(a) This article applies to all units subject to this chapter except as provided in subsection (b) or as modified or waived by agreement of purchasers of units in a common interest community in which all units are restricted to nonresidential use.
(b) Neither a public offering statement nor a resale certificate need be prepared or delivered in the case of:
(1) A gratuitous disposition of a unit;
(2) A disposition pursuant to court order;
(3) A disposition by a government or governmental agency;
(4) A disposition by foreclosure or deed in lieu of foreclosure;
(5) A disposition to a dealer;
(6) A disposition that may be canceled at any time and for any reason by the purchaser without penalty; or
(7) A disposition of a unit in a planned community in which the declaration limits the maximum annual assessment of any unit to not more than five hundred dollars, as adjusted pursuant to section 1-114 (Adjustment of dollar amounts) if:
(i) The declarant has a reasonable and good faith belief that the maximum stated assessment will be sufficient to pay the expenses of the planned community;
(ii) The declaration cannot be amended to increase the assessment during the period of declarant or declarant's family control without the consent of a majority of unit owners other than the declarant; and
(iii) The planned community is not subject to any development rights.
(b) A declarant may transfer responsibility for preparation of all or a part of the public offering statement to a successor declarant section 3-104 or to a dealer who intends to offer units in the common interest community. In the event of any such transfer, the transferor shall provide the transferee with any information necessary to enable the transferee to fulfill the requirements of subsection (a).
(c) Any declarant or dealer who offers a unit to a purchaser shall deliver a public offering statement in the manner prescribed in subsection 4-108(a). The person who prepared all or a part of the public offering statement is liable under sections 4-108 and 4-117 for any false or misleading statement set forth therein or for any omission of a material fact therefrom with respect to that portion of the public offering statement which he prepared. If a declarant did not prepare any part of a public offering statement that he delivers, he is not liable for any false or misleading statement set forth therein or for any omission of a material fact therefrom unless he had actual knowledge of the statement or omission or, in the exercise of reasonable care, should have known of the statement or omission.
(d) If a unit is part of a common interest community and is part of any other real estate regime in connection with the sale of which the delivery of a public offering statement is required under the laws of this state, a single public offering statement conforming to the requirements of sections 4- 103, 4-104, 4-105 and 4-106 as those requirements relate to each regime in which the unit is located, and to any other requirements imposed under the laws of this state, may be prepared and delivered in lieu of providing two or more public offering statements.
(a) Except as provided in subsection (b), a public offering statement must contain or fully and accurately disclose:
(1) The name and principal address of the declarant and of the common interest community and a statement that the common interest community is either a condominium, cooperative or planned community;
(2) A general description of the common interest community, including to the extent possible, the types, number, and declarant's schedule of commencement and completion of construction of buildings and amenities that the declarant anticipates including in the common interest community;
(3) The number of units in the common interest community;
(4) Copies and a brief narrative description of the significant features of the declaration, other than any plats and plans and any other recorded covenants, conditions, restrictions and reservations affecting the common interest community; the bylaws and any rules or regulations of the association; copies of any contracts and leases to be signed by purchasers at closing and a brief narrative description of any contracts or leases that will or may be subject to cancellation by the association under section 3-105;
(5) Any current balance sheet and a projected budget for the association, either within or as an exhibit to the public offering statement, for one year after the date of the first conveyance to a purchaser and thereafter the current budget of the association, a statement of who prepared the budget and a statement of the budget's assumptions concerning occupancy and inflation factors. The budget must include, without limitation:
(i) A statement of the amount or a statement that there is no amount, included in the budget as a reserve for repairs and replacement;
(ii) A statement of any other reserves;
(iii) The projected common expense assessment by category of expenditures for the association; and
(iv) The projected monthly common expense assessment for each type of unit;
(6) Any services not reflected in the budget that the declarant provides, or expenses that he pays and which he expects may become at any subsequent time a common expense of the association and the projected common expense assessment attributable to each of those services or expenses for the association and for each type of unit;
(7) Any initial or special fee due from the purchaser at closing, together with a description of the purpose and method of calculating the fee;
(8) A description of any liens, defects, or encumbrances on or affecting the title to the common interest community;
(9) A description of any financing offered or arranged by the declarant;
(10) The terms and significant limitations of any warranties provided by the declarant, including statutory warranties and limitations on the enforcement thereof or on damages;
(11) A statement that:
(i) Within fifteen days after receipt of a public offering statement a purchaser, before conveyance, may cancel any contract for purchase of a unit from a declarant;
(ii) If a declarant fails to provide a public offering statement to a purchaser before conveying a unit, that purchaser may recover from the declarant ten percent of the sales price of the unit plus ten percent of the share, proportionate to his common expense liability, of any indebtedness of the association secured by security interests encumbering the common interest community: Provided, That purchaser is required to show that he or she has been actually damaged as a result of the failure to provide such offering statement and that his or her action to recover such damage and the penalty provided in this paragraph is instituted within three years from the date on which purchaser's right ofaction shall have accrued; and
(iii) If a purchaser receives the public offering statement more than fifteen days before signing a contract, he cannot cancel the contract;
(12) A statement of any unsatisfied judgments or pending suits against the association and the status of any pending suits material to the common interest community of which a declarant has actual knowledge;
(13) A statement that any deposit made in connection with the purchase of a unit will be held in an escrow account until closing and will be returned to the purchaser if the purchaser cancels the contract pursuant to section 4-108, together with the name and address of the escrow agent;
(14) Any restraints on alienation of any portion of the common interest community and any restrictions: (i) On use, occupancy, and alienation of the units; and (ii) on the amount for which a unit may be sold or on the amount that may be received by a unit owner on sale, condemnation or casualty loss to the unit or to the common interest community or on termination of the common interest community;
(15) A description of the insurance coverage provided for the benefit of unit owners;
(16) Any current or expected fees or charges to be paid by unit owners for the use of the common elements and other facilities related to the common interest community;
(17) The extent to which financial arrangements have been provided for completion of all improvements that the declarant is obligated to build pursuant to section 4-119 (Declarant's Obligation to Complete and Restore);
(18) A brief narrative description of any zoning and other land use requirements affecting the common interest community;
(19) All unusual and material circumstances, features and characteristics of the common interest community and the units; and
(20) In a cooperative, (i) whether the unit owners will be entitled, for federal, state and local income tax purposes, to a pass through of deductions for payments made by the association for real estate taxes and interest paid the holder of a security interest encumbering the cooperative; and (ii) a statement as to the effect on every unit owner if the association fails to pay real estate taxes or payments due the holder of a security interest encumbering the cooperative.
(b) If a common interest community composed of not more than twelve units is not subject to any development rights and no power is reserved to a declarant to make the common interest community part of a larger common interest community, group of common interest communities, or other real estate, a public offering statement may but need not include the information otherwise required by paragraphs (9), (10), (15), (16), (17), (18) and (19) of subsection (a) and the narrative descriptions of documents required by subsection (a)(4).
(c) A declarant promptly shall amend the public offering statement to report any material change in the information required by this section.
(1) The maximum number of units and the maximum number of units per acre, that may be created;
(2) A statement of how many or what percentage of the units that may be created will be restricted exclusively to residential use or a statement that no representations are made regarding use restrictions;
(3) If any of the units that may be built within real estate subject to development rights are not to be restricted exclusively to residential use, a statement, with respect to each portion of that real estate, of the maximum percentage of the real estate areas, and the maximum percentage of the floor areas of all units that may be created therein, that are not restricted exclusively to residential use;
(4) A brief narrative description of any development rights reserved by a declarant and of any conditions relating to or limitations upon the exercise of development rights;
(5) A statement of the maximum extent to which each unit's allocated interests may be changed by the exercise of any development right described in paragraph (3);
(6) A statement of the extent to which any buildings or other improvements that may be erected pursuant to any development right in any part of the common interest community will be compatible with existing buildings and improvements in the common interest community in terms of architectural style, quality of construction, and size, or a statement that no assurances are made in those regards;
(7) General descriptions of all other improvements that may be made and limited common elements that may be created within any part of the common interest community pursuant to any development right reserved by the declarant, or a statement that no assurances are made in that regard;
(8) A statement of any limitations as to the locations of any building or other improvement that may be made within any part of the common interest community pursuant to any development right reserved by the declarant, or a statement that no assurances are made in that regard;
(9) A statement that any limited common elements created pursuant to any development right reserved by the declarant will be of the same general types and sizes as the limited common elements within other parts of the common interest community, or a statement of the types and sizes planned, or a statement that no assurances are made in that regard;
(10) A statement that the proportion of limited common elements to units created pursuant to any development right reserved by the declarant will be approximately equal to the proportion existing within other parts of the common interest community, or a statement of any other assurances in that regard, or a statement that no assurances are made in that regard;
(11) A statement that all restrictions in the declaration affecting use, occupancy and alienation of units will apply to any units created pursuant to any development right reserved by the declarant, or a statement of any differentiations that may be made as to those units, or a statement that no assurances are made in that regard; and
(12) A statement of the extent to which any assurances made pursuant to this section apply or do not apply in the event that any development right is not exercised by the declarant.
(1) The number and identity of units in which time shares may be created;
(2) The total number of time shares that may be created;
(3) The minimum duration of any time shares that may be created; and
(4) The extent to which the creation of time shares will or may affect the enforceability of the association's lien for assessments provided in section 3-116.
(1) A statement by the declarant, based on a report prepared by an independent (registered) architect or engineer, describing the present condition of all structural components and mechanical and electrical installations material to the use and enjoyment of the building;
(2) A statement by the declarant of the expected useful life of each item reported on in paragraph (1) or a statement that no representations are made in that regard; and
(3) A list of any outstanding notices of uncured violations of building code or other municipal regulations, together with the estimated cost of curing those violations.
(b) This section applies only to buildings containing units that may be occupied for residential use.
(a) A person required to deliver a public offering statement pursuant to section 4-102(c) shall provide a purchaser with a copy of the public offering statement and all amendments thereto before conveyance of the unit, and not later than the date of any contract of sale. Unless a purchaser is given the public offering statement more than fifteen days before execution of a contract for the purchase of a unit, the purchaser, before conveyance, may cancel the contract within fifteen days after first receiving the public offering statement.
(b) If a purchaser elects to cancel a contract pursuant to subsection (a), he may do so by hand delivering notice thereof to the offeror or by mailing notice thereof by prepaid United States mail to the offeror or to his agent for service of process. Cancellation is without penalty, and all payments made by the purchaser before cancellation must be refunded promptly.
(c) If a person required to deliver a public offering statement pursuant to section 4-102(c) fails to provide a purchaser to whom a unit is conveyed with that public offering statement and all amendments thereto as required by subsection (a), the purchaser, in addition to any rights to damages or other relief, is entitled to receive from that person an amount equal to ten percent of the sale price of the unit, plus ten percent of the share, proportionate to his common expense liability, of any indebtedness of the association secured by security interests encumbering the common interest community: Provided, That purchaser must show that he or she has been actually damaged as a result of the failure to provide such offering statement and that his or her action to recover such damage and the penalty provided in this subsection is instituted within three years from the date on which purchaser's right of action shall have accrued.
(1) A statement disclosing the effect on the proposed disposition of any right of first refusal or other restraint on the free alienability of the unit;
(2) A statement setting forth the amount of the monthly common expense assessment and any unpaid common expense or special assessment currently due and payable from the selling unit owner;
(3) A statement of any other fees payable by unit owners;
(4) A statement of any capital expenditures anticipated by the association for the current and two next succeeding fiscal years;
(5) A statement of the amount of any reserves for capital expenditures and of any portions of those reserves designated by the association for any specified projects;
(6) The most recent regularly prepared balance sheet and income and expense statement, if any, of the association;
(7) The current operating budget of the association;
(8) A statement of any unsatisfied judgments against the association and the status of any pending suits in which the association is a defendant;
(9) A statement describing any insurance coverage provided for the benefit of unit owners;
(10) A statement as to whether the executive board has knowledge that any alterations or improvements to the unit or to the limited common elements assigned thereto violate any provision of the declaration;
(11) A statement as to whether the executive board has knowledge of any violations of the health or building codes with respect to the unit, the limited common elements assigned thereto, or any other portion of the common interest community;
(12) A statement of the remaining term of any leasehold estate affecting the common interest community and the provisions governing any extension or renewal thereof;
(13) A statement of any restrictions in the declaration affecting the amount that may be received by a unit owner upon sale, condemnation, casualty loss to the unit or the common interest community, or termination of the common interest community; and
(14) In a cooperative, an accountant's statement, if any was prepared, as to the deductibility for federal income tax purposes by the unit owner of real estate taxes and interest paid by the association.
(b) The association, within ten days after a request by a unit owner, shall furnish a certificate containing the information necessary to enable the unit owner to comply with this section. A unit owner providing a certificate pursuant to subsection (a) is not liable to the purchaser for any erroneous information provided by the association and included in the certificate.
(c) A purchaser is not liable for any unpaid assessment or fee greater than the amount set forth in the certificate prepared by the association. A unit owner is not liable to a purchaser for the failure or delay of the association to provide the certificate in a timely manner, but the purchase contract is voidable by the purchaser until the certificate has been provided and for five days thereafter or until conveyance, whichever first occurs.
(1) Before conveying a unit, shall record or furnish to the purchaser releases of all liens, except liens on real estate that a declarant has the right to withdraw from the common interest community, that the purchaser does not expressly agree to take subject to or assume and that encumber:
(i) In a condominium, that unit and its common element interest; and
(ii) In a cooperative or planned community, that unit and any limited common elements assigned thereto, or
(2) Shall provide a surety bond or substitute collateral for or insurance against the lien.
(b) Before conveying real estate to the association, the declarant shall have that real estate released from: (1) All liens the foreclosure of which would deprive unit owners of any right of access to or easement of support of their units, and (2) all other liens on that real estate unless the public offering statement describes certain real estate that may be conveyed subject to liens in specified amounts.
(b) For sixty days after delivery or mailing of the notice described in subsection (a), the person required to give the notice shall offer to convey each unit or proposed unit occupied for residential use to the tenant who leases that unit. If a tenant fails to purchase the unit during that sixty day period, the offeror may not offer to dispose of an interest in that unit during the following one hundred eighty days at a price or on terms more favorable to the offeree than the price or terms offered to the tenant. This subsection does not apply to any unit in a conversion building if that unit will be restricted exclusively to nonresidential use or the boundaries of the converted unit do not substantially conform to the dimensions of the residential unit before conversion.
(c) If a seller, in violation of subsection (b), conveys a unit to a purchaser for value who has no knowledge of the violation, the recordation of the deed conveying the unit or, in a cooperative, the conveyance of the unit, extinguishes any right a tenant may have under subsection (b) to purchase that unit if the deed states that the seller has complied with subsection (b), but the conveyances does not affect the right of a tenant to recover damages from the seller for a violation of subsection (b).
(d) Nothing in this section permits termination of a lease by a declarant in violation of its terms.
(1) Any affirmation of fact or promise which relates to the unit, its use, or rights appurtenant thereto, area improvements to the common interest community that would directly benefit the unit, or the right to use or have the benefit of facilities not located in the common interest community, creates an express warranty that the unit and related rights and uses will conform to the affirmation or promise;
(2) Any model or description of the physical characteristics of the common interest community, including plans and specifications of or for improvements, creates an express warranty that the common interest community will conform to the model or description;
(3) Any description of the quantity or extent of the real estate comprising the common interest community, including plats or surveys, creates an express warranty that the common interest community will conform to the description, subject to customary tolerances; and
(4) A provision that a purchaser may put a unit only to a specified use is an express warranty that the specified use is lawful.
(b) Neither formal words, such as "warranty" or "guarantee," nor a specific intention to make a warranty, are necessary to create an express warranty of quality, but a statement purporting to be merely an opinion or commendation of the real estate or its value does not create a warranty.
(c) Any conveyance of a unit transfers to the purchaser all express warranties of quality made by previous sellers.
(b) A declarant and any dealer impliedly warrants that a unit and the common elements in the common interest community are suitable for the ordinary uses of real estate of its type and that any improvements made or contracted for by him, or made by any person before the creation of the common interest community, will be:
(1) Free from defective materials; and
(2) Constructed in accordance with applicable law, according to sound engineering and construction standards, and in a workmanlike manner.
(c) In addition, a declarant and any dealer warrants to a purchaser of a unit that may be used for residential use that an existing use, continuation of which is contemplated by the parties, does not violate applicable law at the earlier of the time of conveyance or delivery of possession.
(d) Warranties imposed by this section may be excluded or modified as specified in section 4-115.
(e) For purposes of this section, improvements made or contracted for by an affiliate of a declarant, section 1- 103(1), are made or contracted for by the declarant.
(f) Any conveyance of a unit transfers to the purchaser all of the declarant's implied warranties of quality.
(1) May be excluded or modified by agreement of the parties; and
(2) Are excluded by expression of disclaimer, such as "as is,""with all faults" or other language that in common understanding calls the purchaser's attention to the exclusion of warranties.
(b) With respect to a purchaser of a unit that may be occupied for residential use, no general disclaimer of implied warranties of quality is effective, but a declarant and any dealer may disclaim liability in an instrument signed by the purchaser for a specified defect or specified failure to comply with applicable law, if the defect or failure entered into and became a part of the basis of the bargain.
(b) Subject to subsection (c), a cause of action for breach of warranty of quality, regardless of the purchaser's lack of knowledge of the breach, accrues:
(1) As to a unit, at the time the purchaser to whom the warranty is first made enters into possession if a possessory interest was conveyed or at the time of acceptance of the instrument of conveyance if a nonpossessory interest was conveyed; and
(2) As to each common element, at the time the common element is completed or, if later, as to (i) a common element that may be added to the common interest community or portion thereof, at the time the first unit therein is conveyed to a bona fide purchaser, or (ii) a common element within any other portion of the common interest community, at the time the first unit is conveyed to a bona fide purchaser.
(c) If a warranty of quality explicity extends to future performance or duration of any improvement or component of the common interest community, the cause of action accrues at the time the breach is discovered or at the end of the period for which the warranty explicitly extends, whichever is earlier.
(b) The declarant is subject to liability for the prompt repair and restoration, to a condition compatible with the remainder of the common interest community, of any portion of the common interest community affected by the exercise of rights reserved pursuant to or created by sections 2-110,
2-111, 2-112, 2-113, 2-115, 2-116.
Note: WV Code updated with legislation passed through the 2015 Regular Session
The WV Code Online is an unofficial copy of the annotated WV Code, provided as a convenience. It has NOT been edited for publication, and is not in any way official or authoritative.