the contract for such purchase, or such purchase shall in no event create any obligation of any such municipality, or create any debt, liability or claim, except such as may be discharged or paid from the funds provided under the authority of this article.

In the event of the acquisition of any works already constructed by purchase or condemnation, the board at or before the time of the adoption of any ordinance described in section seven hereof, shall cause to be determined what reconstruction, improvement, renovation, extension, enlargement, increase, equipment or repair (including replacements) will be necessary, in order that such works and space for business, commercial or charitable use in connection therewith, if any, may be effective for their purpose, and an estimate of the cost thereof shall be included in the estimate of the cost required by section seven hereof, and the same shall be made upon the acquisition of the works and as a part of the cost thereof: Provided further, That no municipality or municipalities shall, under the authority conferred by this article, condemn any existing privately owned works (other than motor vehicle parking facilities) in operation at the date of the condemnation.

WVC 8-16-9 PART V. REVENUE BOND FINANCING.
§8-16-9. Bonds for improvements, etc., of works.
Whenever any municipality or municipalities now, or hereafter, shall own and maintain and operate any of the works herein referred to, whether constructed, reconstructed, established or acquired under the provisions of this article or not, and shall desire to improve, renovate, extend, enlarge, increase, equip or repair (including replacements) the same, it may issue revenue bonds, under the provisions of this article, to pay for the same, and the procedure therefor, including fixing all rates and the computation of the amount thereof, shall be the same as in this article provided for the issuance of bonds for the construction, reconstruction, establishment or acquisition of any such works in or by any such municipality which has not theretofore owned and maintained and operated any such works: Provided, That no existing obligations or rights shall be affected or impaired thereby.

WVC 8-16-10 §8-16-10. Items of expense included in cost of works.
The cost of the works shall be deemed to include the cost of construction, reconstruction, establishment or acquisition thereof, the cost of all land, rights, easements, rights-of-way, franchises and other property, real or personal, deemed necessary, appropriate, useful, convenient or incidental therefor or thereto and for the improvement, renovation, extension, enlargement, increase, equipment or repair (including replacements) determined upon; the interest upon bonds prior to and during the project and for six months after completion thereof; the amount of any reserve funded from the proceeds of bonds; engineering and legal expenses; expenses for estimates of cost and of revenues; expenses for plans, specifications and surveys; other expenses necessary or incident to determining the feasibility or practicability of the enterprise; administrative expenses; and such other expenses as may be necessary or incident to the financing herein authorized, the project, the placing of the works in operation and the performance of the things herein required or permitted in connection with any thereof.

WVC 8-16-11 §8-16-11. No municipality is to incur any obligation not payable from proceeds of bonds; exemption from taxation.
Nothing in this article contained shall be so construed as to authorize or permit any municipality or municipalities to make any contract or incur any obligation of any kind or nature, except such as shall be discharged or payable solely from the funds provided under the authority of this article. Funds for the payment of the entire cost of the works shall be provided by the issuance of revenue bonds of the municipality or municipalities, the principal and interest of which bonds shall be payable solely from the special fund for such payment herein provided for, and said bonds shall not in any respect be a corporate indebtedness of such municipality or municipalities. All such bonds and the interest thereon, and all properties and revenues and income derived from such municipal public works, shall be exempt from all taxation by this state, or any county, municipality, political subdivision or agency thereof. All of the details of such bonds and the issuance thereof shall be determined by ordinance of the governing body or bodies.

WVC 8-16-12 §8-16-12. Interest rate and life of bonds; redemption; how payable; form, denominations, etc.; additional bonds authorized; interim certificates.
Such revenue bonds shall bear interest at not more than twelve percent per annum, payable semiannually, or at shorter intervals, and shall mature at such time or times, not exceeding forty years, as may be determined by the ordinance or ordinances authorizing the issuance of such bonds. Such bonds may be made redeemable before maturity, at the option of the municipality or municipalities issuing the same, to be exercised by said board, at not more than the par value thereof, and at a premium of not more than five percent, under such terms and conditions as may be fixed by the ordinance or ordinances authorizing the issuance of the bonds. The principal and interest of the bonds may be made payable in any lawful medium. Such ordinance or ordinances shall determine the form of the bonds, either coupon or registered, shall set forth any registration or conversion privileges, and shall fix the denomination or denominations of such bonds, and the place or places of the payment of the principal and interest thereof, which may be at any banking institution or trust company within or without the state. When two or more municipalities take joint action under the provisions of this article, the bonds shall be issued by the participating municipalities either as separate or joint bonds, as the governing bodies thereof may agree, and when separate bonds are issued, the amount of the bonds to be issued by each participating municipality shall be fixed by agreement of the governing bodies of the participating municipalities set forth in the ordinance of each participating municipality authorizing the issuance of such bonds. The bonds shall contain a statement on their face that the municipality or municipalities issuing the same shall not be obligated to pay the same, or the interest thereon, except from the special fund derived from the net revenue of the works, or the pro rata part thereof, as provided for in section eleven hereof. All such bonds shall be, and shall have and are hereby declared to have all the qualities and incidents of negotiable instruments, under the Uniform Commercial Code of this state. The bonds shall be executed in such manner as the governing body or bodies may direct. The bonds shall be sold by the governing body or bodies in such manner as may be determined to be for the best interest of the municipality or municipalities: Provided, That said bonds shall not be negotiated at a price lower than a price which when computed to maturity upon standard tables of bond values will show a net return of more than thirteen percent per annum to the purchaser upon the amount paid therefor. Any surplus of the bond proceeds over and above the cost of the project shall be paid into the sinking fund hereinafter provided for. If the proceeds of the bonds, by error of calculation or otherwise, shall be less than the cost of the project, additional bonds may in like manner be issued to provide the amount of such deficit, and, unless otherwise provided in the ordinance or ordinances authorizing the issuance of the bonds first issued, or in the trust indenture hereinafter authorized, shall be deemed to be of same issue, and shall be entitled to payment without preference or priority of the bonds first issued; and if any preference or priority of the bonds first issued is provided for in the ordinance or ordinances authorizing the issuance of the bonds first issued or in said trust indenture, such preference or priority shall not extend to an amount exceeding ten percent of the original issue. Prior to the preparation of the definitive bonds, interim certificates may, under like restrictions, be issued, exchangeable for definitive bonds upon the issuance of the latter.

WVC 8-16-13 §8-16-13. Obligations not to bind municipal official or officer or member of board personally.
No municipal official or officer or member of the board shall in any event be personally liable upon any contract or obligation of any kind or character executed under the authority herein contained, even if said undertaking should thereafter be held ultra vires.

WVC 8-16-14 §8-16-14. Additional bonds for improvements, etc., of works.
The governing body or bodies may provide by the said ordinance or ordinances authorizing the issuance of the bonds or in the trust indenture hereinafter referred to, that additional bonds may thereafter be authorized and issued at one time, or from time to time, under such limitations and restrictions as may be set forth in said ordinance or ordinances, or trust indenture, or all of these, for the purpose of improving, renovating, extending, enlarging, increasing, equipping or repairing (including replacements) the works when deemed necessary in the public interest, such additional bonds to be secured, and be payable from the revenues of the works, as provided for in section nine of this article.

WVC 8-16-15 §8-16-15. How proceeds of bonds applied.
All moneys received from the sale of any bonds issued under the authority of this article, after reimbursements and repayments to said municipality or municipalities of all amounts advanced for preliminary expenses, as provided in section six of this article, shall be applied solely to the payment of the cost of the project, or to the appurtenant sinking fund, and there shall be, and there is hereby, created and granted a lien upon such moneys, until so applied, in favor of the holders of the bonds or the trustees hereinafter provided for.

WVC 8-16-16 §8-16-16. Bonds secured by trust indenture between municipality or municipalities and corporate trustee.
In the discretion and at the option of the governing body or bodies such bonds may be secured by a trust indenture by and between such municipality or municipalities and a corporate trustee, which may be a trust company or banking institution having powers of a trust company within or without the state. The ordinance or ordinances authorizing the issuance of the revenue bonds, and fixing the details thereof, may provide that such trust indenture may contain such provisions for protecting and enforcing the rights and remedies of bondholders as may be reasonable and proper, not in violation of law, including covenants setting forth the duties of the municipality or municipalities and the board in relation to the construction, reconstruction, establishment, acquisition, improvement, renovation, extension, enlargement, increase and equipment of the project and the repair (including replacements), maintenance, operation and insurance thereof, and the custody, safeguarding and application of all moneys, and may provide that the project shall be contracted for, carried out and paid for, under the supervision and approval of the consulting engineers employed or designated by the board and satisfactory to the original bond purchasers, their successors, assignees or nominees, who may be given the right to require the security given by contractors and by any depository of the proceeds of bonds or revenues of the works or other moneys pertaining thereto be satisfactory to such purchasers, their successors, assignees or nominees. Such indenture may set forth the rights and remedies of the bondholders or such trustee, or both. Except as in this article otherwise provided, the governing body or bodies may provide by ordinance or ordinances or in such trust indenture for the payment of the proceeds of the sale of the bonds and the revenues of the works to such officer, board or depository, as such body or bodies may determine for the custody thereof, and for the method of distribution thereof, with such safeguards and restrictions as such body or bodies may determine.

WVC 8-16-17 §8-16-17. Sinking fund; sinking fund commission; transfer of funds; purchase of outstanding bonds.
Before the issuance of any such bonds, the governing body or bodies shall, by ordinance or ordinances, provide for a sinking fund for the payment of the bonds and the interest thereon, and the payment of the charges of banking institutions or trust companies for making payment of such bonds and interest, out of the net revenues of said works, and shall set aside and pledge a sufficient amount of the net revenues of the works hereby defined to mean the revenues of the works remaining after the payment of the reasonable expenses of repair (including replacements), maintenance and operation, such amount to be paid by the board into the sinking fund at intervals, to be determined by ordinance or ordinances adopted prior to the issuance of the bonds, for (a) the interest upon such bonds as such interest shall fall due; (b) the necessary fiscal agency charges for paying bonds and interest; (c) the payment of the bonds as they fall due, or if all bonds mature at one time, the proper maintenance of a sinking fund sufficient for the payment thereof at such time; and (d) a margin for safety and for the payment of premium upon bonds retired by call or purchase as herein provided, which margin, together with unused surplus of such margin carried forward from the preceding year and the amounts set aside as reserves out of the proceeds from the sale of the bonds, or from the revenues of said works, or from both, shall equal ten percent of all other amounts so required to be paid into the sinking fund. Such required payments shall constitute a first charge upon all the net revenues of the works. Prior to the issuance of the bonds, the board may, by ordinance or ordinances, be given the right to use or direct the trustee or the state sinking fund commission to use such sinking fund, or any part thereof, in the purchase of any of the outstanding bonds payable therefrom, at the market prices thereof, but not exceeding the price, if any, at which the same shall in the same year be payable or redeemable, and all bonds redeemed or purchased shall forthwith be cancelled, and shall not again be issued. After the payments into the sinking fund as herein required and after reserving an amount deemed by the board sufficient for repair (including replacements), maintenance and operation for an ensuing period of not less than twelve months and for depreciation, the board may at any time in its discretion transfer all or any part of the balance of the net revenues into the sinking fund or into a fund for improvement, renovation, extension, enlargement, increase or equipment for or to the works, or the governing body or bodies may, notwithstanding the provisions of section twenty, article thirteen of this chapter, transfer all or any part of the balance of the net revenues to the general or any special fund of the municipality or municipalities and use such revenues for any purpose for which such general or special fund may be expended.

All amounts for the sinking fund and interest, as and when set apart for the payment of same, shall be remitted to the state sinking fund commission at such periods as shall be designated in the ordinance or ordinances, but in any event at least thirty days previous to the time interest or principal payments become due, to be retained and paid out by said commission consistent with the provisions of this article and the ordinance or ordinances pursuant to which such bonds have been issued. The state sinking fund commission is hereby authorized to act as fiscal agent for the administration of such sinking fund under any ordinance or ordinances passed or adopted pursuant to the provisions of this article and shall invest all sinking funds as provided by general law.

WVC 8 - 16 - 18 PART VI. IMPOSITION OF RATES, FEES OR CHARGES.
§8-16-18. Rates, fees or charges for services rendered by works.

The governing body shall have plenary power and authority and it shall be its duty, by ordinance, to establish and maintain just and equitable rates, fees or charges for the use and services rendered, or the improvement or protection of property, not to include highways, road and drainage easements, and/or stormwater facilities constructed, owned and/or operated by the West Virginia division of highways, provided or afforded, by such works, to be paid by the person using the same, receiving the services thereof, or owning the property improved or protected thereby, and may readjust rates, fees or charges from time to time.

When two or more municipalities take joint action under the provisions of this article, the rates, fees or charges shall be established by each participating municipality, with the concurrence of the other participating municipality or municipalities as to the amount of the rates, fees or charges, and such rates, fees or charges may be the same with respect to each municipality, or they may be different.

Rates, fees or charges heretofore or hereafter established and maintained for the improvement or protection of property, not to include highways, road and drainage easements, and/or stormwater facilities constructed, owned and/or operated by the West Virginia division of highways, provided or afforded by a municipal flood control system or flood walls, to be paid by the person owning the property improved or protected thereby, shall be collectible and enforceable from the time provided in any such ordinance, any provision of this or any other law to the contrary notwithstanding, if, at such time, such works, though not yet fully completed, are nearing completion and the governing body is reasonably assured that the works will be completed and placed in operation without unreasonable delay.

All rates, fees or charges shall be sufficient in each year for the payment of the proper and reasonable expenses of repair (including replacements), maintenance and operation of the works, and for the payment of the sums herein required to be paid into the sinking fund. Revenues collected pursuant to the provisions of this section are considered the revenues of the works. No such rates, fees or charges shall be established until after a public hearing at which all the users of the works and owners of the property served, or to be served thereby, and others interested, shall have an opportunity to be heard concerning the proposed rates, fees or charges.

After introduction of the proposed ordinance fixing the rates, fees or charges and before the same is finally adopted, notice of such hearing, setting forth the proposed schedule of such rates, fees or charges, shall be given by publishing the same as a Class I-0 legal advertisement in compliance with the provisions of article three, chapter fifty-nine of this code, and the publication area for the publication shall be such municipality or each such municipality, as the case may be. Said notice shall be published at least five days before the date fixed in such notice for the hearing, which hearing may be adjourned from time to time. No other or further notice to parties in interest shall be required.

After such hearing the ordinance establishing rates, fees or charges, either as originally proposed or introduced, or as modified and amended, shall be adopted and put into effect. A copy of the schedule of such rates, fees and charges so established shall be kept on file in the office of the board having charge of such works, and also in the office of the governing body or bodies, and shall be open to inspection by all parties in interest.

The rates, fees or charges so established for any class of users or property served shall be extended to cover any additional class of users or property thereafter served which fall within the same class, without the necessity of any hearing or notice. Any change or adjustment of rates, fees or charges may be made in the same manner as such rates, fees or charges were originally established as provided in this section. The aggregate of the rates, fees or charges shall always be sufficient for the expenses of repair (including replacements), maintenance and operation, and for the sinking fund payments.

If any rate, fee or charge so established shall not be paid within thirty days after the same is due, the amount thereof, together with a penalty of ten percent and reasonable attorney's fees, may be recovered by the board in a civil action in the name of the municipality or municipalities, and in the case of rates, fees or charges due for services rendered, such rates, fees or charges, if not paid when due, may, if the governing body so provide in the ordinance provided for under section seven of this article, constitute a lien upon the premises served by such works, which lien may be foreclosed against such lot, parcel of land or building so served, in accordance with the laws relating to the foreclosure of liens on real property. Upon failure of any person receiving any such service to pay for the same when due, the board may discontinue such service without notice.

WVC 8-16-18a §8-16-18a. Pledge of the hotel occupancy tax; contribution of revenues to building commission.
In addition to the rates or charges authorized to be pledged and expended for the security and payment of bonds as provided in this article, the governing body issuing such bonds shall have plenary power and authority to pledge and expend for the security and payment of such bonds all, or any part, of the revenues which are derived from the hotel occupancy tax which a municipality may impose pursuant to section three, article thirteen of this chapter and which are specifically dedicated by such governing body for any purpose or purposes set forth in section three, article thirteen of this chapter. All such sums which are so pledged shall be deemed "revenues of the works" for all purposes of the provisions of this article. The governing body shall also have the power and authority to contribute all, or any part of, the revenues derived from said hotel occupancy tax to a building commission created by such governing body pursuant to article thirty-three, chapter eight of this code for such lawful purposes which such building commission shall determine and which are set forth in section three, article thirteen of this chapter, including payment of revenue bonds issued by such building commission.

WVC 8-16-19 §8-16-19. Appeal to public service commission from rates fixed.
If any party in interest is dissatisfied with the rates fixed under the provisions of the immediately preceding section of this article, such party shall have the right to appeal to the public service commission at any time within thirty days after the fixing of such rates by the governing body, but the rates so fixed by the governing body shall remain in full force and effect, until set aside, altered or amended by the public service commission.

WVC 8-16-20 PART VII. ACCOUNTING SYSTEM AND RECORDS.
§8-16-20. Accounting system; yearly audit; custodian of funds.
Any municipality or municipalities issuing revenue bonds under the provisions of this article shall install and maintain a proper system of accounting, showing the amount of revenues received and the application of the same, and the governing body or bodies shall, at least once a year, cause such accounts to be properly audited by a competent auditor, and the report of such auditor shall be open for inspection at all proper times to any taxpayer or resident of said municipality or municipalities, or person receiving service from said works, or any holder of bonds issued under the provisions of this article, or anyone acting for and in behalf of such taxpayer, resident, person or bondholder. The treasurer of such municipality or each such municipality, or other official or institution specifically charged with the duty, shall be the custodian or custodians of the funds derived from income received from said works, and shall give proper bond or bonds for the faithful discharge of his or its or their duties as such custodian or custodians, which bond or bonds shall be fixed and approved by the governing body or bodies. All of the funds received as income from said works under the provisions of this article and all funds received from the sale of revenue bonds issued therefor shall be kept separate and apart from other funds of the municipality or municipalities, and separate accounts shall be maintained for the several items required to be set up by the provisions of section seventeen of this article.

WVC 8 - 16 - 21 PART VIII. RATES, FEES OR CHARGES FOR MUNICIPALITIES.
§8-16-21. Governmental entities to pay established rates, fees or charges for services rendered to it or them.
(a) The municipality or municipalities issuing such bonds shall be subject to the same rates, fees or charges established as provided in this article, or to rates, fees or charges established in harmony therewith, for service rendered to the municipality or municipalities and shall pay such rates, fees or charges, when due, from corporate funds, and the same shall be considered to be a part of the revenues of the works as defined in this article, and may be applied as provided in this article, for the application of such revenue.

(b) The municipality or municipalities and any county, state and federal government served by the services of the stormwater system shall be subject to the same rates, fees or charges established as provided in this article for stormwater services, or to rates, fees or charges established in harmony therewith, for service rendered to the governmental entity and shall pay such rates, fees or charges, when due, from corporate funds, and the same is considered to be a part of the revenues of the works as defined in this article, and may be applied as provided in this article, for the application of such revenue. However, no rates, fees or charges for stormwater services may be assessed against highways, road and drainage easements, and/or stormwater facilities constructed, owned and/or operated by the West Virginia division of highways without the express agreement of the commissioner of highways.

WVC 8-16-22 PART IX. LIENS AND PROTECTION OF BONDHOLDERS.
§8-16-22. Statutory mortgage lien upon works created.
There shall be and there is hereby created and granted a statutory mortgage lien upon such municipal public works constructed, reconstructed, established, acquired, improved, renovated, extended, enlarged, increased, equipped or repaired (including replacements) under the provisions of this article, which shall exist in favor of the holder of said bonds, and each of them, and to and in favor of the holder of the coupons attached to said bonds, and such municipal public works shall remain subject to such statutory mortgage lien until payment in full of the principal of and interest upon said bonds.

WVC 8-16-23 §8-16-23. Acquisition of property on which lien exists.
No property shall be acquired under the provisions of this article upon which any lien or other encumbrance exists, unless at the time such property is acquired a sufficient sum of money be deposited in trust to pay and redeem such lien or encumbrance in full.

WVC 8-16-24 §8-16-24. Protection and enforcement of rights of bondholders, etc.; receivership; effect of receivership on lease agreement.
Any holder of any such bonds, or any of the coupons attached thereto, and the trustee, if any, except to the extent that the rights herein given may be restricted by the ordinance authorizing the issuance of the bonds or by the trust indenture, may by civil action, mandamus or other proper proceeding enforce the statutory mortgage lien created and granted in section twenty-two of this article, protect and enforce any and all rights granted hereunder or under any such ordinance or trust indenture, and may enforce and compel performance of all duties required by the provisions of this article or by any such ordinance or trust indenture to be performed by the municipality or municipalities, or by the board or any officer, including the making and collecting of reasonable and sufficient rates or charges for services rendered by the works. If there be default in the payment of the principal of or interest upon any of the bonds, or of both principal and interest, any court having jurisdiction shall appoint a receiver to administer the works on behalf of the municipality or municipalities, and the bondholders or trustee, or both, except as so restricted, with power to charge and collect rates or charges sufficient to provide for the payment of the expenses of repair (including replacements), maintenance and operation, and also to pay any bonds and interest outstanding, and to apply the income or other revenue in conformity with this article, and the said ordinance or trust indenture, or both, and the power herein provided for the appointment of a receiver and the administration by the court of the works on behalf of the municipality or municipalities, and the bondholders or trustee, or both, shall apply to cases where such works are operated by a lessee of the municipality or municipalities as well as to cases where works are operated by the municipality or municipalities. In case a receiver is appointed for works operated by a lessee of a municipality or municipalities, the lease agreement then existing between the municipality or municipalities and the lessee ipso facto thereby shall be terminated and all property, equipment, bills receivable and assets of every kind, used in connection with the operation of such works, shall pass to the receiver and upon the termination of such receivership, such works, equipment, property, bills receivable and assets of every kind then in the hands of the receiver thereupon shall pass to the municipality or municipalities.

WVC 8-16-25 PART X. CONSTRUCTION; EXTRATERRITORIAL JURISDICTION.
§8-16-25. Article confers additional power and authority; extraterritorial jurisdiction.
The power and authority herein granted shall be in addition to and not in derogation of any power and authority vested in any municipality under any constitutional, statutory or charter provisions which may now or hereafter be in effect. For all purposes of this article, municipalities shall have jurisdiction for ten miles outside of the corporate limits thereof, except where such zone would overlap with the zone of another municipality, in which event the meridian line of the overlapping zone shall be the dividing line of their respective jurisdictions, except that one municipality shall have jurisdiction within such ten-mile zone and may overlap into the zone of another municipality or municipalities with the consent thereof.

WVC 8-16-26 §8-16-26. Construction of power and authority conferred.
This article shall, without reference to any other statute or charter provision, be deemed full authority for the construction, reconstruction, establishment, acquisition, improvement, renovation, extension, enlargement, increase, equipment, repair (including replacements), maintenance and operation of the works herein provided for, and for the issuance and sale of the bonds by this article authorized, and shall be construed as an additional alternative method therefor, and for the financing thereof, and no petition or other or further proceeding in respect to any such project, or to the issuance or sale of bonds under this article, and no publication of any ordinance, notice or proceeding relating to any such project, or to the issuance or sale of such bonds shall be required, except such as are prescribed in this article, any provisions of other statutes of the state to the contrary notwithstanding.

WVC 8-16-27 §8-16-27. Article liberally construed.
This article being necessary for the public health, safety and welfare shall be liberally construed to effectuate the purposes thereof.

WVC 8-16-28 §8-16-28. Reference to "municipal authorities" or "municipal authority" elsewhere in law to mean "governing body" for the purposes of this article only.
In elaboration of the provisions of section eight, article one of this chapter, wherever in this code, in any act, in general law, elsewhere in law, in any charter, in any ordinance, resolution or order, or in any ordinance, resolution or order of a county court, reference is made to the term "municipal authorities" or "municipal authority" within the meaning of the provisions of former article four-a of this chapter, such reference shall henceforth be read, construed and understood to mean "governing body" as that term is used in this article sixteen only.

Note: WV Code updated with legislation passed through the 2014 1st Special Session
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