Senate
House
Joint
Bill Status
WV Code
Audits/ Reports
Educational
Contact
home
home

West Virginia Code

Search

Chapter 44 B     Entire Code
‹ Chapter 44  |  Chapter 44A › Printer Friendly Versions
Chapter 44B  |  Article 44B - 4
WVC 44 B- CHAPTER 44B. UNIFORM PRINCIPAL AND INCOME ACT.
WVC 44 B- 4 - ARTICLE 4. ALLOCATION OF RECEIPTS DURING ADMINISTRATION OF TRUST.

WVC 44 B- 4 - 401 PART 1. RECEIPTS FROM ENTITIES.
§44B-4-401. Character or receipts.
(a) In this section, "entity" means a corporation, partnership, limited liability company, regulated investment company, real estate investment trust, common trust fund or any other organization in which a trustee has an interest other than a trust or estate to which section four hundred two of this article applies, a business or activity to which section four hundred three of this article applies, or an asset-backed security to which section four hundred fifteen of this article applies.

(b) Except as otherwise provided in this section, a trustee shall allocate to income money received from an entity.

(c) A trustee shall allocate the following receipts from an entity to principal:

(1) Property other than money;

(2) Money received in one distribution or a series of related distributions in exchange for part or all of a trust's interest in the entity;

(3) Money received in total or partial liquidation of the entity; and

(4) Money received from an entity that is a regulated investment company or a real estate investment trust if the money distributed is a capital gain dividend for federal income tax purposes.

(d) Money is received in partial liquidation:

(1) To the extent that the entity, at or near the time of a distribution, indicates that it is a distribution in partial liquidation; or

(2) If the total amount of money and property received in a distribution or series of related distributions is greater than twenty percent of the entity's gross assets, as shown by the entity's year-end financial statements immediately preceding the initial receipt.

(e) Money is not received in partial liquidation, nor may it be taken into account under subdivision (2), subsection (d) of this section, to the extent that it does not exceed the amount of income tax that a trustee or beneficiary must pay on taxable income of the entity that distributes the money.

(f) A trustee may rely upon a statement made by an entity about the source or character of a distribution if the statement is made at or near the time of distribution by the entity's board of directors or other person or group of persons authorized to exercise powers to pay money or transfer property comparable to those of a corporation's board of directors.

WVC 44 B- 4 - 402 §44B-4-402. Distribution from trust or estate.
A trustee shall allocate to income an amount received as a distribution of income from a trust or an estate in which the trust has an interest other than a purchased interest, and shall allocate to principal an amount received as a distribution of principal from such a trust or estate. If a trustee purchases an interest in a trust that is an investment entity, or a decedent or donor transfers an interest in such a trust to a trustee, section four hundred one or four hundred fifteen of this article applies to a receipt from the trust.

WVC 44 B- 4 - 403 §44B-4-403. Business and other activities conducted by trustee.
(a) If a trustee who conducts a business or other activity determines that it is in the best interest of all the beneficiaries to account separately for the business or activity instead of accounting for it as part of the trust's general accounting records, the trustee may maintain separate accounting records for its transactions, whether or not its assets are segregated from other trust assets.

(b) A trustee who accounts separately for a business or other activity may determine the extent to which its net cash receipts must be retained for working capital, the acquisition or replacement of fixed assets, and other reasonably foreseeable needs of the business or activity, and the extent to which the remaining net cash receipts are accounted for as principal or income in the trust's general accounting records. If a trustee sells assets of the business or other activity, other than in the ordinary course of the business or activity, the trustee shall account for the net amount received as principal in the trust's general accounting records to the extent the trustee determines that the amount received is no longer required in the conduct of the business.

(c) Activities for which a trustee may maintain separate accounting records include:

(1) Retail, manufacturing, service and other traditional business activities;

(2) Farming;

(3) Raising and selling livestock and other animals;

(4) Management of rental properties;

(5) Extraction of minerals and other natural resources;

(6) Timber operations; and

(7) Activities to which section 414 applies.

WVC 44 B- 4 - 404 PART 2. RECEIPTS NOT NORMALLY APPORTIONED.
§44B-4-404. Principal receipts.
A trustee shall allocate to principal:

(1) To the extent not allocated to income under this chapter, assets received from a transferor during the transferor's lifetime, a decedent's estate, a trust with a terminating income interest or a payer under a contract naming the trust or its trustee as beneficiary;

(2) Money or other property received from the sale, exchange, liquidation or change in form of a principal asset, including realized profit, subject to this article;

(3) Amounts recovered from third parties to reimburse the trust because of disbursements described in subdivision (7), subsection (a), section five hundred two, article five of this chapter or for other reasons to the extent not based on the loss of income;

(4) Proceeds of property taken by eminent domain, but a separate award made for the loss of income with respect to an accounting period during which a current income beneficiary had a mandatory income interest is income;

(5) Net income received in an accounting period during which there is no beneficiary to whom a trustee may or must distribute income; and

(6) Other receipts as provided in part 3 of this article.

WVC 44 B- 4 - 405 §44B-4-405. Rental property.
To the extent that a trustee accounts for receipts from rental property pursuant to this section, the trustee shall allocate to income an amount received as rent of real or personal property, including an amount received for cancellation or renewal of a lease. An amount received as a refundable deposit, including a security deposit or a deposit that is to be applied as rent for future periods, must be added to principal and held subject to the terms of the lease and is not available for distribution to a beneficiary until the trustee's contractual obligations have been satisfied with respect to that amount.

WVC 44 B- 4 - 406 §44B-4-406. Obligation to pay money.
(a) An amount received as interest, whether determined at a fixed, variable or floating rate, on an obligation to pay money to the trustee, including an amount received as consideration for prepaying principal, must be allocated to income without any provision for amortization of premium.

(b) A trustee shall allocate to principal an amount received from the sale, redemption or other disposition of an obligation to pay money to the trustee more than one year after it is purchased or acquired by the trustee, including an obligation whose purchase price or value when it is acquired is less than its value at maturity. If the obligation matures within one year after it is purchased or acquired by the trustee, an amount received in excess of its purchase price or its value when acquired by the trust must be allocated to income.

(c) This section does not apply to an obligation to which section four hundred nine, four hundred ten, four hundred eleven, four hundred twelve, four hundred fourteen or four hundred fifteen of this article applies.

WVC 44 B- 4 - 407 §44B-4-407. Insurance policies and similar contracts.
(a) Except as otherwise provided in subsection (b), a trustee shall allocate to principal the proceeds of a life insurance policy or other contract in which the trust or its trustee is named as beneficiary, including a contract that insures the trust or its trustee against loss for damage to, destruction of or loss of title to a trust asset. The trustee shall allocate dividends on an insurance policy to income if the premiums on the policy are paid from income, and to principal if the premiums are paid from principal.

(b) A trustee shall allocate to income proceeds of a contract that insures the trustee against loss of occupancy or other use by an income beneficiary, loss of income or, subject to section four hundred three of this article, loss of profits from a business.

(c) This section does not apply to a contract to which section four hundred nine of this article applies.

WVC 44 B- 4 - 408 PART 3. RECEIPTS NORMALLY APPORTIONED.
§44B-4-408. Insubstantial allocations not required.
(a) If a trustee determines that an allocation between principal and income required by section four hundred nine, four hundred ten, four hundred eleven, four hundred twelve or four hundred fifteen, of this article is insubstantial, the trustee may allocate the entire amount to principal unless one of the circumstances described in subsection (c), section one hundred four of this article applies to the allocation. This power may be exercised by a cotrustee in the circumstances described in subsection (d) of said section and may be released for the reasons and in the manner described in subdivision (e) of said section. An allocation is presumed to be insubstantial if:

(1) The amount of the allocation would increase or decrease net income in an accounting period, as determined before the allocation, by less than ten percent; or

(2) The value of the asset producing the receipt for which the allocation would be made is less than ten percent of the total value of the trust's assets at the beginning of the accounting period.

(b) Nothing in this section imposes a duty on the trustee to make an allocation under this section, and the trustee is not liable for failure to make an allocation under this section.

WVC 44 B- 4 - 409 §44B-4-409. Deferred compensation, annuities and similar payments.
(a) In this section:

(1) "Payment" means a payment that a trustee may receive over a fixed number of years or during the life of one or more individuals because of services rendered or property transferred to the payer in exchange for future payments. The term includes a payment made in money or property from the payer's general assets or from a separate fund created by the payer. For purposes of subsections (d), (e), (f), and (g), the term also includes any payment from any separate fund, regardless of the reason for the payment.

(2) "Separate fund" includes a private or commercial annuity, an individual retirement account, and a pension, profit-sharing, stock-bonus, or stock-ownership plan.

(b) To the extent that a payment is characterized as interest, a dividend, or a payment made in lieu of interest or a dividend, a trustee shall allocate the payment to income. The trustee shall allocate to principal the balance of the payment and any other payment received in the same accounting period that is not characterized as interest, a dividend, or an equivalent payment.

(c) If no part of a payment is characterized as interest, a dividend, or an equivalent payment, and all or part of the payment is required to be made, a trustee shall allocate to income ten percent of the part that is required to be made during the accounting period and the balance to principal. If no part of a payment is required to be made or the payment received is the entire amount to which the trustee is entitled, the trustee shall allocate the entire payment to principal. For purposes of this subsection, a payment is not required to be made to the extent that it is made because the trustee exercises a right of withdrawal.

(d) Except as otherwise provided in subsection (e), subsections (f) and (g) apply, and subsections (b) and (c) do not apply, in determining the allocation of a payment made from a separate fund to:

(1) A trust to which an election to qualify for a marital deduction under 26 U.S.C. § 2056(b)(7), as amended, has been made; or

(2) A trust that qualifies for the marital deduction under 26 U.S.C. § 2056(b)(5), as amended.

(e) Subsections (d), (f), and (g) do not apply if and to the extent that the series of payments would, without the application of subsection (d), qualify for the marital deduction under 26 U.S.C. § 2056(b)(7)(C), as amended.

(f) A trustee shall determine the internal income of each separate fund for the accounting period as if the separate fund were a trust subject to this chapter. Upon request of the surviving spouse, the trustee shall demand that the person administering the separate fund distribute the internal income to the trust. The trustee shall allocate a payment from the separate fund to income to the extent of the internal income of the separate fund and distribute that amount to the surviving spouse. The trustee shall allocate the balance of the payment to principal. Upon request of the surviving spouse, the trustee shall allocate principal to income to the extent the internal income of the separate fund exceeds payments made from the separate fund to the trust during the accounting period.

(g) If a trustee cannot determine the internal income of a separate fund but can determine the value of the separate fund, the internal income of the separate fund is deemed to equal four percent of the fund's value, according to the most recent statement of value preceding the beginning of the accounting period. If the trustee can determine neither the internal income of the separate fund nor the fund's value, the internal income of the fund is deemed to equal the product of the interest rate and the present value of the expected future payments, as determined under 26 U.S.C. § 7520, as amended, for the month preceding the accounting period for which the computation is made.

(h) This section does not apply to a payment to which section four hundred ten of this article applies.

WVC 44 B- 4 - 410 §44B-4-410. Liquidating asset.
(a) In this section, "liquidating asset" means an asset whose value will diminish or terminate because the asset is expected to produce receipts for a period of limited duration. The term includes a leasehold, patent, copyright, royalty right and right to receive payments during a period of more than one year under an arrangement that does not provide for the payment of interest on the unpaid balance. The term does not include a payment subject to section four hundred nine of this article, resources subject to section four hundred eleven of this article, timber subject to section four hundred twelve of this article, an activity subject to section four hundred fourteen of this article, an asset subject to section four hundred fifteen of this article or any asset for which the trustee establishes a reserve for depreciation under section five hundred three, article five of this chapter.

(b) A trustee shall allocate to income ten percent of the receipts from a liquidating asset and the balance to principal.

WVC 44 B- 4 - 411 §44B-4-411. Minerals, water and other natural resources.
(a) To the extent that a trustee accounts for receipts from an interest in minerals or other natural resources pursuant to this section, the trustee shall allocate them as follows:

(1) If received as nominal delay rental or nominal annual rent on a lease, a receipt must be allocated to income;

(2) If received from a production payment, a receipt must be allocated to income if and to the extent that the agreement creating the production payment provides a factor for interest or its equivalent. The balance must be allocated to principal;

(3) If an amount received as a royalty, shut-in-well payment, take-or-pay payment, bonus or delay rental is more than nominal, ninety percent must be allocated to principal and the balance to income;

(4) If an amount is received from a working interest or any other interest not provided for in subdivision (1), (2) or (3) of this subsection, ninety percent of the net amount received must be allocated to principal and the balance to income.

(b) An amount received on account of an interest in water that is renewable must be allocated to income. If the water is not renewable, ninety percent of the amount must be allocated to principal and the balance to income.

(c) This chapter applies whether or not a decedent or donor was extracting minerals, water or other natural resources before the interest became subject to the trust.

(d) If a trust owns an interest in minerals, water or other natural resources on the effective date of this chapter, the trustee may allocate receipts from the interest as provided in this chapter or in the manner used by the trustee before the effective date of this chapter. If the trust acquires an interest in minerals, water or other natural resources after the effective date of this chapter, the trustee shall allocate receipts from the interest as provided in this chapter.

WVC 44 B- 4 - 412 §44B-4-412. Timber.
(a) To the extent that a trustee accounts for receipts from the sale of timber and related products pursuant to this section, the trustee shall allocate the net receipts:

(1) To income to the extent that the amount of timber removed from the land does not exceed the rate of growth of the timber during the accounting periods in which a beneficiary has a mandatory income interest;

(2) To principal to the extent that the amount of timber removed from the land exceeds the rate of growth of the timber or the net receipts are from the sale of standing timber;

(3) To or between income and principal if the net receipts are from the lease of timberland or from a contract to cut timber from land owned by a trust, by determining the amount of timber removed from the land under the lease or contract and applying the rules in subdivisions (1) and (2) of this subsection; or

(4) To principal to the extent that advance payments, bonuses and other payments are not allocated pursuant to subdivision (1), (2) or (3)of this subsection.

(b) In determining net receipts to be allocated pursuant to subsection (a) of this section, a trustee shall deduct and transfer to principal a reasonable amount for depletion.

(c) This chapter applies whether or not a decedent or transferor was harvesting timber from the property before it became subject to the trust.

(d) If a trust owns an interest in timberland on the effective date of this chapter, the trustee may allocate net receipts from the sale of timber and related products as provided in this chapter or in the manner used by the trustee before the effective date of this chapter. If the trust acquires an interest in timberland after the effective date of this chapter, the trustee shall allocate net receipts from the sale of timber and related products as provided in this chapter.

WVC 44 B- 4 - 413 §44B-4-413. Property not productive of income.
(a) If a marital deduction is allowed for all or part of a trust whose assets consist substantially of property that does not provide the surviving spouse with sufficient income from or use of the trust assets, and if the amounts that the trustee transfers from principal to income under section one hundred four of this article and distributes to the spouse from principal pursuant to the terms of the trust are insufficient to provide the spouse with the beneficial enjoyment required to obtain the marital deduction, the spouse may require the trustee to make property productive of income, convert property within a reasonable time, or exercise the power conferred by subsection (a) of said section. The trustee may decide which action or combination of actions to take.

(b) In cases not governed by subsection (a) of this section, proceeds from the sale or other disposition of an asset are principal without regard to the amount of income the asset produces during any accounting period.

WVC 44 B- 4 - 414 §44B-4-414. Derivatives and options.
(a) In this section, "derivative" means a contract or financial instrument or a combination of contracts and financial instruments which gives a trust the right or obligation to participate in some or all changes in the price of a tangible or intangible asset or group of assets, or changes in a rate, an index of prices or rates or other market indicator for an asset or a group of assets.

(b) To the extent that a trustee accounts for transactions in derivatives pursuant to this section, the trustee shall allocate to principal receipts from and disbursements made in connection with those transactions.

(c) If a trustee grants an option to buy property from the trust, whether or not the trust owns the property when the option is granted, grants an option that permits another person to sell property to the trust or acquires an option to buy property for the trust or an option to sell an asset owned by the trust, and the trustee or other owner of the asset is required to deliver the asset if the option is exercised, an amount received for granting the option must be allocated to principal. An amount paid to acquire the option must be paid from principal. A gain or loss realized upon the exercise of an option, including an option granted to a settlor of the trust for services rendered, must be allocated to principal.

WVC 44 B- 4 - 415 §44B-4-415. Asset-backed securities.
(a) In this section, "asset-backed security" means an asset whose value is based upon the right it gives the owner to receive distributions from the proceeds of financial assets that provide collateral for the security. The term includes an asset that gives the owner the right to receive from the collateral financial assets only the interest or other current return or only the proceeds other than interest or current return. The term does not include an asset to which section four hundred one or four hundred nine of this article applies.

(b) If a trust receives a payment from interest or other current return and from other proceeds of the collateral financial assets, the trustee shall allocate to income the portion of the payment which the payer identifies as being from interest or other current return and shall allocate the balance of the payment to principal.

(c) If a trust receives one or more payments in exchange for the trust's entire interest in an asset-backed security in one accounting period, the trustee shall allocate the payments to principal. If a payment is one of a series of payments that will result in the liquidation of the trust's interest in the security over more than one accounting period, the trustee shall allocate ten percent of the payment to income and the balance to principal.

Note: WV Code updated with legislation passed through the 2014 1st Special Session
The WV Code Online is an unofficial copy of the annotated WV Code, provided as a convenience. It has NOT been edited for publication, and is not in any way official or authoritative.
This Web site is maintained by the West Virginia Legislature's Office of Reference & Information.  |  Terms of Use  |   Web Administrator   |   © 2014 West Virginia Legislature ****