(2) It is, however, the further intent of the Legislature that this article shall not be construed to prohibit acts or practices which are reasonable in relation to the development and preservation of business or which are not injurious to the public interest, nor shall this article be construed to repeal by implication the provisions of articles eleven, eleven-a and eleven-b, chapter forty-seven of this code.
(1) "Advertisement" means the publication, dissemination or circulation of any matter, oral or written, including labeling, which tends to induce, directly or indirectly, any person to enter into any obligation, sign any contract or acquire any title or interest in any goods or services and includes every word device to disguise any form of business solicitation by using such terms as "renewal", "invoice", "bill", "statement" or "reminder" to create an impression of existing obligation when there is none or other language to mislead any person in relation to any sought-after commercial transaction.
(2) "Consumer" means a natural person to whom a sale or lease is made in a consumer transaction and a "consumer transaction" means a sale or lease to a natural person or persons for a personal, family, household or agricultural purpose.
(3) "Cure offer" means a written offer of one or more things of value, including, but not limited to, the payment of money, that is made by a merchant or seller and that is delivered by certified mail to a consumer claiming to have suffered a loss as a result of a consumer transaction or to the attorney for such person.
(4) "Merchantable" means, in addition to the qualities prescribed in section three hundred fourteen, article two, chapter forty-six of this code, that the goods conform in all material respects to applicable state and federal statutes and regulations establishing standards of quality and safety of goods and, in the case of goods with mechanical, electrical or thermal components, that the goods are in good working order and will operate properly in normal usage for a reasonable period of time.
(5) "Sale" includes any sale, offer for sale or attempt to sell any goods for cash or credit or any services or offer for services for cash or credit.
(6) "Trade" or "commerce" means the advertising, offering for sale, sale or distribution of any goods or services and shall include any trade or commerce, directly or indirectly, affecting the people of this state.
(7) "Unfair methods of competition and unfair or deceptive acts or practices" means and includes, but is not limited to, any one or more of the following:
(A) Passing off goods or services as those of another;
(B) Causing likelihood of confusion or of misunderstanding as to the source, sponsorship, approval or certification of goods or services;
(C) Causing likelihood of confusion or of misunderstanding as to affiliation, connection or association with or certification by another;
(D) Using deceptive representations or designations of geographic origin in connection with goods or services;
(E) Representing that goods or services have sponsorship, approval, characteristics, ingredients, uses, benefits or quantities that they do not have or that a person has a sponsorship, approval, status, affiliation or connection that he does not have;
(F) Representing that goods are original or new if they are deteriorated, altered, reconditioned, reclaimed, used or secondhand;
(G) Representing that goods or services are of a particular standard, quality or grade, or that goods are of a particular style or model if they are of another;
(H) Disparaging the goods, services or business of another by false or misleading representation of fact;
(I) Advertising goods or services with intent not to sell them as advertised;
(J) Advertising goods or services with intent not to supply reasonably expectable public demand, unless the advertisement discloses a limitation of quantity;
(K) Making false or misleading statements of fact concerning the reasons for, existence of or amounts of price reductions;
(L) Engaging in any other conduct which similarly creates a likelihood of confusion or of misunderstanding;
(M) The act, use or employment by any person of any deception, fraud, false pretense, false promise or misrepresentation, or the concealment, suppression or omission of any material fact with intent that others rely upon such concealment, suppression or omission, in connection with the sale or advertisement of any goods or services, whether or not any person has in fact been misled, deceived or damaged thereby;
(N) Advertising, printing, displaying, publishing, distributing or broadcasting, or causing to be advertised, printed, displayed, published, distributed or broadcast in any manner, any statement or representation with regard to the sale of goods or the extension of consumer credit including the rates, terms or conditions for the sale of such goods or the extension of such credit, which is false, misleading or deceptive or which omits to state material information which is necessary to make the statements therein not false, misleading or deceptive;
(O) Representing that any person has won a prize, one of a group of prizes or any other thing of value if receipt of the prize or thing of value is contingent upon any payment of a service charge, mailing charge, handling charge or any other similar charge by the person or upon mandatory attendance by the person at a promotion or sales presentation at the seller's place of business or any other location: Provided, That a person may be offered one item or the choice of several items conditioned on the person listening to a sales promotion or entering a consumer transaction if the true retail value and an accurate description of the item or items are clearly and conspicuously disclosed along with the person's obligations upon accepting the item or items; such description and disclosure shall be typewritten or printed in at least eight point regular type, in upper or lower case, where appropriate; or
(P) Violating any provision or requirement of article six-b of this chapter.
(8) "Warranty" means express and implied warranties described and defined in sections three hundred thirteen, three hundred fourteen and three hundred fifteen, article two, chapter forty-six of this code and expressions or actions of a merchant which assure the consumer that the goods have described qualities or will perform in a described manner.
(b) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (a) of this section, no action may be brought pursuant to the provisions of this section until the consumer has informed the seller or lessor in writing and by certified mail of the alleged violation and provided the seller or lessor twenty days from receipt of the notice of violation to make a cure offer: Provided, That the consumer shall have ten days from receipt of the cure offer to accept the cure offer or it is deemed refused and withdrawn.
(c) If a cure offer is accepted, the seller or lessor shall have ten days to begin effectuating the agreed upon cure and such must be completed within a reasonable time.
(d) Any applicable statute of limitations shall be tolled for the twenty-day period set forth in subsection (b) of this section or for the period of time the effectuation of the cure offer is being performed, whichever is longer.
(e) Nothing in this section shall be construed to prevent a consumer that has accepted a cure offer from bringing a civil action against a seller or lessor for failing to timely effect such cure offer.
(f) Any permanent injunction, judgment or order of the court under section one hundred eight, article seven of this chapter for a violation of section one hundred four of this article shall be prima facie evidence in an action brought pursuant to the provisions of this section that the respondent used or employed a method, act or practice declared unlawful by section one hundred four of this article.
(g) Where an action is brought pursuant to the provisions of this section, it shall be a complete defense that a cure offer was made, accepted and the agreed upon cure was performed. If the finder of fact determines that the cure offer was accepted and the agreed upon cure performed, the seller or lessor shall be entitled to reasonable attorney's fees and costs attendant to defending the action.
(h) No cure offer shall be admissible in any proceeding initiated pursuant to the provisions of this article unless the cure offer is delivered by a seller or lessor to the person claiming loss or to any attorney representing such person prior to the filing of the seller or lessee's initial responsive pleading in such proceeding. If the cure offer is timely delivered by the seller or lessor, then the seller or lessee may introduce the cure offer into evidence at trial. The seller or lessor shall not be liable for such person's attorney's fees and court costs incurred following delivery of the cure offer unless the actual damages found to have been sustained and awarded, without consideration of attorney's fees and court costs, exceed the value of the cure offer.
(1) Exclude, modify or otherwise attempt to limit any warranty, express or implied, including the warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose; or
(2) Exclude, modify or attempt to limit any remedy provided by law, including the measure of damages available, for a breach of warranty, express or implied.
Any such exclusion, modification or attempted limitation shall be void.
(a) Notwithstanding any other provision of law to the contrary, no action by a consumer for breach of warranty or for negligence with respect to goods subject to a consumer transaction shall fail because of a lack of privity between the consumer and the party against whom the claim is made. An action against any person for breach of warranty or for negligence with respect to goods subject to a consumer transaction shall not of itself constitute a bar to the bringing of an action against another person.
(b) Notwithstanding any other provision of law to the contrary with respect to goods which are the subject of or intended to become the subject of a consumer transaction, no manufacturer may fail to honor a manufacturer's warranty if the consumer has complied with applicable warranty registration provisions but the merchant from whom such goods were purchased has not complied with or registered the warranty, and in such case the manufacturer shall honor the warranty.
(c) When a merchant or manufacturer has failed to honor a warranty which is valid under the laws of this state and which the manufacturer is bound to honor, if the goods have been replaced or repaired by the merchant or a repairperson, as the case may be, such merchant, repairperson or consumer, in addition to any other remedy provided by law, shall have a cause of action against the manufacturer for the reasonable cost of such replacement or repair.
(b) A violation of the provisions of this section shall not render any agreement void or voidable: Provided, That if a consumer at the time of entering into a consumer transaction or anytime thereafter, requests of the other party thereto that the agreement evidencing the consumer transaction be changed or written in a manner to conform with this section, and that request is refused, then a consumer shall have a cause of action to require a consumer agreement not in conformity with the provisions of this section to be reformed. This section shall not be construed to prohibit the use of words or phrases specifically required or specifically permitted by state or federal law, rule or regulation. This section shall not be construed to preclude a consumer from asserting a claim or defense which would have been available to the consumer if this provision were not in effect. A consumer may not waive the rights provided by this section, and any attempted waiver shall be void.
(a) No person may:
(1) Solicit or accept a postdated check with the intent of presenting it for payment prior to the date listed on the check; or
(2) Represent in any manner that postdating a check will prevent its payment from the account of the maker of the check prior to the date listed on the check; and either (A) present the check or cause the check to be presented for payment before the date on the check either intentionally, or (B) in the case of a payee that is an organization, present the check or cause the check to be presented without reasonable procedures to prevent such presentment.
(b) When a check is presented for payment from the account of the maker before the date of the check, no payee who knowingly accepted a postdated check may refuse, upon request of the maker of the postdated check, to immediately return the funds to the maker of the postdated check, to pay the fees and other costs incurred by the maker as a result of the early presentment of the check.
(c) If a person has violated the provisions of subsection (a) or (b) of this section, the maker has a cause of action to recover from that person the amount of the check, any fees or costs incurred and, in addition, a civil penalty, in an amount determined by the court, of not less than one hundred nor more than one thousand dollars.
Note: WV Code updated with legislation passed through the 2013 1st Special Session
The WV Code Online is an unofficial copy of the annotated WV Code, provided as a convenience. It has NOT been edited for publication, and is not in any way official or authoritative.