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Chapter 61     Entire Code
‹ Chapter 60A  |  Chapter 62 › Printer Friendly Versions
Chapter 61  |  Article 61 - 5

1 - CRIMES AGAINST THE GOVERNMENT

2 - CRIMES AGAINST THE PERSON

3 - CRIMES AGAINST PROPERTY

3A - SHOPLIFTING

3B - TRESPASS

3C - WEST VIRGINIA COMPUTER CRIME A

3D - THEFT OF CABLE TELEVISION SERV

3E - OFFENSES INVOLVING EXPLOSIVES

4 - FORGERY AND CRIMES AGAINST THE

5A - BRIBERY AND CORRUPT PRACTICES

6 - CRIMES AGAINST THE PEACE

7 - DANGEROUS WEAPONS

7A - STATE MENTAL HEALTH REGISTRY

8 - CRIMES AGAINST CHASTITY, MORALI

8A - PREPARATION, DISTRIBUTION OR E

8B - SEXUAL OFFENSES

8C - FILMING OF SEXUALLY EXPLICIT C

8D - CHILD ABUSE

8E - DISPLAY OF VIDEO RATINGS OR LA

8F - SEX OFFENDER REGISTRATION ACT

9 - EQUITABLE REMEDIES IN AID OF CH

10 - CRIMES AGAINST PUBLIC POLICY

11 - GENERAL PROVISIONS CONCERNING

11A - VICTIM PROTECTION ACT OF 198

12 - POSTMORTEM EXAMINATIONS

12A - FATALITY AND MORTALITY REVIE

13 - ANTI-ORGANIZED CRIMINAL ENTER

WVC 61- CHAPTER 61. CRIMES AND THEIR PUNISHMENT.
WVC -5- ARTICLE 5. CRIMES AGAINST PUBLIC JUSTICE.

WVC 61-5-1 §61-5-1. Perjury and subornation of perjury defined.
(a) Any person who is under an oath or affirmation which has been lawfully administered and who willfully testifies falsely regarding a material matter in a trial of any person, corporation or other legal entity for a felony, or before any grand jury which is considering a felony indictment, shall be guilty of the felony offense of perjury.

(b) Any person who induces or procures another person to testify falsely regarding a material matter in a trial of any person, corporation or other legal entity for a felony, or before any grand jury which is considering a felony indictment, shall be guilty of the felony offense of subornation of perjury.

WVC 61-5-2 §61-5-2. False swearing defined.
To wilfully swear falsely, under oath or affirmation lawfully administered, in a trial of the witness or any other person for a felony, concerning a matter or thing not material, and on any occasion other than a trial for a felony, concerning any matter or thing material or not material, or to procure another person to do so, is false swearing and is a misdemeanor.

WVC 61-5-3 §61-5-3. Penalties for perjury, subordination of perjury, and false swearing.
A person convicted of perjury or subordination of perjury shall be confined in the penitentiary not less than one nor more than ten years, and a person convicted of false swearing shall be fined not more than one thousand dollars, and, in the discretion of the court, confined in jail not more than one year. And in either case the person convicted shall be adjudged forever incapable of holding any office of honor, trust or profit in this state, or of serving as a juror.

WVC 61-5-4 §61-5-4. Bribery or attempted bribery; penalty.
If any person shall bribe, by directly or indirectly giving to or bestowing upon, or shall attempt to bribe by directly or indirectly giving to or bestowing upon, any executive, legislative, judicial, or ministerial officer of this state, or any member of the Legislature, after his election or appointment and either before or after he shall have been qualified or shall have taken his seat, any gift, gratuity, money, testimonial or other valuable thing, or shall make promise thereof, in order to influence him in the performance of any of his official, public duties, or with intent to influence his act, vote, opinion, decision or judgment on any matter, question, cause or proceeding, or to induce or procure him to vote or withhold his vote on any question or proceeding which is then or may thereafter be pending, or may by law come or be brought before him in his official capacity, he shall be guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction, shall be imprisoned in the penitentiary not less than one nor more than ten years, and shall, moreover, be forever disqualified from holding any office or position of honor, trust or profit in this state.

WVC 61-5-5 §61-5-5. Demanding or receiving bribes; penalty.
Any executive, legislative, judicial or ministerial officer, or member of the Legislature, who shall demand, receive or accept any gift, gratuity, money, testimonial or other valuable thing, or shall exact any promise to make such gift or to pay to him, money, testimonial or other valuable thing, or to do any act beneficial to such officer or member of the Legislature, from any person, company or corporation, under an agreement or understanding that his vote, opinion, judgment or decision shall be given or withheld in any particular manner upon a particular side of any question, cause or proceeding, which is, or may be by law brought before him in his official capacity, or that in such capacity he shall make any particular nomination or appointment, or for any vote or influence he may give or withhold as such officer or member of the Legislature, or that such officer will fail to perform or improperly perform any of his official, public duties, shall be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in the penitentiary not less than one nor more than ten years; and in addition thereto such officer or member of the Legislature shall forfeit the office then held by him and shall be forever disqualified from holding any office or position of honor, trust or profit in this state.

WVC 61-5-6 §61-5-6. Receiving bribe by officer in delay of service of process; penalty.
If any officer authorized to serve legal process receive any money or other thing of value for omitting or delaying to perform any duty pertaining to his office, he shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction, shall be confined in jail not more than six months and be fined not exceeding one hundred dollars.

WVC 61-5-7 §61-5-7. Bribery of commissioner of court, auditor, justice of the peace, arbitrator, umpire, juror, or other county official, either elected or appointed; penalty.
Any person who gives or offers, directly or through any other person or persons, or promises, directly or indirectly, to give any money or other thing of value to a commissioner appointed by a court, auditor, justice of the peace, arbitrator, umpire, juror (although not impaneled), or other county official, either elected or appointed, with intent to bias his opinion or influence his decision in relation to any matter in which he is acting or is to act; and any such commissioner, auditor, justice of the peace, arbitrator, umpire, juror, or other county official, either elected or appointed, who corruptly takes or receives such money or other thing of value, or who agrees to take such money or other thing of value to bias or influence his opinion or action or both, shall be guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction, shall be confined in the penitentiary not less than one nor more than ten years, and fined in addition thereto not exceeding five thousand dollars.

WVC 61 - 5 - 8 §61-5-8. Aiding escape and other offenses relating to adults and juveniles in custody or confinement; penalties.
(a) Where any adult or juvenile is lawfully detained in custody or confinement in any jail, state correctional facility, juvenile facility or juvenile detention center, if any other person delivers anything into the place of custody or confinement of the adult or juvenile with the intent to aid or facilitate the adult's or juvenile's escape or attempted escape therefrom, or if the other person forcibly rescues or attempts to rescue an adult or a juvenile therefrom, the other person is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in a state correctional facility not less than one nor more than ten years.

(b) Where any adult or juvenile is lawfully detained in custody or confinement in any jail, a state correctional facility or a juvenile facility or juvenile detention center, if any other person delivers any money or other thing of value, any written or printed matter, any article of merchandise, food or clothing, any medicine, utensil or instrument of any kind to the adult or juvenile without the express authority and permission of the supervising officer and with knowledge that the adult or juvenile is lawfully detained, the other person is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than $50 nor more than $500 and confined in jail not less than three nor more than twelve months: Provided, That the provisions of this section do not prohibit an attorney or his or her employees from supplying any written or printed material to an adult or juvenile which pertains to that attorney's representation of the adult or juvenile.

(c)(1) If any person transports any alcoholic liquor, nonintoxicating beer, poison, implement of escape, dangerous material, weapon, or any controlled substance as defined by chapter sixty-a of this code onto the grounds of any jail, state correctional facility, juvenile facility or juvenile detention center within this state and is unauthorized by law to do so, or is unauthorized by the persons supervising the facility, the person is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than $1,000 nor more than $5,000 or confined in a state correctional facility not less than two years nor more than ten years, or both, or, in the discretion of the court, be confined in jail not more than one year and fined not more than $500.

(2) If any person willfully and knowingly transports or causes to be transported any telecommunications device into or upon any portion of any jail, state correctional facility, juvenile facility or juvenile detention center within this state that is not generally open and accessible to members of the public without prior approval from the warden/administrator or designee and such person is unauthorized by law to do so, or is unauthorized by the persons supervising the facility, the person is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than $100 nor more than $500 or confined in jail not more than one year or both fined and confined.

(d) If any person delivers any alcoholic liquor, nonintoxicating beer, poison, implement of escape, dangerous material, weapon or any controlled substance as defined by chapter sixty-a of this code to an adult or juvenile in custody or confinement in any jail, state correctional facility, juvenile facility or juvenile detention center within this state and is unauthorized by law to do so, or is unauthorized by the persons supervising the facility, the person is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than $1,000 nor more than $5,000 or confined in a state correctional facility not less than one year nor more than five years, or both.

(e) Whoever purchases, accepts as a gift or secures by barter, trade or in any other manner any article or articles manufactured at or belonging to any jail, state correctional facility, juvenile facility or juvenile detention center from any adult or juvenile detained therein is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than $50 nor more than $500 and confined in jail not less than three nor more than twelve months: Provided, That the provisions of this subsection do not apply to articles specially manufactured in any facility under the authorization of the persons supervising the facility and which are offered for sale within or outside of the facility.

(f) Whoever persuades, induces or entices or attempts to persuade, induce or entice any person who is in custody or confined in any jail, state correctional facility, juvenile facility or juvenile detention center to escape therefrom or to engage or aid in any insubordination to the persons supervising the facility is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than $50 nor more than $500 and confined in jail not less than three nor more than twelve months.

(g) (1) An inmate of a jail, state correctional facility, juvenile facility or juvenile detention center having in his or her possession any poison, implement of escape, dangerous material, weapon, telecommunications device or any controlled substance as defined by chapter sixty-a of this code is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than $1,000 nor more than $5,000 or confined in a state correctional facility not less than one year nor more than five years, or both, or, in the discretion of the court, be confined in jail not more than one year and fined not more than $500.

(2) An inmate of a jail, state correctional facility, juvenile facility or juvenile detention center having in his or her possession any alcoholic liquor, nonintoxicating beer, money or other thing of value, any written or printed matter, any article of merchandise, food or clothing, any medicine, utensil or instrument of any kind without the express authority and permission of the supervising officer is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than $50 nor more than $500 and confined in jail not more than twelve months.

(h) As used in this section:

(1) "Dangerous material" means any incendiary material or device, highly flammable or caustic liquid, explosive, bullet or other material readily capable of causing death or serious bodily injury.

(2) "Delivers" means to transfer an item to an adult or juvenile who is detained in custody or confinement in any jail, correctional facility, juvenile facility or juvenile detention center or a building appurtenant to those places. The term includes bringing the item into a jail, correctional facility, juvenile facility or juvenile detention center or a building appurtenant to those places. The term includes putting an item in a place where it may be obtained by an inmate.

(3) "Inmate" means an adult or juvenile who is detained in custody or confinement in any jail, correctional facility, juvenile facility or juvenile detention center, regardless of whether the individual is temporarily absent due to medical treatment, transportation, court appearance or other reason for a temporary absence.

(4) "Implement of escape" means a tool, implement, device, equipment or other item which an inmate is not authorized to possess capable of facilitating, aiding or concealing an escape or attempted escape by an inmate.

(5) "Telecommunication device" means any type of instrument, device, machine or equipment which is capable of transmitting telephonic, electronic, digital, cellular or radio communications or any part of an instrument, device, machine or equipment which is capable of facilitating the transmission of telephonic, electronic, digital, cellular or radio communications regardless of whether the part itself is able to transmit. The term includes, but is not limited to, cellular phones, digital phones and modem equipment devices.

(6) "Weapon" means an implement readily capable of lethal use and includes any firearm, knife, dagger, razor, other cutting or stabbing implement or club. The term includes any item which has been modified or adapted so that it can be used as a firearm, knife, dagger, razor, other cutting or stabbing implement or club. For purposes of this definition, the term "firearm" includes an unloaded firearm or the unassembled components of a firearm.

WVC 61-5-9 §61-5-9. Permitting escape; refusal of custody of prisoner; penalties.
If a jailer or other officer, or private correctional officer aid or voluntarily suffer a prisoner convicted or charged with felony to escape from his custody, he shall be deemed guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction, shall be confined in the penitentiary not less than one nor more than five years. If any such jailer or other officer, or private correctional officer negligently, but not voluntarily, suffer a person convicted of or charged with felony, or voluntarily or negligently suffer a person convicted of or charged with an offense not a felony, to escape from his custody, or willfully refuse to receive into his custody any person lawfully committed thereto, he shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction, shall be confined in jail not less than six months, or be fined not exceeding one thousand dollars, or both such fine and confinement.

WVC 61 - 5 - 10 §61-5-10. Persons in custody of institutions or officers.
Whoever escapes or attempts to escape by any means from the custody of a county sheriff, the director of the regional jail authority, an authorized representative of said persons, a law-enforcement officer, probation officer, employee of the division of corrections, court bailiff, or from any institution, facility, or any alternative sentence confinement, by which he or she is lawfully confined, if the custody or confinement is by virtue of a charge or conviction for a felony, is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in a correctional facility for not more than five years; and if the custody or confinement is by virtue of a charge or conviction for a misdemeanor, is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, he or she shall be confined in a county or regional jail for not more than one year.

WVC 61-5-11 §61-5-11. Escapes and aiding in escapes; terms of confinement in addition to previous sentence.
The terms of confinement specified in section eleven, article four, chapter twenty-five of this code or in sections eight, nine and ten of this article shall be in addition to the period or periods of confinement to which any person convicted under this section may be subject to and shall commence at the expiration of any such former sentence.

WVC 61-5-12 §61-5-12. Escapes from, and other offenses relating to, state benevolent and correctional institution, or private prison or mental health facilities; penalties.
Except where otherwise provided, whoever abducts any person who is an inmate or patient of any state benevolent or correctional institution, private prison or mental health facility is guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be imprisoned in the penitentiary for not more than five years. Whoever persuades, induces or entices, or attempts to persuade, induce or entice, any person who is an inmate or patient of any such institution, private prison or facility to escape therefrom, or whoever conceals or harbors any such person, knowing him or her to have run away from any such institution, private prison or facility, is guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than one hundred dollars nor more than one thousand dollars, and in addition thereto, in the discretion of the court, may be imprisoned in the county jail not more than six months.

Any fugitive from any state benevolent or correctional institution, private prison or mental health facility, may, on the order of the superintendent or other officer of such institution or facility, be arrested and returned to such institution or facility, or to any officer or agent thereof, by any sheriff, police officer or other person, and may also be arrested and returned by any officer or agent of such institution, private prison or facility.

Whoever trespasses, idles, lounges or loiters upon the grounds of any other state benevolent or correctional institution, private prison or mental health facility or communicates, or attempts to communicate, by signals, signs, writings or otherwise with any inmate or patient of such institution, private prison or facility, or conveys or assists in any way in establishing communication between an inmate or patient of such institution, private prison or facility and any person or persons outside thereof, except as authorized by the rules or regulations in force by the authority governing the same, is guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than twenty nor more than five hundred dollars, or imprisoned not more than thirty days in the county jail, or both, in the discretion of the court or magistrate. Whoever, with intent to defraud, purchases, accepts as a gift, or secures by barter or trade, or in any other manner, any article of clothing from an inmate or patient of any state benevolent or correctional institution, private prison or mental health facility issued to him or her, by any officer of such institution or facility, or by any private correctional officer of such private prison for his or her use, or, with such intent, secures any other article or articles belonging to any inmate or patient of such institution, private prison or facility or to such institution, private prison or facility from an inmate or patient thereof, is guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined a sum not less than double the value of such articles, except that in no case shall the fine be less than one hundred dollars. Magistrates shall have jurisdiction of all misdemeanors included in this paragraph, concurrently with the circuit court.

WVC 61-5-12a §61-5-12a. Escape from custody of the commissioner of corrections.
Any person who escapes from the custody of the commissioner of corrections, regardless of where such person is confined or where such escape occurs, is guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be imprisoned in the penitentiary not more than five years. A term of imprisonment imposed pursuant to the provisions of this section shall be imposed as a consecutive sentence and shall not be served concurrently with any imprisonment, confinement or detention imposed under any prior sentence being served or otherwise being discharged at the time such person commits an offense under the provisions of this section. A person charged with an offense under the provisions of this section shall not be released from the custody of the commissioner of corrections while the prosecution of the alleged offense is pending: Provided, That time served by such person after any other prior sentence has been served or otherwise discharged shall be applied to any sentence which may ultimately be imposed for an offense under this section. Venue for the prosecution of a violation of this section shall be in the county in which the escape occurs.

WVC 61 - 5 - 12 B §61-5-12b. Escape from custody of the Director of Juvenile Services.
     (a) Any person, under the age of eighteen years of age, who escapes or attempts to escape from the custody of the Director of Juvenile Services, regardless of where such person is confined or where such escape occurs, is guilty of a delinquent act and subject to the jurisdiction of the circuit court of the county in which the escape occurred, pursuant to section two, article five, chapter forty-nine of this code: Provided, That upon agreement of all parties, the prosecution of the escape may be transferred to the circuit court from which the juvenile was originally committed.

     (b) Any person, over the age of eighteen years of age or any juvenile who has been transferred to the adult jurisdiction of the committing court, who escapes or attempts to escape from the custody of the Director of Juvenile Services, regardless of where such person is confined or where such escape or attempted escape occurs, is guilty of escape and, if the person is detained or confined for an offense which is a felony or would have been a felony if committed by an adult is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be imprisoned in a state correctional facility not more than five years. Any person, over the age of eighteen years of age or any juvenile who has been transferred to the adult jurisdiction of the committing court, who is detained for an offense which is a misdemeanor or would have been a misdemeanor if committed by an adult is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in a regional jail for not more than one year. WVC 61-5-13 §61-5-13. Refusal of officer to make, or delay in making, arrest; penalty.
If any officer wilfully and corruptly refuse to execute any lawful process, requiring him to apprehend or confine a person convicted of or charged with an offense, or shall wilfully and corruptly omit or delay to execute such process, whereby such person shall escape and go at large, such officer shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction, shall be confined in jail not more than six months, and be fined not exceeding five hundred dollars.

WVC 61-5-14 §61-5-14. Refusal of person to aid officer; penalty.
If any person shall, on being required by any sheriff or other officer, refuse or neglect to assist him in the execution of his office in a criminal case, or in the preservation of the peace, or the apprehending or securing of any person for a breach of the peace, or in any case of escape or rescue, he shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction, shall be confined in jail not more than six months and be fined not exceeding one hundred dollars.

WVC 61-5-15 §61-5-15. Refusal of person to execute order of arrest by justice; penalty.
If any person, being required by a justice, on view of a breach of the peace or other offense, to bring before him the offender, shall refuse or neglect to obey the justice, he shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction, shall be punished as provided in the preceding section; and if the justice declare himself to be such, or if he be known to the offender, ignorance of his office shall not be pleaded as an excuse.

WVC 61-5-16 §61-5-16. Refusal of officer to execute act or process of Legislature or order of governor; penalty.
Any officer of this state whose duty it is to execute or enforce any act of the Legislature, or any legal process or proceeding arising thereunder, or any lawful order or proclamation of the governor of the state, and who shall wilfully neglect or refuse to execute or enforce the same, shall, for every such offense, be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than fifty nor more than five hundred dollars, and may, in the discretion of the court, be imprisoned not exceeding one year.

WVC 61 - 5 - 17 §61-5-17. Obstructing officer; fleeing from officer; making false statements to officer; interfering with emergency communications; penalties; definitions.

     (a) A person who by threats, menaces, acts or otherwise forcibly or illegally hinders or obstructs or attempts to hinder or obstruct a law-enforcement officer, probation officer or parole officer acting in his or her official capacity is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than $50 nor more than $500 or confined in jail not more than one year, or both fined and confined.

     (b) A person who intentionally disarms or attempts to disarm a law-enforcement officer, correctional officer, probation officer or parole officer, acting in his or her official capacity, is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be imprisoned in a state correctional facility not less than one nor more than five years.

     (c) A person who, with intent to impede or obstruct a law-enforcement officer in the conduct of an investigation of a felony offense, knowingly and willfully makes a materially false statement is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than $25 nor more than $200, or confined in jail for five days, or both fined and confined. The provisions of this section do not apply to statements made by a spouse, parent, stepparent, grandparent, sibling, half sibling, child, stepchild or grandchild, whether related by blood or marriage, of the person under investigation. Statements made by the person under investigation may not be used as the basis for prosecution under this subsection. For purposes of this subsection, "law-enforcement officer" does not include a watchman, a member of the West Virginia State Police or college security personnel who is not a certified law-enforcement officer.

     (d) A person who intentionally flees or attempts to flee by any means other than the use of a vehicle from a law-enforcement officer, probation officer or parole officer acting in his or her official capacity who is attempting to make a lawful arrest of the person, and who knows or reasonably believes that the officer is attempting to arrest him or her, is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than $50 nor more than $500 or confined in jail not more than one year, or both.

     (e) A person who intentionally flees or attempts to flee in a vehicle from a law-enforcement officer, probation officer or parole officer acting in his or her official capacity after the officer has given a clear visual or audible signal directing the person to stop is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than $500 nor more than $1,000 and shall be confined in a regional jail not more than one year.

     (f) A person who intentionally flees or attempts to flee in a vehicle from a law-enforcement officer, probation officer or parole officer acting in his or her official capacity after the officer has given a clear visual or audible signal directing the person to stop, and who operates the vehicle in a manner showing a reckless indifference to the safety of others, is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than $1,000 nor more than $2,000 and shall be imprisoned in a state correctional facility not less than one nor more than five years.

     (g) A person who intentionally flees or attempts to flee in a vehicle from a law-enforcement officer, probation officer or parole officer acting in his or her official capacity after the officer has given a clear visual or audible signal directing the person to stop, and who causes damage to the real or personal property of a person during or resulting from his or her flight, is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than $1,000 nor more than $3,000 and shall be confined in jail for not less than six months nor more than one year.

     (h) A person who intentionally flees or attempts to flee in a vehicle from a law-enforcement officer, probation officer or parole officer acting in his or her official capacity after the officer has given a clear visual or audible signal directing the person to stop, and who causes bodily injury to a person during or resulting from his or her flight, is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be imprisoned in a state correctional facility not less than three nor more than ten years.

     (i) A person who intentionally flees or attempts to flee in a vehicle from a law-enforcement officer, probation officer or parole officer acting in his or her official capacity after the officer has given a clear visual or audible signal directing the person to stop, and who causes death to a person during or resulting from his or her flight, is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be imprisoned in a state correctional facility for not less than five nor more than fifteen years. A person imprisoned pursuant to this subsection is not eligible for parole prior to having served a minimum of three years of his or her sentence or the minimum period required by section thirteen, article twelve, chapter sixty-two of this code, whichever is greater.

     (j) A person who intentionally flees or attempts to flee in a vehicle from a law-enforcement officer, probation officer or parole officer acting in his or her official capacity after the officer has given a clear visual or audible signal directing the person to stop, and who is under the influence of alcohol, controlled substances or drugs, is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be imprisoned in a state correctional facility not less than three nor more than ten years.

     (k) For purposes of this section, the term "vehicle" includes any motor vehicle, motorcycle, motorboat, all-terrain vehicle or snowmobile as those terms are defined in section one, article one, chapter seventeen-a of this code, whether or not it is being operated on a public highway at the time and whether or not it is licensed by the state.

     (l) For purposes of this section, the terms "flee", "fleeing" and "flight" do not include a person's reasonable attempt to travel to a safe place, allowing the pursuing law-enforcement officer to maintain appropriate surveillance, for the purpose of complying with the officer's direction to stop.

     (m) The revisions to subsections (e), (f), (g) and (h) of this section enacted during the regular session of the 2010 regular legislative session shall be known as the Jerry Alan Jones Act.

     (n) (1) No person, with the intent to purposefully deprive another person of emergency services, may interfere with or prevent another person from making an emergency communication, which a reasonable person would consider necessary under the circumstances, to law-enforcement, fire, or emergency medical service personnel.

     (2) For the purpose of this subsection, the term "interfere with or prevent" includes, but is not limited to, seizing, concealing, obstructing access to or disabling or disconnecting a telephone, telephone line or equipment or other communication device.

     (3) For the purpose of this subsection, the term "emergency communication" means communication to transmit warnings or other information pertaining to a crime, fire, accident, power outage, disaster or risk of injury or damage to a person or property.

     (4) A person who violates this subsection is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in jail for a period of not less than one day nor more than one year and shall be fined not less than $250 nor more than $2,000, or both.

     (5) A person who is convicted of a second offense under this subsection is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in jail for not less than three months nor more than one year and fined not less than $500 nor more than $3,000, or both.

     (6) A person who is convicted of a third or subsequent offense under this subsection is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in jail not less than six months nor more than one year and fined not less than $500 nor more than $4,000, or both.

     (7) In determining the number of prior convictions for purposes of imposing punishment under this subsection, the court shall disregard all such prior convictions occurring more than ten years prior to the offense in question. WVC 61-5-18 §61-5-18. Officer not liable for act done under statute or executive order afterward declared unconstitutional.
No officer in the lawful exercise or discharge of his official duty under any act of the Legislature, or any order or proclamation of the governor of this state, shall be held personally responsible therefor in any action, suit, prosecution or proceeding, civil or criminal, by reason of such act, order or proclamation being afterwards adjudged by any court of this state to be unconstitutional. Nor shall his official bond be liable in any civil proceeding therefor.

WVC 61-5-19 §61-5-19. Compounding offenses and misprison; penalties.
If any person, knowing of the commission of an offense, take any money, or reward, or an engagement therefor, upon an agreement or undertaking, expressed or implied, to compound or conceal such offense, or not to prosecute therefor, or not to give evidence thereof, he shall, if such offense be a felony, be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction, be confined in jail not more than one year and fined not exceeding five hundred dollars; and if such offense be not a felony, unless it be punishable merely by a forfeiture to him, he may be confined in jail not more than six months, and shall be fined not exceeding one hundred dollars.

WVC 61-5-20 §61-5-20. Exacting excessive fees; penalty.
If any officer, for performing an official duty for which a fee or compensation is allowed or provided by law, knowingly demand and receive a greater fee or compensation than is so allowed or provided, he shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction, shall be fined not exceeding fifty dollars.

WVC 61-5-21 §61-5-21. Issuing fraudulent fee bills; penalty.
If any person authorized by law to charge fees for services performed by him, and to issue fee bills therefor, fraudulently issue a fee bill for a service not performed by him, or for more than he is entitled to, he shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction, shall be fined not exceeding five hundred dollars; and, in addition thereto, he shall forfeit his office and be forever incapable of holding any office of honor, trust or profit in this state.

WVC 61-5-22 §61-5-22. Alteration, concealment or destruction of public record by officer; penalty.
If any clerk of a court, or other public officer, fraudulently make a false entry, or erase, alter or destroy any record in his keeping and belonging to his office, or shall wilfully secrete any such record from any person having the right to inspect the same, he shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction, shall be confined in jail not more than one year and be fined not exceeding one thousand dollars; and, in addition thereto, he shall forfeit his office and be forever incapable of holding any office of honor, trust or profit in this state.

WVC 61-5-23 §61-5-23. Larceny, concealment or destruction of public record by person not officer; penalty.
If any person, other than an officer in lawful charge thereof, steal, fraudulently secrete or destroy, a public record or any part thereof, he shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction, shall be confined in jail not more than one year and be fined not exceeding one thousand dollars.

WVC 61-5-24 §61-5-24. Corrupt summoning of jurors to find biased verdict; penalty.
A sheriff or other officer who, corruptly, or through favor or ill will, shall summon a juror, with intent that such juror shall find a verdict for or against any party to an action, or shall be biased in his conduct as such juror, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction, shall be confined in jail not exceeding six months and fined not exceeding five hundred dollars, and shall forfeit his office and be forever incapable of holding any office of honor, trust or profit in this state.

WVC 61-5-25 §61-5-25. Procuring the summoning of biased juror by party other than officer; penalty.
If any person shall procure or attempt to procure a juror to be summoned, with intent that such juror shall find a verdict for or against either party to an action, or shall be biased in his conduct as such juror, he shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction, shall be fined not exceeding five hundred dollars.

WVC 61-5-25a §61-5-25a. Discrimination against employee summoned for jury duty; penalty.
It is unlawful for any person to terminate or threaten to terminate from employment, or decrease the regular compensation of employment of an employee for time the employee was not actually away from his employment because an employee received, or was served with a summons for jury duty, or was absent from work to respond to a summons for jury duty or to serve on any jury in any court of this state, the United States or any state of the United States.

Any person violating the provisions of this section shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction, shall be fined not less than one hundred dollars nor more than one thousand dollars, or imprisoned in the county jail not more than sixty days, or both fined and imprisoned.

WVC 61-5-26 §61-5-26. Contempt of court; what constitutes contempt; jury trial; presence of defendant.
The courts and the judges thereof may issue attachment for contempt and punish them summarily only in the following cases: (a) Misbehavior in the presence of the court, or so near thereto as to obstruct or interrupt the administration of justice; (b) violence or threats of violence to a judge or officer of the court, or to a juror, witness, or party going to, attending or returning from the court, for or in respect of any act or proceeding had, or to be had, in such court; (c) misbehavior of an officer of the court, in his official character; (d) disobedience to or resistance of any officer of the court, juror, witness, or other person, to any lawful process, judgment, decree or order of the said court. No court shall, without a jury, for any such contempt as is mentioned in subdivision (a) of this section, impose a fine exceeding fifty dollars, or imprison more than ten days. But in any such case the court may impanel a jury (without an indictment or any formal pleading) to ascertain the fine or imprisonment proper to be inflicted, and may give judgment according to the verdict. No court shall impose a fine for contempt, unless the defendant be present in court, or shall have been served with a rule of the court to show cause, on some certain day, and shall have failed to appear and show cause.

WVC 61 - 5 - 27 §61-5-27. Intimidation of and retaliation against public officers and employees, jurors and witnesses; fraudulent official proceedings and legal processes against public officials and employees; penalties.
(a) Definitions. -- As used in this section:

(1) "Fraudulent" means not legally issued or sanctioned under the laws of this state or of the United States, including forged, false and materially misstated;

(2) "Legal process" means an action, appeal, document instrument or other writing issued, filed or recorded to pursue a claim against person or property, exercise jurisdiction, enforce a judgment, fine a person, put a lien on property, authorize a search and seizure, arrest a person, incarcerate a person or direct a person to appear, perform or refrain from performing a specified act. "Legal process" includes, but is not limited to, a complaint, decree, demand, indictment, injunction, judgment, lien, motion, notice, order, petition, pleading, sentence, subpoena, summons, warrant or writ;

(3) "Official proceeding" means a proceeding involving a legal process or other process of a tribunal of this state or of the United States;

(4) "Person" means an individual, group, association, corporation or any other entity;

(5) "Public official or employee" means an elected or appointed official or employee, of a state or federal court, commission, department, agency, political subdivision or any governmental instrumentality;

(6) "Recorder" means a clerk or other employee in charge of recording instruments in a court, commission or other tribunal of this state or of the United States; and

(7) "Tribunal" means a court or other judicial or quasi-judicial entity, or an administrative, legislative or executive body, or that of a political subdivision, created or authorized under the constitution or laws of this state or of the United States.

(b) Intimidation; harassment. -- It is unlawful for a person to use intimidation, physical force, harassment or a fraudulent legal process or official proceeding, or to threaten or attempt to do so, with the intent to:

(1) Impede or obstruct a public official or employee from performing his or her official duties;

(2) Impede or obstruct a juror or witness from performing his or her official duties in an official proceeding;

(3) Influence, delay or prevent the testimony of any person in an official proceeding; or

(4) Cause or induce a person to: (A) Withhold testimony, or withhold a record, document or other object from an official proceeding; (B) alter, destroy, mutilate or conceal a record, document or other object impairing its integrity or availability for use in an official proceeding; (C) evade an official proceeding summoning a person to appear as a witness or produce a record, document or other object for an official proceeding; or (D) be absent from an official proceeding to which such person has been summoned.

(c) Retaliation. -- It is unlawful for a person to cause injury or loss to person or property, or to threaten or attempt to do so, with the intent to:

(1) Retaliate against a public official or employee for the performance or nonperformance of an official duty;

(2) Retaliate against a juror or witness for performing his or her official duties in an official proceeding;

(3) Retaliate against any other person for attending, testifying or participating in an official proceeding, or for the production of any record, document or other object produced by a person in an official proceeding.

(d) Subsection (b) offense. -- A person who is convicted of an offense under subsection (b) is guilty of a misdemeanor and shall be confined in jail for not more than one year or fined not more than one thousand dollars, or both.

(e) Subsection (c) or subsequent offense. -- A person convicted of an offense under subsection (c) or a second offense under subsection (b) is guilty of a felony and shall be confined in the penitentiary not less than one nor more than ten years or fined not more than two thousand dollars, or both.

(f) Civil cause of action. -- A person who violates this section is liable in a civil action to any person harmed by the violation for injury or loss to person or property incurred as a result of the commission of the offense and for reasonable attorney's fees, court costs and other expenses incurred as a result of prosecuting a civil action commenced under this subsection, which is not the exclusive remedy of a person who suffers injury or loss to person or property as a result of a violation of this section.

(g) Civil sanctions. -- In addition to the criminal and civil penalties set forth in this section, any fraudulent official proceeding or legal process brought in a tribunal of this state in violation of this section shall be dismissed by the tribunal and the person may be ordered to reimburse the aggravated person for reasonable attorney's fees, court costs and other expenses incurred in defending or dismissing such action.

(1) Refusal to record. -- A recorder may refuse to record a clearly fraudulent lien or other legal process against a public official or employee or his or her property. The recorder does not have a duty to inspect or investigate whether a lien or other legal process is fraudulent nor is the recorder liable for refusing to record a lien or other legal process that the recorder believes is in violation of this section.

(2) If a fraudulent lien or other legal process against a public official or employee or his or her property is recorded then:

(A) Request to release lien. -- The public official or employee may send a written request by certified mail to the person who filed the fraudulent lien or legal process, requesting the person to release or dismiss the lien or legal process. If such lien or legal process is not properly released or dismissed within twenty-one days, then it shall be inferred that the person intended to harass the public official or employee in violation of subsection (b) of this section and shall be subject to the criminal penalties in subsection (d) of this section and any other remedies provided for in this section; or

(B) Notice of fraudulent lien. -- A government attorney on behalf of the public official or employee may record a notice of fraudulent lien or legal process with the recorder who accepted the lien or legal process for filing. Such notice shall invalidate the fraudulent lien or legal process and cause it to be removed from the records. No filing fee shall be charged for the filing of the notice.

(h) A person's lack of belief in the jurisdiction or authority of this state or of the United States is no defense to prosecution of a civil or criminal action under this section.

(i)(1) Nothing in this section prohibits or in any way limits the lawful acts of legitimate public officials or employees.

(2) Nothing in this section prohibits or in any way limits a person's lawful and legitimate right to freely assemble, express opinions or designate group affiliation.

(3) Nothing in this section prohibits or in any way limits a person's lawful and legitimate access to a tribunal of this state or prevents a person from instituting or responding to a lawful action.

WVC 61 - 5 - 27 A §61-5-27a. Fraudulent official proceedings; causing a public employee or official to file a fraudulent legal process; impersonation of a public official, employee or tribunal; penalties.
(a) Definitions. -- For the purpose of this section, the following terms have the meaning ascribed to them in section twenty-seven of this article: "Fraudulent", "legal process", "official proceeding", "person", "public official or employee", "recorder", and "tribunal".

(b) Fraudulent official proceedings. -- It is unlawful for a person to knowingly engage in a fraudulent official proceeding or legal process.

(c) Fraudulent filings. -- It is unlawful for a person to knowingly cause a public official or employee to file, record or deliver a fraudulent claim of indebtedness, common law lien or other lien, financial statement, complaint, summons, judgment, warrant or other legal process, including those issued as the result of a fraudulent official proceeding.

(d) Fraudulent service. -- It is unlawful for a person to knowingly serve a public official or employee with a fraudulent claim of indebtedness, common law lien or other lien, financial statement, complaint, summons, judgment, warrant or other legal process, including those issued as the result of a fraudulent official proceeding.

(e) Impersonation. -- It is unlawful for a person to knowingly impersonate or purport to exercise any function of a public official, employee, tribunal or official proceeding without legal authority to do so and with the intent to induce a person to submit to or rely on the fraudulent authority of the person.

(f) First offense. -- Any person who violates a provision of this section is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be confined in a county or regional jail for not more than one year or fined not more than one thousand dollars, or both.

(g) Second offense. -- Any person convicted of a second or subsequent offense under this section is guilty of a felony and shall be confined in the penitentiary not less than one nor more than ten years or fined not more than two thousand dollars, or both.

(h) Civil cause of action. -- A person who violates this section is liable in a civil action to any person harmed by the violation for injury or loss to person or property incurred as a result of the commission of the offense and for reasonable attorney's fees, court costs and other expenses incurred as a result of prosecuting the civil action commenced under this subsection, which is not the exclusive remedy of a person who suffers injury or loss to person or property as a result of a violation of this section.

(i) Civil sanctions. -- In addition to the criminal and civil penalties set forth in this section, a fraudulent official proceeding or legal process brought in a tribunal in violation of this section shall be dismissed by the tribunal and the person may be ordered to reimburse the aggravated person for reasonable attorney's fees, court costs and other expenses incurred in defending or dismissing such action.

(1) Refusal to record. -- A recorder may refuse to record a clearly fraudulent lien or other legal process against a person or his or her property. The recorder does not have a duty to inspect or investigate whether a lien or other legal process is fraudulent nor is the recorder liable for refusing to record a lien or other legal process that the recorder believes is in violation of this section.

(2) If a fraudulent lien or other legal process against a person or his or her property is recorded then:

(A) Request to release lien. -- A person may send a written request by certified mail to the person who filed the fraudulent lien or legal process, requesting the person to release or dismiss the lien or legal process. If such lien or legal process is not properly released or dismissed within twenty-one days, then the person shall be presumed to have intended to have committed a violation of this section and shall be subject to the penalties provided for in this section; or

(B) Petition to circuit court. -- A person may petition the circuit court of the county where the fraudulent lien or legal process was recorded for an order that may be granted ex parte directing the person who filed the lien or legal process to appear before the court and show cause why the lien or legal process should not be released or dismissed, deemed fraudulent and the person penalized as provided for in this section.

(i) The petition shall set forth a concise statement of the facts and the grounds upon which relief is requested.

(ii) No filing fee shall be charged for the filing of such petitions.

(iii) The order to show cause shall be served upon the person who filed the lien or legal process according to rule 4 of the rules of civil procedure and the date of the hearing set within twenty-one days of the order.

(iv) The order to show cause shall clearly state that if the person who filed the lien or legal process fails to appear at the time and place noticed in the order, then the lien or legal process shall be released or dismissed, deemed fraudulent and the person shall be subject to the penalties provided for in this section.

(v) If a hearing takes place or if, on its own motion, the circuit court determines that the lien or legal process is fraudulent, then the circuit court shall release or dismiss it and subject the person to the penalties provided for in this section.

(vi) If the circuit court determines that the lien or legal process is valid, then the circuit court shall issue an order stating such and may award reasonable attorney's fees, court costs and other expenses to the prevailing party.

(j) A person's lack of belief in the jurisdiction or authority of this state or of the United States is no defense to prosecution of a civil or criminal action under this section.

(k)(1) Nothing in this section prohibits or in any way limits the lawful acts of a legitimate public official or employee.

(2) Nothing in this section prohibits or in any way limits a person's lawful and legitimate right to freely assemble, express opinions or designate group affiliation.

(3) Nothing in this section prohibits or in any way limits a person's lawful and legitimate access to a tribunal of this state, or prevents a person from instituting or responding to a lawful action.

WVC 61-5-28 §61-5-28. Failure to perform official duties; penalty.
Any person holding any office or appointment in this state, who shall wilfully fail or refuse to perform any duty required of him by law, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, shall, if no other punishment be prescribed by law therefor, be fined not exceeding one hundred dollars.

WVC 61 - 5 - 29 §61-5-29. Failure to meet an obligation to pay support to a minor; penalties.
(1) A person who: (a) Repeatedly and willfully fails to pay his or her court-ordered support which he or she can reasonably provide and which he or she knows he or she has a duty to provide to a minor; and (b) is subject to court order to pay any amount for the support of a minor child and is delinquent in meeting the full obligation established by the order and has been delinquent for a period of at least six months' duration is guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than $100 nor more than $1,000, or confined in jail for not more than one year, or both fined and confined.

(2) A person who repeatedly and willfully fails to pay his or her court-ordered support which he or she can reasonably provide and which he or she knows he or she has a duty to provide to a minor by virtue of a court or administrative order and the failure results in twelve months without payment of support that remains unpaid is guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not less than $100 nor more than $1,000, or imprisoned for not less than one year nor more than three years, or both fined and imprisoned.

Note: WV Code updated with legislation passed through the 2014 1st Special Session
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