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WEST VIRGINIA CODE
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WVC 47 B- CHAPTER 47B. UNIFORM PARTNERSHIP ACT.

WVC 47 B- 1 - ARTICLE 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS.


WVC 47 B- 1 - 1 §47B-1-1. Definitions.

In this chapter:

(1) "Business" includes every trade, occupation and profession.

(2) "Debtor in bankruptcy" means a person who is the subject of:

(i) In order for relief under Title 11 of the United States Code or a comparable order under a successor statute of general application; or

(ii) A comparable order under federal, state or foreign law governing insolvency.

(3) "Deliver" or "delivery" means any method of delivery used in conventional commercial practice, including, but not limited to, delivery by hand, mail, commercial delivery and electronic transmission.

(4) "Distribution" means a transfer of money or other property from a partnership to a partner in the partner's capacity as a partner or to the partner's transferee.

(5) "Electronic transmission" or "electronically transmitted", means any process of communication not directly involving the physical transfer of paper that is suitable for the retention, retrieval and reproduction of information by the recipient.

(6) "Foreign limited liability partnership" means a partnership or association formed under or pursuant to an agreement governed by the laws of any state or jurisdiction other than this state that is denominated as a registered limited liability partnership or limited liability partnership under the laws of such other jurisdiction.

(7) "Partnership" means an association of two or more persons to carry on as coowners a business for profit formed under section two, article two of this chapter, predecessor law, or comparable law of another jurisdiction and includes, for all purposes of the laws of this state, a registered limited liability partnership.

(8) "Partnership agreement" means the agreement, whether written, oral or implied, among the partners concerning the partnership, including amendments to the partnership agreement.

(9) "Partnership at will" means a partnership in which the partners have not agreed to remain partners until the expiration of a definite term or the completion of a particular undertaking.

(10) "Partnership interest" or "partner's interest in the partnership" means all of a partner's interests in the partnership, including the partner's transferable interest and all management and other rights.

(11) "Person" means an individual, corporation, business trust, estate, trust, partnership, limited liability company, professional limited liability company, association, joint venture, government, governmental subdivision, agency or instrumentality, or any other legal or commercial entity.

(12) "Property" means all property, real, personal or mixed, tangible or intangible, or any interest therein.

(13) "Registered limited liability partnership" means a partnership formed pursuant to an agreement governed by the laws of this state, registered under section one, article ten of this chapter.

(14)"Sign" or "signature" includes, but is not limited to, any manual, facsimile, conformed or electronic signature.

(15) "State" means a state of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or any territory or insular possession subject to the jurisdiction of the United States.

(16) "Statement" means a statement of partnership authority under section three, article three of this chapter, a statement of denial under section four of said article, a statement of dissociation under section four, article seven of this chapter, a statement of dissolution under section five, article eight of this chapter, a statement of merger under section seven, article nine of this chapter, a statement of registration and a statement of withdrawal under section one, article ten of this chapter, or an amendment or cancellation of any of the foregoing.

(17) "Transfer" includes an assignment, conveyance, lease, mortgage, deed and encumbrance.


WVC 47 B- 1 - 2 §47B-1-2. Knowledge and notice.

(a) A person knows a fact if the person has actual knowledge of it.

(b) A person has notice of a fact if the person:

(1) Knows of it;

(2) Has received a notification of it; or

(3) Has reason to know it exists from all of the facts known to the person at the time in question.

(c) A person notifies or gives a notification to another by taking steps reasonably required to inform the other person in ordinary course, whether or not the other person learns of it.

(d) A person receives a notification when the notification:

(1) Comes to the person's attention; or

(2) Is duly delivered at the person's place of business or at any other place held out by the person as a place for receiving communications.

(e) Except as otherwise provided in subsection (f) of this section, a person other than an individual knows, has notice, or receives a notification of a fact for purposes of a particular transaction when the individual conducting the transaction knows, has notice, or receives a notification of the fact, or in any event when the fact would have been brought to the individual's attention if the person had exercised reasonable diligence. The person exercises reasonable diligence if it maintains reasonable routines for communicating significant information to the individual conducting the transaction and there is reasonable compliance with the routines. Reasonable diligence does not require an individual acting for the person to communicate information unless the communication is part of the individual's regular duties or the individual has reason to know of the transaction and that the transaction would be materially affected by the information.

(f) A partner's knowledge, notice or receipt of a notification of a fact relating to the partnership is effective immediately as knowledge by, notice to, or receipt of a notification by the partnership, except in the case of a fraud on the partnership committed by or with the consent of that partner.


WVC 47 B- 1 - 3 §47B-1-3. Effect of partnership agreement; nonwaivable provisions.
(a) Except as otherwise provided in subsection (b) of this section, relations among the partners and between the partners and the partnership are governed by the partnership agreement. To the extent the partnership agreement does not otherwise provide, this chapter governs relations among the partners and between the partners and the partnership.

(b) The partnership agreement may not:

(1) Vary the rights and duties under section five, article one of this chapter except to eliminate the duty to provide copies of statements to all of the partners;

(2) Unreasonably restrict the right of access to books and records under subsection (b), section three, article four of this chapter;

(3) Eliminate the duty of loyalty under subsection (b), section four, article four, or subdivision (3), subsection (b), section three, article six of this chapter, but:

(i) The partnership agreement may identify specific types or categories of activities that do not violate the duty of loyalty, if not manifestly unreasonable; or

(ii) All of the partners or a number or percentage specified in the partnership agreement may authorize or ratify, after full disclosure of all material facts, a specific act or transaction that otherwise would violate the duty of loyalty;

(4) Unreasonably reduce the duty of care under subsection (c), section four, article four or subdivision (3), subsection (b), section three, article six of this chapter;

(5) Eliminate the obligation of good faith and fair dealing under subsection (d), section four, article four of this chapter, but the partnership agreement may prescribe the standards by which the performance of the obligation is to be measured, if the standards are not manifestly unreasonable;

(6) Vary the power to dissociate as a partner under subsection (a), section two, article six of this chapter, except to require the notice under subdivision (1), section one, article six of this chapter to be in writing;

(7) Vary the right of a court to expel a partner in the events specified in subdivision (5), section one, article six of this chapter;

(8) Vary the requirement to wind up the partnership business in cases specified in subdivisions (4), (5) or (6), section one, article eight of this chapter; or

(9) Restrict rights of third parties under this chapter.


WVC 47 B- 1 - 4 §47B-1-4. Supplemental principles of law.

(a) Unless displaced by particular provisions of this chapter, the principles of law and equity supplement this chapter.

(b) If an obligation to pay interest arises under this chapter and the rate is not specified, the rate is that specified in section thirty-one, article six, chapter fifty-six of this code.


WVC 47 B- 1 - 5 §47B-1-5. Execution, filing and recording of statements.


(a) A statement may be filed in the office of the secretary of state. A certified copy of a statement that is filed in an office in another state may be filed in the office of the secretary of state. Either filing has the effect provided in this chapter with respect to partnership property located in or transactions that occur in this state.

(b) A certified copy of a statement that has been filed in the office of the secretary of state and recorded in the office for recording transfers of real property has the effect provided for recorded statements in this chapter. A recorded statement that is not a certified copy of a statement filed in the office of the secretary of state does not have the effect provided for recorded statements in this chapter.

(c) A statement filed by a partnership must be executed by at least two partners. Other statements must be executed by a partner or other person authorized by this chapter. An individual who executes a statement as, or on behalf of, a partner or other person named as a partner in a statement shall personally declare under penalty of perjury that the contents of the statement are accurate.

(d) A person authorized by this chapter to file a statement may amend or cancel the statement by filing an amendment or cancellation that names the partnership, identifies the statement, and states the substance of the amendment or cancellation.

(e) A person who files a statement pursuant to this section shall promptly send a copy of the statement to every nonfiling partner and to any other person named as a partner in the statement. Failure to send a copy of a statement to a partner or other person does not limit the effectiveness of the statement as to a person not a partner.

(f) The secretary of state may collect a fee for filing or providing a certified copy of a statement. The clerk of the county commission of any county may collect a fee for recording a statement.


WVC 47 B- 1 - 6 §47B-1-6. Law governing internal relations.
Except as provided otherwise in section four, article ten of this chapter, the law of the jurisdiction in which a partnership has its chief executive office, governs the relations among the partners and between the partners and the partnership.


WVC 47 B- 1 - 7 §47B-1-7. Partnership subject to amendment or repeal of chapter. A partnership governed by this chapter is subject to any amendment to or repeal of this chapter.


WVC 47 B- 2 - ARTICLE 2. NATURE OF PARTNERSHIP.


WVC 47 B- 2 - 1 §47B-2-1. Partnership as entity.
A partnership is an entity distinct from its partners.


WVC 47 B- 2 - 2 §47B-2-2. Formation of partnership.
(a) Except as otherwise provided in subsection (b) of this section, the association of two or more persons to carry on as coowners a business for profit forms a partnership, whether or not the persons intend to form a partnership.

(b) An association formed under a statute other than this chapter, a predecessor statute, or a comparable statute of another jurisdiction is not a partnership under this chapter.

(c) In determining whether a partnership is formed, the following rules apply:

(1) Joint tenancy, tenancy in common, tenancy by the entireties, joint property, common property, or part ownership does not by itself establish a partnership, even if the coowners share profits made by the use of the property.

(2) The sharing of gross returns does not by itself establish a partnership, even if the persons sharing them have a joint or common right or interest in property from which the returns are derived.

(3) A person who receives a share of the profits of a business is presumed to be a partner in the business, unless the profits were received in payment:

(i) Of a debt by installments or otherwise;

(ii) For services as an independent contractor or of wages or other compensation to an employee;

(iii) Of rent;

(iv) Of an annuity or other retirement or health benefit to a beneficiary, representative or designee of a deceased or retired partner;

(v) Of interest or other charge on a loan, even if the amount of payment varies with the profits of the business, including a direct or indirect present or future ownership of the collateral, or rights to income, proceeds or increase in value derived from the collateral; or

(vi) For the sale of the goodwill of a business or other property by installments or otherwise.


WVC 47 B- 2 - 3 §47B-2-3. Partnership property.
Property acquired by a partnership is property of the partnership and not of the partners individually.


WVC 47 B- 2 - 4 §47B-2-4. When property is partnership property.
(a) Property is partnership property if acquired in the name of:

(1) The partnership; or

(2) One or more partners with an indication in the instrument transferring title to the property of the person's capacity as a partner or of the existence of a partnership but without an indication of the name of the partnership.

(b) Property is acquired in the name of the partnership by a transfer to:

(1) The partnership in its name; or

(2) One or more partners in their capacity as partners in the partnership, if the name of the partnership is indicated in the instrument transferring title to the property.

(c) Property is presumed to be partnership property if purchased with partnership assets, even if not acquired in the name of the partnership or of one or more partners with an indication in the instrument transferring title to the property of the person's capacity as a partner or of the existence of a partnership.

(d) Property acquired in the name of one or more of the partners, without an indication in the instrument transferring title to the property of the person's capacity as a partner or of the existence of a partnership and without use of partnership assets, is presumed to be separate property, even if used for partnership purposes.


WVC 47 B- 3 - ARTICLE 3. RELATIONS OF PARTNERS TO PERSONS DEALING WITH PARTNERSHIP.


WVC 47 B- 3 - 1 §47B-3-1. Partner agent of partnership.
Subject to the effect of a statement of partnership authority under section three, article three of this chapter:

(1) Each partner is an agent of the partnership for the purpose of its business. An act of a partner, including the execution of an instrument in the partnership name, for apparently carrying on in the ordinary course the partnership business or business of the kind carried on by the partnership binds the partnership, unless the partner had no authority to act for the partnership in the particular matter and the person with whom the partner was dealing knew or had received a notification that the partner lacked authority.

(2) An act of a partner which is not apparently for carrying on in the ordinary course the partnership business or business of the kind carried on by the partnership binds the partnership only if the act was authorized by the other partners.


WVC 47 B- 3 - 2 §47B-3-2. Transfer of partnership property.
(a) Partnership property may be transferred as follows:

(1) Subject to the effect of a statement of partnership authority under section three, article three of this chapter, partnership property held in the name of the partnership may be transferred by an instrument of transfer executed by a partner in the partnership name.

(2) Partnership property held in the name of one or more partners with an indication in the instrument transferring the property to them of their capacity as partners or of the existence of a partnership, but without an indication of the name of the partnership, may be transferred by an instrument of transfer executed by the persons in whose name the property is held.

(3) Partnership property held in the name of one or more persons other than the partnership, without an indication in the instrument transferring the property to them of their capacity as partners or of the existence of a partnership, may be transferred by an instrument of transfer executed by the persons in whose name the property is held.

(b) A partnership may recover partnership property from a transferee only if it proves that execution of the instrument of initial transfer did not bind the partnership under section one, article three of this chapter, and:

(1) As to a subsequent transferee who gave value for property transferred under subdivisions (1) and (2), subsection (a) of this section, proves that the subsequent transferee knew or had received a notification that the person who executed the instrument of initial transfer lacked authority to bind the partnership; or

(2) As to a transferee who gave value for property transferred under subdivision (3), subsection (a) of this section, proves that the transferee knew or had received a notification that the property was partnership property and that the person who executed the instrument of initial transfer lacked authority to bind the partnership.

(c) A partnership may not recover partnership property from a subsequent transferee if the partnership would not have been entitled to recover the property, under subsection (b) of this section, from any earlier transferee of the property.

(d) If a person holds all of the partners' interests in the partnership, all of the partnership property vests in that person. The person may execute a document in the name of the partnership to evidence vesting of the property in that person and may file or record the document.


WVC 47 B- 3 - 3 §47B-3-3. Statement of partnership authority.
(a) A partnership may file a statement of partnership authority, which:

(1) Must include:

(A) The name of the partnership;

(B) The mailing address of its principal office and of its office in this state, if there is one;

(C) The names and mailing addresses of all of the partners appointed and maintained by the partnership, if any, for the purpose of subsection (b) of this section; and

(D) The names of the partners authorized to execute an instrument transferring real property held in the name of the partnership; and

(2) May state the authority, or limitations on the authority, of some or all of the partners to enter into other transactions on behalf of the partnership and any other matter.

(b) If a statement of partnership authority names an agent, the agent shall maintain a list of the names and mailing addresses of all of the partners and make it available to any person on request for good cause shown.

(c) If a filed statement of partnership authority is executed pursuant to subsection (c), section five, article one of this chapter and states the name of the partnership but does not contain all of the other information required by subsection (a) of this section, the statement nevertheless operates with respect to a person not a partner as provided in subsections (d) and (e) of this section.

(d) Except as otherwise provided in subsection (g) of this section, a filed statement of partnership authority supplements the authority of a partner to enter into transactions on behalf of the partnership as follows:

(1) Except for transfers of real property, a grant of authority contained in a filed statement of partnership authority is conclusive in favor of a person who gives value without knowledge to the contrary, so long as and to the extent that a limitation on that authority is not then contained in another filed statement. A filed cancellation of a limitation on authority revives the previous grant of authority.

(2) A grant of authority to transfer real property held in the name of the partnership contained in a certified copy of a filed statement of partnership authority recorded in the office for recording transfers of that real property is conclusive in favor of a person who gives value without knowledge to the contrary, so long as and to the extent that a certified copy of a filed statement containing a limitation on that authority is not then of record in the office for recording transfers of that real property. The recording in the office for recording transfers of that real property of a certified copy of a filed cancellation of a limitation on authority revives the previous grant of authority.

(e) A person not a partner is deemed to know of a limitation on the authority of a partner to transfer real property held in the name of the partnership if a certified copy of the filed statement containing the limitation on authority is of record in the office for recording transfers of that real property.

(f) Except as otherwise provided in subsections (d) and (e) of this section and section four, article seven of this chapter and section five, article eight of this chapter, a person not a partner is not deemed to know of a limitation on the authority of a partner merely because the limitation is contained in a filed statement.

(g) Unless earlier canceled, a filed statement of partnership authority is canceled by operation of law five years after the date on which the statement, or the most recent amendment, was filed with the Secretary of State.


WVC 47 B- 3 - 4 §47B-3-4. Statement of denial.
A partner or other person named as a partner in a filed statement of partnership authority or in a list maintained by an agent pursuant to subsection (b), section three, article three of this chapter may file a statement of denial stating the name of the partnership and the fact that is being denied, which may include denial of a person's authority or status as a partner. A statement of denial is a limitation on authority as provided in subsections (d) and (e), section three, article three of this chapter.


WVC 47 B- 3 - 5 §47B-3-5. Partnership liable for partner's actionable conduct.
(a) A partnership is liable for loss or injury caused to a person, or for a penalty incurred, as a result of a wrongful act or omission, or other actionable conduct, of a partner acting in the ordinary course of business of the partnership or with authority of the partnership.

(b) If, in the course of the partnership's business or while acting with authority of the partnership, a partner receives or causes the partnership to receive money or property of a person not a partner, and the money or property is misapplied by a partner, the partnership is liable for the loss.


WVC 47 B- 3 - 6 §47B-3-6. Partner's liability.
(a)Except as otherwise provided in subsections (b) and (c) of this section, all partners are liable jointly and severally for all obligations of the partnership unless otherwise agreed by the claimant or provided by law.

(b) A person admitted as a partner into an existing partnership, including a registered limited liability partnership, is not personally liable for any partnership obligation incurred before the person's admission as a partner.

(c) Subject to the provisions of subsection (d) of this section, a partner in a registered limited liability partnership is not personally liable directly or indirectly (including by way of indemnification, contribution or otherwise) for debts, obligations and liabilities of or chargeable to the partnership, whether in tort, contract or otherwise, arising from omissions, negligence, wrongful acts, misconduct or malpractice committed while the partnership is a registered limited liability partnership and in the course of partnership business by another partner or by an employee, agent or representative of the partnership.

(d) Subsection (c) of this section does not affect the liability of a partner in a registered limited liability partnership for the partner's own omissions, negligence, wrongful acts, misconduct or malpractice, or that of any person under thepartner's direct supervision and control.


WVC 47 B- 3 - 7 §47B-3-7. Actions by and against partnership and partners.
(a)A partnership may sue and be sued in the name of the partnership.

(b)An action may be brought against the partnership and any or all of the partners who are personally liable for obligations of the partnership under section six of this article in the same action or in separate actions.

(c)A judgment against a partnership is not by itself a judgment against a partner. A judgment against a partnership may not be satisfied from a partner's assets unless there is also a judgment against the partner.

(d)A judgment creditor of a partner may not levy execution against the assets of a partner who is personally liable for obligations of the partnership under section six of this article to satisfy a judgment based on a claim against the partnership unless:

(1)A judgment based on the same claim has been obtained against the partnership and a writ of execution on the judgment has been returned unsatisfied, in whole or in part;

(2)The partnership is a debtor in bankruptcy;

(3)The partner has agreed that the creditor need not exhaust partnership assets;

(4)A court grants permission to the judgment creditor to levy execution against the assets of a partner based on a findingthat partnership assets subject to execution are clearly insufficient to satisfy the judgment, that exhaustion of partnership assets is excessively burdensome, or that the grant of permission is an appropriate exercise of the court's equitable powers; or

(5)Liability is imposed on the partner by law or contract independent of the existence of the partnership.

(e)This section applies to any partnership liability or obligation resulting from a representation by a partner or purported partner under section eight of this article.


WVC 47 B- 3 - 8 §47B-3-8. Liability of purported partner.
(a) If a person, by words or conduct, purports to be a partner, or consents to being represented by another as a partner, in a partnership or with one or more persons not partners, the purported partner is liable to a person to whom the representation is made:

(1) If that person, relying on the representation, enters into a transaction with the actual or purported partnership; and

(2) The purported partner would have been personally liable for obligations of the partnership under section six of this article if the purported partner had actually been a partner.

(b) Subject to subsection (a) of this section, if the representation, either by the purported partner or by a person with the purported partner's consent, is made in a public manner, the purported partner is liable to a person who relies upon the purported partnership even if the purported partner is not aware of being held out as a partner to the claimant. If partnership liability results, the purported partner is liable with respect to that liability as if the purported partner were a partner. If no partnership liability results, the purported partner is liable with respect to that liability jointly and severally with any other person consenting to the representation.

(c) If a person is thus represented to be a partner in anexisting partnership, or with one or more persons not partners, the purported partner is an agent of persons consenting to the representation to bind them to the same extent and in the same manner as if the purported partner were a partner, with respect to persons who enter into transactions in reliance upon the representation. If all of the partners of the existing partnership consent to the representation, a partnership act or obligation results. If fewer than all of the partners of the existing partnership consent to the representation, the person acting and the partners consenting to the representation are jointly and severally liable as if such person had actually been a partner.

(d) A person is not liable as a partner merely because the person is named by another in a statement of partnership authority.

(e) A person does not continue to be liable as a partner merely because of a failure to file a statement of dissociation or to amend a statement of partnership authority to indicate the partner's dissociation from the partnership.

(f) Except as provided in subsections (a), (b) and (c) of this section, persons who are not partners as to each other are not liable as partners to other persons.


WVC 47 B- 4 - ARTICLE 4. RELATIONS OF PARTNERS TO EACH OTHER AND TO PARTNERSHIP.


WVC 47 B- 4 - 1 §47B-4-1. Partner's rights and duties.
(a) Each partner is deemed to have an account that is:

(1) Credited with an amount equal to the money plus the value of any other property, net of the amount of any liabilities as provided in section six, article three of this chapter, the partner contributes to the partnership and the partner's share of the partnership profits; and

(2) Charged with an amount equal to the money plus the value of any other property, net of the amount of any liabilities, distributed by the partnership to the partner and the partner's share of the partnership losses: Provided, That a partner shall be personally liable on account of such charges only as provided in section six, article three and section seven, article eight, both of this chapter.

(b) Each partner: (i) Shall share equally in partnership profits; and (ii) shall share in partnership losses as provided in section seven, article eight of this chapter in proportion to the partner's share of the profits.

(c) A partnership shall reimburse a partner for payments made and indemnify a partner for liabilities incurred by the partner in the ordinary course of the business of the partnership or for the preservation of its business or property: Provided, That no other partner shall be required to make any payment, except as providedin section seven, article eight of this chapter, including any payments attributable all or in part to partnership liabilities for reimbursement or indemnification.

(d) A partnership shall reimburse a partner for an advance to the partnership beyond the amount of capital the partner agreed to contribute.

(e) A payment or advance made by a partner which gives rise to a partnership obligation under subsection (c) or (d) of this section constitutes a loan to the partnership which accrues interest from the date of the payment or advance.

(f) Each partner has equal rights in the management and conduct of the partnership business.

(g) A partner may use or possess partnership property only on behalf of the partnership.

(h) A partner is not entitled to remuneration for services performed for the partnership, except for reasonable compensation for services rendered in winding up the business of the partnership.

(i) A person may become a partner only with the consent of all of the partners.

(j) A difference arising as to a matter in the ordinary course of business of a partnership may be decided by a majority of the partners. An act outside the ordinary course of business of apartnership and an amendment to the partnership agreement may be undertaken only with the consent of all of the partners.

(k) This section does not affect the obligations of a partnership to other persons under section one, article three of this chapter.


WVC 47 B- 4 - 2 §47B-4-2. Distributions in kind.
A partner has no right to receive, and may not be required to accept, a distribution in kind.


WVC 47 B- 4 - 3 §47B-4-3. Partner's rights and duties with respect to information.
(a) A partnership shall keep its books and records, if any, at its chief executive office.

(b) A partnership shall provide partners and their agents and attorneys access to its books and records. It shall provide former partners and their agents and attorneys access to books and records pertaining to the period during which they were partners. The right of access provides the opportunity to inspect and copy books and records during ordinary business hours. A partnership may impose a reasonable charge, covering the costs of labor and material, for copies of documents furnished.

(c) Each partner and the partnership shall furnish to a partner, and to the legal representative of a deceased partner or partner under legal disability:

(1) Without demand, any information concerning the partnership's business and affairs reasonably required for the proper exercise of the partner's rights and duties under the partnership agreement or this chapter; and

(2) On demand, any other information concerning the partnership's business and affairs, except to the extent the demand or the information demanded is unreasonable or otherwise improper under the circumstances.


WVC 47 B- 4 - 4 §47B-4-4. General standards of partner's conduct.
(a) The only fiduciary duties a partner owes to the partnership and the other partners are the duty of loyalty and the duty of care set forth in subsections (b) and (c) of this section.

(b) A partner's duty of loyalty to the partnership and the other partners is limited to the following:

(1) To account to the partnership and hold as trustee for it any property, profit or benefit derived by the partner in the conduct and winding up of the partnership business or derived from a use by the partner of partnership property, including the appropriation of a partnership opportunity;

(2) To refrain from dealing with the partnership in the conduct or winding up of the partnership business as or on behalf of a party having an interest adverse to the partnership; and

(3) To refrain from competing with the partnership in the conduct of the partnership business before the dissolution of the partnership.

(c) A partner's duty of care to the partnership and the other partners in the conduct and winding up of the partnership business is limited to refraining from engaging in grossly negligent or reckless conduct, intentional misconduct, or a knowing violation of law.

(d) A partner shall discharge the duties to the partnership and the other partners under this chapter or under the partnership agreement and exercise any rights consistently with the obligation of good faith and fair dealing.

(e) A partner does not violate a duty or obligation under this chapter or under the partnership agreement merely because the partner's conduct furthers the partner's own interest.

(f) A partner may lend money to and transact other business with the partnership, and as to each loan or transaction the rights and obligations of the partner are the same as those of a person who is not a partner, subject to other applicable law.

(g) This section applies to a person winding up the partnership business as the personal or legal representative of the last surviving partner as if the person were a partner.


WVC 47 B- 4 - 5 §47B-4-5. Actions by partnership and partners.
(a) A partnership may maintain an action against a partner for a breach of the partnership agreement, or for the violation of a duty to the partnership, causing harm to the partnership.

(b) A partner may maintain an action against the partnership or another partner for legal or equitable relief, with or without an accounting as to partnership business, to:

(1) Enforce the partner's rights under the partnership agreement;

(2) Enforce the partner's rights under this chapter, including:

(i) The partner's rights under sections one, three or four, article four of this chapter;

(ii) The partner's right on dissociation to have the partner's interest in the partnership purchased pursuant to section one, article seven of this chapter or enforce any other right under article six or seven;

(iii) The partner's right to compel a dissolution and winding up of the partnership business under section one, article eight of this chapter or enforce any other right under article eight; or

(3) Enforce the rights and otherwise protect the interests of the partner, including rights and interests arising independently of the partnership relationship.

(c) The accrual of, and any time limitation on, a right of action for a remedy under this section is governed by other law. A right to an accounting upon a dissolution and winding up does not revive a claim barred by law.


WVC 47 B- 4 - 6 §47B-4-6. Continuation of partnership beyond definite term or particular undertaking.
(a) If a partnership for a definite term or particular undertaking is continued, without an express agreement, after the expiration of the term or completion of the undertaking, the rights and duties of the partners remain the same as they were at the expiration or completion, so far as is consistent with a partnership at will.

(b) If the partners, or those of them who habitually acted in the business during the term or undertaking, continue the business without any settlement or liquidation of the partnership, they are presumed to have agreed that the partnership will continue.


WVC 47 B- 5 - ARTICLE 5. TRANSFEREES AND CREDITORS OF PARTNER.


WVC 47 B- 5 - 1 §47B-5-1. Partner not coowner of partnership property.

A partner is not a coowner of partnership property and has no interest in partnership property which can be transferred, either voluntarily or involuntarily.


WVC 47 B- 5 - 2 §47B-5-2. Partner's transferable interest in partnership.
The only transferable interest of a partner in the partnership is the partner's share of the profits and losses of the partnership and the partner's right to receive distributions. The interest is personal property.


WVC 47 B- 5 - 3 §47B-5-3. Transfer of partner's transferable interest.
(a) A transfer, in whole or in part, of a partner's transferable interest in the partnership:

(1) Is permissible;

(2) Does not by itself cause the partner's dissociation or a dissolution and winding up of the partnership business; and

(3) Does not, as against the other partners or the partnership, entitle the transferee, during the continuance of the partnership, to participate in the management or conduct of the partnership business, to require access to information concerning partnership transactions, or to inspect or copy the partnership books or records.

(b) A transferee of a partner's transferable interest in the partnership has a right:

(1) To receive, in accordance with the transfer, distributions to which the transferor would otherwise be entitled;

(2) To receive upon the dissolution and winding up of the partnership business, in accordance with the transfer, the net amount otherwise distributable to the transferor; and

(3) To seek under subdivision (6), section one, article eight of this chapter a judicial determination that it is equitable to wind up the partnership business.

(c) In a dissolution and winding up, a transferee is entitled to an account of partnership transactions only from the date of the latest account agreed to by all of the partners.

(d) Upon transfer, the transferor retains the rights and duties of a partner other than the interest in distributions transferred.

(e) A partnership need not give effect to a transferee's rights under this section until it has notice of the transfer.

(f) A transfer of a partner's transferable interest in the partnership in violation of a restriction on transfer contained in the partnership agreement is ineffective as to a person having notice of the restriction at the time of transfer.


WVC 47 B- 5 - 4 §47B-5-4. Partner's transferable interest subject to charging order.
(a) On application by a judgment creditor of a partner or of a partner's transferee, a court having jurisdiction may charge the transferable interest of the judgment debtor to satisfy the judgment. The court may appoint a receiver of the share of the distributions due or to become due to the judgment debtor in respect of the partnership and make all other orders, directions, accounts, and inquiries the judgment debtor might have made or which the circumstances of the case may require.

(b) A charging order constitutes a lien on the judgment debtor's transferable interest in the partnership. The court may order a foreclosure of the interest subject to the charging order at any time. The purchaser at the foreclosure sale has the rights of a transferee.

(c) At any time before foreclosure, an interest charged may be redeemed:

(1) By the judgment debtor;

(2) With property other than partnership property, by one or more of the other partners; or

(3) With partnership property, by one or more of the other partners with the consent of all of the partners whose interests are not so charged.

(d) This chapter does not deprive a partner of a right under exemption laws with respect to the partner's interest in the partnership.

(e) This section provides the exclusive remedy by which a judgment creditor of a partner or partner's transferee may satisfy a judgment out of the judgment debtor's transferable interest in the partnership.


WVC 47 B- 6 - ARTICLE 6. PARTNER'S DISSOCIATION.


WVC 47 B- 6 - 1 §47B-6-1. Events causing partner's dissociation.

A partner is dissociated from a partnership upon the occurrence of any of the following events:

(1) The partnership's having notice of the partner's express will to withdraw as a partner or on a later date specified by the partner;

(2) An event agreed to in the partnership agreement as causing the partner's dissociation;

(3) The partner's expulsion pursuant to the partnership agreement;

(4) The partner's expulsion by the unanimous vote of the other partners if:

(i) It is unlawful to carry on the partnership business with that partner;

(ii) There has been a transfer of all or substantially all of that partner's transferable interest in the partnership, other than a transfer for security purposes, or a court order charging the partner's interest, which has not been foreclosed;

(iii) Within ninety days after the partnership notifies a corporate partner that it will be expelled because it has filed a certificate of dissolution or the equivalent, its charter has been revoked, or its right to conduct business has been suspended by the jurisdiction of its incorporation, there is no revocation of the certificate of dissolution or no reinstatement of its charter or its right to conduct business; or

(iv) A partnership that is a partner has been dissolved and its business is being wound up;

(5) On application by the partnership or another partner, the partner's expulsion by judicial determination because:

(i) The partner engaged in wrongful conduct that adversely and materially affected the partnership business;

(ii) The partner willfully or persistently committed a material breach of the partnership agreement or of a duty owed to the partnership or the other partners under section four, article four of this chapter; or

(iii) The partner engaged in conduct relating to the partnership business which makes it not reasonably practicable to carry on the business in partnership with the partner;

(6) The partner's:

(i) Becoming a debtor in bankruptcy;

(ii) Executing an assignment for the benefit of creditors;

(iii) Seeking, consenting to, or acquiescing in the appointment of a trustee, receiver, or liquidator of that partner or of all or substantially all of that partner's property; or

(v) Failing, within ninety days after the appointment, to have vacated or stayed the appointment of a trustee, receiver, or liquidator of the partner or of all or substantially all of the partner's property obtained without the partner's consent or acquiescence, or failing within ninety days after the expiration of a stay to have the appointment vacated;

(7) In the case of a partner who is an individual:

(i) The partner's death;

(ii) The appointment of a guardian or general conservator for the partner; or

(iii) A judicial determination that the partner has otherwise become incapable of performing the partner's duties under the partnership agreement;

(8) In the case of a partner that is a trust or is acting as a partner by virtue of being a trustee of a trust, distribution of the trust's entire transferable interest in the partnership, but not merely by reason of the substitution of a successor trustee;

(9) In the case of a partner that is an estate or is acting as a partner by virtue of being a personal representative of an estate, distribution of the estate's entire transferable interest in the partnership, but not merely by reason of the substitution of a successor personal representative; or

(10) Termination of a partner who is not an individual,partnership, corporation, trust or estate.


WVC 47 B- 6 - 2 §47B-6-2. Partner's power to dissociate; wrongful dissociation.
(a) A partner has the power to dissociate at any time, rightfully or wrongfully, by express will pursuant to subdivision (1), section one, article six of this chapter.

(b) A partner's dissociation is wrongful only if:

(1) It is in breach of an express provision of the partnership agreement; or

(2) In the case of a partnership for a definite term or particular undertaking, before the expiration of the term or the completion of the undertaking:

(i) The partner withdraws by express will, unless the withdrawal follows within ninety days after another partner's dissociation by death or otherwise under subdivisions (6) through (10), section one, article six of this chapter or wrongful dissociation under this subsection;

(ii) The partner is expelled by judicial determination under subdivision (5), section one, article six of this chapter;

(iii) The partner is dissociated by becoming a debtor in bankruptcy; or

(iv) In the case of a partner who is not an individual, trust other than a business trust, or estate, the partner is expelled or otherwise dissociated because it willfully dissolved or terminated.

(c) A partner who wrongfully dissociates is liable to the partnership and to the other partners for damages caused by the dissociation. The liability is in addition to any other obligation of the partner to the partnership or to the other partners.


WVC 47 B- 6 - 3 §47B-6-3. Effect of partner's dissociation.
(a) If a partner's dissociation results in a dissolution and winding up of the partnership business, article eight of this chapter applies; otherwise, article seven of this chapter applies.

(b) Upon a partner's dissociation:

(1) The partner's right to participate in the management and conduct of the partnership business terminates, except as otherwise provided in section three, article eight of this chapter;

(2) The partner's duty of loyalty under subdivision (3), section four, article four of this chapter terminates; and

(3) The partner's duty of loyalty under subdivisions (1) and (2), section four (b), article four of this chapter, and duty of care under subsection (c), section four, article four of this chapter continue only with regard to matters arising and events occurring before the partner's dissociation, unless the partner participates in winding up the partnership's business pursuant to section three, article eight of this chapter.


WVC 47 B- 7 - ARTICLE 7. PARTNER'S DISSOCIATION WHEN BUSINESS NOT WOUND UP.


WVC 47 B- 7 - 1 §47B-7-1. Purchase of dissociated partner's interest.
(a) If a partner is dissociated from a partnership without resulting in a dissolution and winding up of the partnership business under section one, article eight of this chapter, the partnership shall cause the dissociated partner's interest in the partnership to be purchased for a buyout price determined pursuant to subsection (b) of this section.

(b) The buyout price of a dissociated partner's interest is the amount that would have been distributable to the dissociating partner under subsection (b), section seven, article eight of this chapter if, on the date of dissociation, the assets of the partnership were sold at a price equal to the greater of the liquidation value or the value based on a sale of the entire business as a going concern without the dissociated partner and the partnership being wound up as of that date. Interest must be paid from the date of dissociation to the date of payment.

(c) Damages for wrongful dissociation under subsection (b), section two, article six of this chapter, and all other amounts owing, whether or not presently due, from the dissociated partner to the partnership, must be offset against the buyout price. Interest must be paid from the date the amount owed becomes due to the date of payment.

(d) A partnership shall indemnify a dissociated partner whose interest is being purchased against all partnership liabilities, whether incurred before or after the dissociation, except liabilities incurred by an act of the dissociated partner under section two, article seven of this chapter.

(e) If no agreement for the purchase of a dissociated partner's interest is reached within one hundred twenty days after a written demand for payment, the partnership shall pay, or cause to be paid, in cash to the dissociated partner the amount the partnership estimates to be the buyout price and accrued interest, reduced by any offsets and accrued interest under subsection (c) of this section.

(f) If a deferred payment is authorized under subsection (h) of this section, the partnership may tender a written offer to pay the amount it estimates to be the buyout price and accrued interest, reduced by any offsets under subsection (c) of this section, stating the time of payment, the amount and type of security for payment, and the other terms and conditions of the obligation.

(g) The payment or tender required by subsection (e) or (f) of this section must be accompanied by the following:

(1) A statement of partnership assets and liabilities as of the date of dissociation;

(2) The latest available partnership balance sheet and income statement, if any;

(3) An explanation of how the estimated amount of the payment was calculated; and

(4) Written notice that the payment is in full satisfaction of the obligation to purchase unless, within one hundred twenty days after the written notice, the dissociated partner commences an action to determine the buyout price, any offsets under subsection (c) of this section, or other terms of the obligation to purchase.

(h) A partner who wrongfully dissociates before the expiration of a definite term or the completion of a particular undertaking is not entitled to payment of any portion of the buyout price until the expiration of the term or completion of the undertaking, unless the partner establishes to the satisfaction of the court that earlier payment will not cause undue hardship to the business of the partnership. A deferred payment must be adequately secured and bear interest.

(i) A dissociated partner may maintain an action against the partnership, pursuant to paragraph (ii), subdivision (2), subsection (b), section five, article four of this chapter, to determine the buyout price of that partner's interest, any offsets under subsection (c) of this section, or other terms of theobligation to purchase. The action must be commenced within one hundred twenty days after the partnership has tendered payment or an offer to pay or within one year after written demand for payment if no payment or offer to pay is tendered. The court shall determine the buyout price of the dissociated partner's interest, any offset due under subsection (c) of this section, and accrued interest, and enter judgment for any additional payment or refund. If deferred payment is authorized under subsection (h) of this section, the court shall also determine the security for payment and other terms of the obligation to purchase. The court may assess reasonable attorney's fees and the fees and expenses of appraisers or other experts for a party to the action, in amounts the court finds equitable, against a party that the court finds acted arbitrarily, vexatiously, or not in good faith. The finding may be based on the partnership's failure to tender payment or an offer to pay or to comply with subsection (g) of this section.


WVC 47 B- 7 - 2 §47B-7-2. Dissociated partner's power to bind and liability to partnership.

(a) For two years after a partner dissociates without resulting in a dissolution and winding up of the partnership business, the partnership, including a surviving partnership under article nine of this chapter, is bound by an act of the dissociated partner which would have bound the partnership under section one, article three of this chapter before dissociation only if at the time of entering into the transaction the other party:

(1) Reasonably believed that the dissociated partner was then a partner;

(2) Did not have notice of the partner's dissociation; and

(3) Is not deemed to have had knowledge under subsection (e), section three, article three or notice under subsection (c), section four, article seven of this chapter.

(b) A dissociated partner is liable to the partnership for any damage caused to the partnership arising from an obligation incurred by the dissociated partner after dissociation for which the partnership is liable under subsection (a) of this section.


WVC 47 B- 7 - 3 §47B-7-3. Dissociated partner's liability to other persons.

(a) A partner's dissociation does not of itself discharge the partner's liability for a partnership obligation incurred before dissociation. A dissociated partner is not liable for a partnership obligation incurred after dissociation, except as otherwise provided in subsection (b) of this section.

(b) A partner who dissociates without resulting in a dissolution and winding up of the partnership business is personally liable as a partner to the other party on account of a partnership obligation incurred in connection with a transaction entered into by the partnership, or a surviving partnership under article nine of this chapter, within two years after the partner's dissociation, only if at the time of entering into the transaction the other party:

(1) Reasonably believed that the dissociated partner was then a partner;

(2) Did not have notice of the partner's dissociation;

(3) Is not deemed to have had knowledge under subsection (e), section three, article three of this chapter or notice under subsection (c), section four of this article; and

(4) The obligation is one on account of which the partner would be personally liable under section six, article three of this chapter if the partner had not dissociated from the partnership.

(c) By agreement with the partnership creditor and the partners continuing the business, a dissociated partner may be released from liability for a partnership obligation.

(d) A dissociated partner is released from liability for a partnership obligation if a partnership creditor, with notice of the partner's dissociation but without the partner's consent, agrees to a material alteration in the nature or time of payment of a partnership obligation.


WVC 47 B- 7 - 4 §47B-7-4. Statement of dissociation.
(a) A dissociated partner or the partnership may file a statement of dissociation stating the name of the partnership and that the partner is dissociated from the partnership.

(b) A statement of dissociation is a limitation on the authority of a dissociated partner for the purposes of subsections (d) and (e), section three, article three of this chapter.

(c) For the purposes of subdivision (3), subsection (a), section two, and subdivision (3), subsection (b) of section three, article seven of this chapter, a person not a partner is deemed to have notice of the dissociation ninety days after the statement of dissociation is filed.


WVC 47 B- 7 - 5 §47B-7-5. Continued use of partnership name.
Continued use of a partnership name, or a dissociated partner's name as part thereof, by partners continuing the business does not of itself make the dissociated partner liable for an obligation of the partners or the partnership continuing the business.


WVC 47 B- 8 - ARTICLE 8. WINDING UP PARTNERSHIP BUSINESS.


WVC 47 B- 8 - 1 §47B-8-1. Events causing dissolution and winding up of partnership business.

A partnership is dissolved, and its business must be wound up, only upon the occurrence of any of the following events:

(1) In a partnership at will, the partnership's having notice from a partner, other than a partner who is dissociated under subdivisions (2) through (10), section one, article six of this chapter, of that partner's express will to withdraw as a partner, or on a later date specified by the partner;

(2) In a partnership for a definite term or particular undertaking:

(i) The expiration of ninety days after a partner's dissociation by death or otherwise under subdivisions (6) through (10), section one, article six, or wrongful dissociation under subsection (b), section two, article six, both of this chapter, unless before that time a majority in interest of the remaining partners, including partners who have rightfully dissociated pursuant to paragraph (i), subdivision (2), subsection (b), section two, article six of this chapter, agree to continue the partnership;

(ii) The express will of all of the partners to wind up the partnership business; or

(iii) The expiration of the term or the completion of the undertaking;

(3) An event agreed to in the partnership agreement resulting in the winding up of the partnership business;

(4) An event that makes it unlawful for all or substantially all of the business of the partnership to be continued, but a cure of illegality within ninety days after notice to the partnership of the event is effective retroactively to the date of the event for purposes of this section;

(5) On application by a partner, a judicial determination that:

(i) The economic purpose of the partnership is likely to be unreasonably frustrated;

(ii) Another partner has engaged in conduct relating to the partnership business which makes it not reasonably practicable to carry on the business in partnership with that partner; or

(iii) It is not otherwise reasonably practicable to carry on the partnership business in conformity with the partnership agreement; or

(6) On application by a transferee of a partner's transferable interest, a judicial determination that it is equitable to wind up the partnership business:

(i) After the expiration of the term or completion of the undertaking, if the partnership was for a definite term or particular undertaking at the time of the transfer or entry of the charging order that gave rise to the transfer; or

(ii) At any time, if the partnership was a partnership at will at the time of the transfer or entry of the charging order that gave rise to the transfer.


WVC 47 B- 8 - 2 §47B-8-2. Partnership continued after dissolution.
(a) Subject to subsection (b) of this section, a partnership continues after dissolution only for the purpose of winding up its business. The partnership is terminated when the winding up of its business is completed.

(b) At any time after the dissolution of a partnership and before the winding up of its business is completed, all of the partners, including any dissociating partner other than a wrongfully dissociating partner, may waive the right to have the partnership's business wound up and the partnership terminated.

In that event:

(1) The partnership resumes carrying on its business as if dissolution had never occurred, and any liability incurred by the partnership or a partner after the dissolution and before the waiver is determined as if dissolution had never occurred; and

(2) The rights of a third party accruing under subdivision (1), section four, article eight of this chapter or arising out of conduct in reliance on the dissolution before the third party knew or received a notification of the waiver may not be adversely affected.


WVC 47 B- 8 - 3 §47B-8-3. Right to wind up partnership business.

(a) After dissolution, a partner who has not wrongfully dissociated may participate in winding up the partnership's business, but on application of any partner, partner's legal representative, or transferee, the circuit court or judge thereof in vacation, for good cause shown, may order judicial supervision of the winding up.

(b) The legal representative of the last surviving partner may wind up a partnership's business.

(c) A person winding up a partnership's business may preserve the partnership business or property as a going concern for a reasonable time, prosecute and defend actions and proceedings, whether civil, criminal or administrative, settle and close the partnership's business, dispose of and transfer the partnership's property, discharge the partnership's liabilities, distribute the assets of the partnership pursuant to section seven, article eight of this chapter, settle disputes by mediation or arbitration, and perform other necessary acts.


WVC 47 B- 8 - 4 §47B-8-4. Partner's power to bind partnership after dissolution.
Subject to section five, article eight of this chapter, a partnership is bound by a partner's act after dissolution that:

(1) Is appropriate for winding up the partnership business; or

(2) Would have bound the partnership under section one, article three of this chapter before dissolution, if the other party to the transaction did not have notice of the dissolution.


WVC 47 B- 8 - 5 §47B-8-5. Statement of dissolution.

(a) After dissolution, a partner who has not wrongfully dissociated may file a statement of dissolution stating the name of the partnership and that the partnership has dissolved and is winding up its business.

(b) A statement of dissolution cancels a filed statement of partnership authority for the purposes of subsection (d), section three, article three of this chapter and is a limitation on authority for the purposes of subsection (e), section three, article three of this chapter.

(c) For the purposes of section one, article three and section four, article eight, both of this chapter, a person not a partner is deemed to have notice of the dissolution and the limitation on the partners' authority as a result of the statement of dissolution ninety days after it is filed.

(d) After filing and, if appropriate, recording a statement of dissolution, a dissolved partnership may file and, if appropriate, record a statement of partnership authority which will operate with respect to a person not a partner as provided in subsections (d) and (e), section three, article three of this chapter in any transaction, whether or not the transaction is appropriate for winding up the partnership business.


WVC 47 B- 8 - 6 §47B-8-6. Partner's liability to other partners after dissolution.
(a) Except as otherwise provided in subsection (b) of this section, after dissolution a partner is liable to the other partners for the partner's share of any partnership liability incurred under section four of this article for which such partner is personally liable under section six, article three of this chapter.

(b) A partner who, with knowledge of the dissolution, incurs a partnership liability under subsection (2), section four of this article by an act that is not appropriate for winding up the partnership business is liable to the partnership for any damage caused to the partnership arising from the liability.


WVC 47 B- 8 - 7 §47B-8-7. Settlement of accounts and contributions among partners.
(a) In winding up a partnership's business, the assets of the partnership, including the contributions of the partners required by this section, must be applied to discharge its obligations to creditors, including, to the extent permitted by law, partners who are creditors. Any surplus must be applied to pay in cash the net amount distributable to partners in accordance with their right to distributions under subsection (b) of this section.

(b) Each partner is entitled to a settlement of all partnership accounts upon winding up the partnership business. In settling accounts among the partners, the profits and losses that result from the liquidation of the partnership assets must be credited and charged to the partners' accounts. The partnership shall make a distribution to a partner in an amount equal to any excess of the credits over the charges in the partner's account. A partner shall contribute to the partnership an amount equal to any excess of the charges over the credits in the partner's account that is attributable to an obligation for which such partner is personally liable under section six, article three of this chapter.

(c) If a partner fails or is not obligated to contribute, all of the other partners shall contribute, in the proportions in which those partners share partnership losses, the additional amount necessary to satisfy any partnership obligations for which suchpartner is personally liable under section six, article three of this chapter. A partner or partner's legal representative may recover from the other partners any contributions the partner makes to the extent the amount contributed exceeds that partner's share of the partnership obligations, to the extent such contributions are made on account of obligations for which the other partners are liable under said section.

(d) After the settlement of accounts, each partner shall contribute, in the proportion in which the partner shares partnership losses, the amount necessary to satisfy partnership obligations for which such partner is personally liable under section six, article three of this chapter and that were not known at the time of settlement.

(e) The estate of a deceased partner is liable for the partner's obligation to contribute to the partnership under subsection (b) of this section.

(f) An assignee for the benefit of creditors of a partnership or a partner, or a person appointed by a court to represent creditors of a partnership or a partner, may enforce a partner's obligation to contribute to the partnership under subsection (b) of this section.


WVC 47 B- 9 - ARTICLE 9. CONVERSIONS AND MERGERS.


WVC 47 B- 9 - 1 §47B-9-1. Definitions.
In this article:

(1) "General partner" means a partner in a partnership and a general partner in a limited partnership.

(2) "Limited partner" means a limited partner in a limited partnership.

(3) "Limited partnership" means a limited partnership created under section one, et seq., article nine, chapter forty-seven of this code, predecessor law, or comparable law of another jurisdiction.

(4) "Partner" includes both a general partner and a limited partner.


WVC 47 B- 9 - 2 §47B-9-2. Conversion of partnership to limited partnership.

(a) A partnership may be converted to a limited partnership pursuant to this section.

(b) The terms and conditions of a conversion of a partnership to a limited partnership must be approved by all of the partners or by a number or percentage specified for conversion in the partnership agreement.

(c) After the conversion is approved by the partners, the partnership shall file a certificate of limited partnership in the jurisdiction in which the limited partnership is to be formed. The certificate must include:

(1) A statement that the partnership was converted to a limited partnership from a partnership;

(2) Its former name; and

(3) A statement of the number of votes cast by the partners for and against the conversion and, if the vote is less than unanimous, the number or percentage required to approve the conversion under the partnership agreement.

(d) The conversion takes effect when the certificate of limited partnership is filed or at any later date specified in the certificate.

(e) A general partner who becomes a limited partner as a result of the conversion remains liable as a general partner for anobligation incurred by the partnership before the conversion takes effect for which the partner is personally liable under section six, article three of this chapter. If the other party to a transaction with the limited partnership reasonably believes when entering the transaction that the limited partner is a general partner, the limited partner is liable for an obligation incurred by the limited partnership within ninety days after the conversion takes effect for which a general partner would be personally liable under said section. The limited partner's liability for all other obligations of the limited partnership incurred after the conversion takes effect is that of a limited partner as provided in sections one et seq., article nine, chapter forty-seven of this code.


WVC 47 B- 9 - 3 §47B-9-3. Conversion of limited partnership to partnership.
(a) A limited partnership may be converted to a partnership pursuant to this section.

(b) Notwithstanding a provision to the contrary in a limited partnership agreement, the terms and conditions of a conversion of a limited partnership to a partnership must be approved by all of the partners.

(c) After the conversion is approved by the partners, the limited partnership shall cancel its certificate of limited partnership.

(d) The conversion takes effect when the certificate of limited partnership is canceled.

(e) A limited partner who becomes a general partner as a result of the conversion remains liable only as a limited partner for an obligation incurred by the limited partnership before the conversion takes effect. The partner is liable as a general partner for an obligation of the partnership for which the partner is personally liable under section six, article three of this chapter incurred after the conversion takes effect.


WVC 47 B- 9 - 4 §47B-9-4. Effect of conversion; entity unchanged.
(a) A partnership or limited partnership that has been converted pursuant to this article is for all purposes the same entity that existed before the conversion.

(b) When a conversion takes effect:

(1) All property owned by the converting partnership or limited partnership remains vested in the converted entity;

(2) All obligations of the converting partnership or limited partnership continue as obligations of the converted entity; and

(3) An action or proceeding pending against the converting partnership or limited partnership may be continued as if the conversion had not occurred.


WVC 47 B- 9 - 5 §47B-9-5. Merger of partnerships.
(a) Pursuant to a plan of merger approved as provided in subsection (c) of this section, a partnership may be merged with one or more partnerships or limited partnerships.

(b) The plan of merger must set forth:

(1) The name of each partnership or limited partnership that is a party to the merger;

(2) The name of the surviving entity into which the other partnerships or limited partnerships will merge;

(3) Whether the surviving entity is a partnership or a limited partnership and the status of each partner;

(4) The terms and conditions of the merger;

(5) The manner and basis of converting the interests of each party to the merger into interests or obligations of the surviving entity, or into money or other property, in whole or part; and

(6) The street address of the surviving entity's chief executive office.

(c) The plan of merger must be approved:

(1) In the case of a partnership that is a party to the merger, by all of the partners, or a number or percentage specified for merger in the partnership agreement; and

(2) In the case of a limited partnership that is a party to the merger, by the vote required for approval of a merger by the law of the state or foreign jurisdiction in which the limited partnership is organized and, in the absence of such a specifically applicable law, by all of the partners, notwithstanding a provision to the contrary in the partnership agreement.

(d) After a plan of merger is approved and before the merger takes effect, the plan may be amended or abandoned as provided in the plan.

(e) The merger takes effect on the later of:

(1) The approval of the plan of merger by all parties to the merger, as provided in subsection (c) of this section;

(2) The filing of all documents required by law to be filed as a condition to the effectiveness of the merger; or

(3) Any effective date specified in the plan of merger.


WVC 47 B- 9 - 6 §47B-9-6. Effect of merger.
(a) When a merger takes effect:

(1) The separate existence of every partnership or limited partnership that is a party to the merger, other than the surviving entity, ceases;

(2) All property owned by each of the merged partnerships or limited partnerships vests in the surviving entity;

(3) All obligations of every partnership or limited partnership that is a party to the merger become the obligations of the surviving entity; and

(4) An action or proceeding pending against a partnership or limited partnership that is a party to the merger may be continued as if the merger had not occurred, or the surviving entity may be substituted as a party to the action or proceeding.

(b) The secretary of state of this state is the agent for service of process in an action or proceeding against a surviving foreign partnership or limited partnership to enforce an obligation of a domestic partnership or limited partnership that is a party to a merger. The surviving entity shall promptly notify the secretary of state of the mailing address of its chief executive office and of any change of address. Upon receipt of process, the secretary of state shall mail a copy of the process to the surviving foreign partnership or limited partnership.

(c) A partner of the surviving partnership or limited partnership is liable for:

(1) All obligations of a party to the merger for which the partner was personally liable before the merger;

(2) All other obligations of the surviving entity incurred before the merger by a party to the merger, but those obligations may be satisfied only out of property of the entity; and

(3) All obligations of the surviving entity incurred after the merger takes effect, but those obligations may be satisfied only out of property of the entity if the partner is a limited partner.

(d) If the obligations incurred before the merger by a party to the merger are not satisfied out of the property of the surviving partnership or limited partnership, the general partners of that party immediately before the effective date of the merger shall contribute the amount necessary to satisfy that party's obligations to the surviving entity, in the manner provided in section seven, article eight of this chapter or in the limited partnership act of the jurisdiction in which the party was formed, as the case may be, as if the merged party were dissolved.

(e) A partner of a party to a merger who does not become a partner of the surviving partnership or limited partnership is dissociated from the entity, of which that partner was a partner, as of the date the merger takes effect. The surviving entity shall cause the partner's interest in the entity to be purchased under section one, article seven of this chapter or another statute specifically applicable to that partner's interest with respect to a merger. The surviving entity is bound under section two, article seven of this chapter by an act of a general partner dissociated under this subsection, and the partner is liable under section three, article seven of this chapter for transactions entered into by the surviving entity after the merger takes effect.


WVC 47 B- 9 - 7 §47B-9-7. Statement of merger.
(a) After a merger, the surviving partnership or limited partnership may file a statement that one or more partnerships or limited partnerships have merged into the surviving entity.

(b) A statement of merger must contain:

(1) The name of each partnership or limited partnership that is a party to the merger;

(2) The name of the surviving entity into which the other partnerships or limited partnership were merged;

(3) The street address of the surviving entity's chief executive office and of an office in this state, if any; and

(4) Whether the surviving entity is a partnership or a limited partnership.

(c) Except as otherwise provided in subsection (d) of this section, for the purposes of section two, article three of this chapter, property of the surviving partnership or limited partnership which before the merger was held in the name of another party to the merger is property held in the name of the surviving entity upon filing a statement of merger.

(d) For the purposes of section two, article three of this chapter, real property of the surviving partnership or limited partnership which before the merger was held in the name of another party to the merger is property held in the name of the surviving entity upon recording a certified copy of the statement of merger in the office for recording transfers of that real property.

(e) A filed and, if appropriate, recorded statement of merger, executed and declared to be accurate pursuant to subsection (c), section five, article one of this chapter, stating the name of a partnership or limited partnership that is a party to the merger in whose name property was held before the merger and the name of the surviving entity, but not containing all of the other information required by subsection (b) of this section, operates with respect to the partnerships or limited partnerships named to the extent provided in subsections (c) and (d) of this section.


WVC 47 B- 9 - 8 §47B-9-8. Nonexclusive.
This article is not exclusive. Partnerships or limited partnerships may be converted or merged in any other manner provided by law.


WVC 47 B- 10 - ARTICLE 10. LIMITED LIABILITY PARTNERSHIPS.


WVC 47 B- 10 - 1 §47B-10-1. Registered limited liability partnerships.
(a) To become a registered limited liability partnership, a partnership shall deliver and file with the Secretary of State a statement of registration stating:

(1) The name of the partnership;

(2) The address of its principal office;

(3) The address of a registered office;

(4) The name and address of a registered agent for service of process, if any;

(5) An e-mail address to where informational notices and reminders of annual filings may be sent, unless there is a technical inability to comply;

(6) A brief statement of the business in which the partnership engages;

(7) The name and address of each partner authorized to execute instruments on behalf of the partnership;

(8) Any other matters that the partnership determines to include; and

(9) That the partnership thereby registers as a registered limited liability partnership.

(b) The registration shall be executed by one or more partners authorized to execute a registration.

(c) The registration shall be accompanied by a fee of $250.

(d) The Secretary of State shall register as a registered limited liability partnership any partnership that submits a completed registration with the required fee and deliver to the partnership or its representative a receipt for the record and the fees.

(e) A partnership registered under this section shall pay, in each year following the year in which its registration is filed, an annual fee of $500. The fee shall be accompanied by a notice, on a form provided by the Secretary of State, of any material changes in the information contained in the partnership's registration. The annual notice and fee is due between January 1 and July 1 of each year.

(f) Registration is effective:

(1) Immediately after the date a registration is filed; or

(2) On a date specified in the statement of registration, which date shall not be more than sixty days after the date of filing.

(g) Registration remains effective until:

(1) It is voluntarily withdrawn by filing with the Secretary of State a statement of withdrawal; or

(2) It is administratively dissolved by the Secretary of State: Provided, That the Secretary of State commenced a proceeding to dissolve the limited liability partnership and notification of the administrative proceeding to dissolve the limited liability partnership was delivered to the limited liability partnership. The Secretary of State may commence the administrative proceeding due to:

(A) A limited liability partnership's failure to pay fees imposed by this chapter or any other law within sixty days after the fees were due; or

(B) A limited liability partnership's failure to deliver its annual notice to the Secretary of State within sixty days after the notice was due.

(h) The procedure for administrative dissolution is as follows: (1) If the Secretary of State determines that one or more grounds exist under this section for dissolving a limited liability partnership, he or she shall notify the limited liability partnership in writing, of his or her determination.

(2) If the limited liability partnership does not correct each ground for dissolution or demonstrate to the reasonable satisfaction of the Secretary of State that each ground determined by the Secretary of State does not exist within sixty days after service of the Secretary of State's notice, the Secretary of State shall administratively dissolve the limited liability partnership by issuing a certificate of administrative dissolution that recites the ground or grounds for dissolution and its effective date. The Secretary of State shall send a copy of the administrative dissolution to the limited liability partnership.

(i) A limited liability partnership administratively dissolved continues its existence but may not carry on any business except that necessary to wind up and liquidate its business and affairs and notify claimants of such.

(j) The administrative dissolution of a limited liability partnership does not terminate the authority of its registered agent.

(k) A limited liability partnership administratively dissolved under this section may apply to the secretary of state for reinstatement within two years after the effective date of dissolution. The application must:

(1) Recite the name of the limited liability partnership and the effective date of its administrative dissolution;

(2) State that the ground or grounds for dissolution either did not exist or have been eliminated;

(3) Contain a certificate from the tax commissioner reciting that all taxes owed by the limited liability partnership have been paid.

(l) If the Secretary of State determines that the application contains the information required by subsection (k) of this section and that the information is correct, he or she shall cancel the certificate of dissolution and prepare a certificate of reinstatement that recites his or her determination and the effective date of reinstatement, file the original of the certificate and send a copy to the limited liability partnership.

(m) When the reinstatement is effective, it relates back to and takes effect as of the effective date of the administrative dissolution and the limited liability partnership resumes carrying on its business as if the administrative dissolution had never occurred.

(n) If the Secretary of State denies a limited liability partnership's application for reinstatement following administrative dissolution, he or she shall notify the limited liability partnership in writing to explain the reason or reasons for denial.

(o) The limited liability partnership may appeal the denial of reinstatement to the circuit court of the county where the limited liability partnership is located within thirty days after service of the Secretary of State's notice. The appeal to the circuit court to set aside the dissolution shall include copies of the Secretary of State's certificate of dissolution, the limited liability's application for reinstatement and the Secretary of State's notice of denial.

(p) The circuit court may summarily order the Secretary of State to reinstate the dissolved limited liability partnership or may take other action the circuit court considers appropriate.

(q) The circuit court's final decision may be appealed as in other civil proceedings.

(r) The status of a partnership as a registered limited liability partnership and the liability of the partners thereof shall not be affected by:

(1) Errors in the information contained in a statement of registration under subsection (a) of this section or notice under subsection (e) of this section; or

(2) Changes after the filing of the statement of registration or notice in the information stated in the registration or notice.

(s) The Secretary of State may provide forms for the statement of registration under subsection (a) of this section or a notice under subsection (e) of this section.

(t) All fees and moneys collected by the Secretary of State pursuant to the provisions of this article shall be deposited by the Secretary of State as follows: One-half shall be deposited in the state General Revenue Fund and one-half shall be deposited in the service fees and collections account established by section two, article one, chapter fifty-nine of this code for the operation of the office of the Secretary of State. The Secretary of State shall dedicate sufficient resources from that fund or other funds to provide the services required in this article.


WVC 47 B- 10 - 2 §47B-10-2. Effect of registration; entity unchanged.
(a) A partnership that has registered pursuant to this article is for all purposes the same partnership that existed before the registration.

(b) When registration takes effect:

(1) All property owned by the registering partnership remains vested in the registered partnership;

(2) All obligations of the registering partnership continue as obligations of the registered partnership; and

(3) An action or proceeding pending against the registering partnership may be continued as if the registration had not occurred.


WVC 47 B- 10 - 3 §47B-10-3. Name of registered limited liability partnership.

The name of a registered limited liability partnership shall contain the words "Registered Limited Liability Partnership" or the abbreviation "L.L.P." or "LLP" as the last words or letters of its name.


WVC 47 B- 10 - 4 §47B-10-4. Applicability of article to foreign and interstate commerce.
(a) A registered limited liability partnership formed under this article may conduct its business, carry on its operations and have and exercise the powers granted by this chapter in any state, territory, district or possession of the United States or in any foreign country.

(b) It is the intent of the Legislature that the legal existence of registered limited liability partnerships formed under this article be recognized outside the boundaries of this state and that the laws of this state governing such registered limited liability partnerships doing business outside this state be granted the protection of full faith and credit under the Constitution of the United States.

(c) Notwithstanding section six, article one of this chapter, the internal affairs of registered limited liability partnerships formed under this article, including the liability of partners for debts, obligations and liabilities of or chargeable to the partnership, shall be subject to and governed by the laws of this state.

(d) Before transacting business in this state, a foreign registered limited liability partnership shall:

(1) Comply with any statutory or administrative registration or filing requirements governing the specific type of business in which the partnership is engaged; and

(2) File a notice with the Secretary of State, stating the name of the partnership or if its name is unavailable for use in this state, a limited partnership name that satisfies the requirements of section four-e of this article, including a copy of the resolution of its partners adopting the fictitious name; the address of its principal office; the address of a registered office and the name and address of a registered agent for service of process, if any; an e-mail address to where informational notices and reminders of annual filings may be sent, unless there is a technical inability to comply; a brief statement of the business in which the partnership engages; the name and address of each partner authorized to execute instruments on behalf of the partnership and any other matters that the partnership determines to include; and a brief statement of the business in which the partnership engages. Such notice shall be effective for two years from the date of filing, after which time the partnership shall file a new notice. (e) The name of a foreign registered limited liability partnership doing business in this state shall contain the words "Registered Limited Liability Partnership" or the abbreviation "L.L.P." or "LLP" as the last words or letters of its name.

(f) Notwithstanding section six, article one of this chapter, the internal affairs of foreign registered limited liability partnerships, including the liability of partners for debts, obligations and liabilities of or chargeable to the partnership, shall be subject to and governed by the laws of the jurisdiction in which the foreign registered limited liability partnership is registered.


WVC 47 B- 10 - 5 §47B-10-5. Insurance or financial responsibility of registered limited liability partnerships.
(a) A registered limited liability partnership, and any foreign limited liability partnership transacting business in this state, shall carry at all times at least one million dollars of liability insurance of a kind that is designed to cover the kinds of omissions, negligence, wrongful acts, misconduct and malpractice for which liability is limited by subsection (c), section six, article three of this chapter and which insures the partnership and its partners.

(b) If, in any proceeding, compliance by a partnership with the requirements of subsection (a) of this section is disputed, that issue shall be determined by the court, and the burden of proof of compliance shall be on the person who claims the limitation of liability in subsection (c), section six, article three of this chapter.

(c) If a registered limited liability partnership is in compliance with the requirements of subsection (a) of this section, the requirements of this section shall not be admissible or in any way be made known to a jury in determining an issue of liability for or extent of the obligation or damages in question.

(d) A registered limited liability partnership is considered to be in compliance with subsection (a) of this section if thepartnership provides one million dollars of funds specifically designated and segregated for the satisfaction of judgments against the partnership or its partners based on the kinds of omissions, negligence, wrongful acts, misconduct and malpractice for which liability is limited by subsection (c), section six, article three of this chapter, by:

(1) Deposit in trust or in bank escrow of cash, bank certificates of deposit or United States Treasury obligations; or

(2) A bank letter of credit or insurance company bond.

(e) Any policy or contract of liability insurance providing coverage for liability as described in this section shall be read so as to contain a provision or endorsement whereby the company issuing such policy waives or agrees not to assert as a defense on behalf of the policyholder or any beneficiary thereof, to any claim covered by the terms of such policy within the policy limits, the immunity from liability of the insured granted by the provisions of this chapter.


WVC 47 B- 11 - ARTICLE 11. MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS.


WVC 47 B- 11 - 1 §47B-11-1. Uniformity of application and construction.
This chapter shall be applied and construed to effectuate its general purpose to make uniform the law with respect to the subject of this chapter among states enacting it.


WVC 47 B- 11 - 2 §47B-11-2. Short title.

This chapter may be cited as the "Uniform Partnership Act".


WVC 47 B- 11 - 3 §47B-11-3. Severability clause.

If any provision of this chapter or its application to any person or circumstance is held invalid, the invalidity does not affect other provisions or applications of this chapter which can be given effect without the invalid provision or application, and to this end the provisions of this chapter are severable.


WVC 47 B- 11 - 4 §47B-11-4. Applicability.
(a) Before the first day of July, one thousand nine hundred ninety-five, this chapter governs only a partnership formed:

(1) After the effective date of this chapter, unless that partnership is continuing the business of a dissolved partnership under section forty-one, article eight-a, chapter forty-seven of this code; and

(2) Before the effective date of this chapter, that elects, as provided by subsection (c) of this section, to be governed by this chapter.

(b) After the first day of July, one thousand nine hundred ninety-five, this chapter governs all partnerships.

(c) Before the first day of July, one thousand nine hundred ninety-five, a partnership voluntarily may elect, in the manner provided in its partnership agreement or by law for amending the partnership agreement, to be governed by this chapter. The provisions of this chapter relating to the liability of the partnership's partners to third parties apply to limit those partners' liability to a third party who had done business with the partnership within one year preceding the partnership's election to be governed by this chapter, only if the third party knows or has received a notification of the partnership's election to be governed by this chapter.


WVC 47 B- 11 - 5 §47B-11-5. Savings clause.
This chapter does not affect an action or proceeding commenced or right accrued before this chapter takes effect.


Note: WV Code updated with legislation passed through the 2013 1st Special Session
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