§46A-2-115. Limitation on default charges.
(a) Except for reasonable expenses, including costs and fees authorized by statute incurred in realizing on a security interest, the agreements that evidence a consumer credit sale or a consumer loan may not provide for charges as a result of default by the consumer other than those authorized by this chapter. (b) With respect to this subsection: (1) The phrase “consumer loan” shall mean a consumer loan secured by real property: (A) Originated by a bank or savings and loan association, or an affiliate, not solicited by an unaffiliated broker; (B) held by a federal home loan bank, the federal National Mortgage Association, the federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation, the Government National Mortgage Association, the West Virginia Housing Development Fund; or (C) insured or guaranteed by the Farmers Home Administration, the Veteran's Administration or the Department of Housing and Urban Development.
(2) Except as provided in subdivision (3) of this subsection, the agreements that evidence a consumer loan may permit the recovery of the following charges: (A) Costs of publication; (B) an appraisal fee; (C) all costs incidental to a title examination including professional fees, expenses incident to travel, and copies of real estate and tax records; (D) expenses incidental to notice made to lienholders and other parties and entities having an interest in the real property to be sold; (E) certified mailing costs; and (F) all fees and expenses incurred by a trustee incident to a pending trustee’s sale of the real property securing the consumer loan.
(3) For purposes of the charges expressly authorized by this subsection, no charge may be assessed and collected from a consumer unless: (A) Each charge is reasonable in its amount; (B) each charge is actually incurred by or on behalf of the holder of the consumer loan; (C) each charge is actually incurred after the last day allowed for cure of the consumer’s default pursuant to section one hundred six, of this article and before the consumer reinstates the consumer loan or otherwise cures the default; (D) the holder of the consumer loan and the consumer have agreed to cancel any pending trustee’s sale or other foreclosure on the real property securing the consumer loan; and (E) in the case of an appraisal fee, no appraisal fee has been charged to the consumer within the preceding six months.
(c) All amounts paid to a creditor arising out of any consumer credit sale or consumer loan shall be credited upon receipt against payments due: Provided, That amounts received and applied during a cure period will not result in a duty to provide a new notice of right to cure; Provided, however, That partial amounts received during the period set forth in subdivision (3) subsection (b) of this section do not create an automatic duty to reinstate and may be returned by the creditor. Default charges shall be accounted for separately. Those recoverable charges set forth in said subsection arising during the period described therein may be added to principal.
(d) At least once every twelve months, the holder or servicer of each consumer loan secured by real property against which the creditor assesses any default charge, and: (1) Not serviced by the originating lender or its affiliate or their successors by merger; (2) not held by a federal home loan bank, the federal National Mortgage Association, the federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation, the Government National Mortgage Association, the West Virginia Housing Development Fund; or (3) not insured or guaranteed by the Farmers Home Administration, the Veteran's Administration, Department of Housing and Urban Development, shall transmit to the consumer an accounting of every default charge assessed within the previous twelve months, including the date, amount and nature of the cost.
This subsection does not apply to delinquency charges permitted under sections one hundred twelve and one hundred thirteen, article three of this chapter; credit line over-the-limit fees; deferral charges permitted under section one hundred fourteen, article three of this chapter; collateral protection insurance permitted under section one hundred nine-a, article three of this chapter; and advances to pay taxes.
(e) A provision in violation of this section is unenforceable. The amendments to this section by acts of the Legislature in the regular session of 2003 are a clarification of existing law and shall be retroactively applied to all agreements in effect on the date of passage of the amendments, except where controversies arising under those agreements are pending prior to the date of passage of the amendments.
(f) Nothing in this section limits the expenses incidental to a trustee’s sale of real property that are recoverable pursuant to section seven, article one, chapter thirty-eight of this code.