(1) "Account" means any one of the three accounts created by section six of this article.
(2) "Association" means the West Virginia Insurance Guaranty Association created under section six of this article.
(3) "Commissioner" means the Insurance Commissioner of West Virginia.
(4) "Covered claim" means an unpaid claim, including one for unearned premiums other than retrospective premiums or other premiums subject to adjustment after the date of liquidation, which arises out of and is within the coverage of an insurance policy to which this article applies and which policy is in force at the time of the occurrence giving rise to the unpaid claims if the insurer issuing the policy becomes an insolvent insurer after the effective date of this article and the claimant or insured is a resident of this state at the time of the insured occurrence, or the property from which the claim arises is permanently located in this state. "Covered claim" does not include: (i) Any amount in excess of the applicable limits of coverage provided by an insurance policy to which this article applies; nor (ii) any amount due any reinsurer, insurer, insurance pool, or underwriting association, as subrogation recoveries or otherwise from an insolvent insurer or the insured of an insolvent insurer to the extent of coverage under the insured's policy.
(5) "Insolvent insurer" means an insurer:
(A) Licensed to transact insurance in this state either at the time the policy was issued or when the insured event occurred; and
(B) Against whom an order of liquidation with a finding of insolvency has been entered by a court of competent jurisdiction in the insurer's state of domicile or of this state.
(6) "Member insurer" means any person who:
(A) Writes any kind of insurance to which this article applies under section three of this article, including farmers' mutual fire insurance companies and the exchange of reciprocal or interinsurance contracts; and
(B) Is licensed to transact insurance in this state.
(7) "Net direct written premiums" means direct gross premiums written in this state on insurance policies to which this article applies, less return premiums on the policies and dividends paid or credited to policyholders on such direct business. "Net direct written premiums" does not include premiums on contracts between insurers or reinsurers.
(8) "Person" includes an individual, company, insurer, association, organization, society, reciprocal, partnership, syndicate, business trust, corporation or any other legal entity.
(9) "Receiver" means receiver, liquidator, rehabilitator or conservator as the context may require.
(1) The automobile insurance account;
(2) The workers' compensation insurance account; and
(3) The account for all other insurance to which this article applies.
(2) In approving selections to the board, the commissioner shall consider among other things whether all member insurers are fairly represented.
(3) Members of the board may be reimbursed from the assets of the association for expenses incurred by them as members of the board of directors.
(a) Is obligated to the extent of the covered claims existing prior to the determination of insolvency, and for those claims arising within thirty days after the determination of insolvency, but the obligation only includes that amount of each covered claim which is in excess of one hundred dollars and is less than three hundred thousand dollars: Provided, That neither of these monetary limits applies to obligations arising out of covered workers' compensation claims. In no event is the association obligated to a policyholder or claimant in an amount in excess of the obligations of the insolvent insurer under the policy from which the claim arises. Notwithstanding any other provision of this article, a covered claim does not include any claim filed with the guaranty fund after the final date set by the court for the filing of claims against the liquidator or receiver of an insolvent insurer. A default judgment or stipulated judgment against the insolvent insurer, or against the insured of an insolvent insurer, is not binding against the association.
(b) Is the insurer to the extent of its obligation on the covered claims and to such extent has all rights, duties, defenses and obligations of the insolvent insurer as if the insurer had not become insolvent.
(c) Shall allocate claims paid and expenses incurred among the three accounts separately, and assess member insurers separately for each account amounts necessary to pay the obligations of the association under subdivision (a) of this subsection subsequent to an insolvency, the expenses of handling covered claims subsequent to an insolvency, the cost of examinations under section thirteen of this article and other expenses authorized by this article. The assessments of each member insurer shall be in the proportion that the net direct written premiums of the member insurer for the preceding calendar year on the kinds of insurance in the account bears to the net direct written premiums of all member insurers for the preceding calendar year on the kinds of insurance in the account: Provided, That farmers mutual insurance companies that do not issue workers' compensation insurance policies may not be assessed to pay for the obligations of the association payable from the workers' compensation insurance account. Each member insurer shall be notified of the assessment not later than thirty days before it is due. No member insurer may be assessed in any one year on any account an amount greater than two percent of that member insurer's net direct written premiums for the preceding calendar year on the kinds of insurance in the account. If the maximum assessment, together with the other assets of the association in any account, does not provide in any one year in any account an amount sufficient to make all necessary payments from that account, the funds available shall be prorated and the unpaid portion shall be paid as soon after that as funds become available. The association may exempt or defer, in whole or in part, the assessment of any member insurer, if the assessment would cause the member insurer's financial statement to reflect the amounts of capital or surplus less than the minimum amounts required for a certificate of authority by any jurisdiction in which the member insurer is authorized to transact insurance. Each member insurer may set off against any assessment, authorized payments made on covered claims and expenses incurred in the payment of such claims by the member insurer if they are chargeable to the account for which the assessment is made.
(d) Shall investigate claims brought against the association and adjust, compromise, settle, and pay covered claims to the extent of the association's obligation and deny all other claims and may review settlements, releases and judgments to which the insolvent insurer or its insureds were parties to determine the extent to which the settlements, releases and judgments may be properly contested.
(e) Shall notify persons as the commissioner directs under subsection (2), section ten of this article.
(f) Shall handle claims through its employees or through one or more insurers or other persons designated as servicing facilities. Designation of a servicing facility is subject to the approval of the commissioner, but the designation may be declined by a member insurer.
(g) Shall reimburse each servicing facility for obligations of the association paid by the facility and for expenses incurred by the facility while handling claims on behalf of the association and shall pay the other expenses of the association authorized by this article.
(2) The association may:
(a) Employ or retain persons that are necessary to handle claims and perform other duties of the association.
(b) Borrow funds necessary to effect the purposes of this article in accord with the plan of operation.
(c) Sue or be sued.
(d) Negotiate and become a party to contracts that are necessary to carry out the purpose of this article.
(e) Perform other acts that are necessary or proper to effectuate the purpose of this article.
(f) Refund to the member insurers in proportion to the contribution of each member insurer to an account that amount by which the assets of the account exceed the liabilities, if, at the end of any calendar year, the board of directors finds that the assets of the association in any account exceed the liabilities of that account as estimated by the board of directors for the coming year.
(a) Submit to the commissioner a plan of operation and any amendments thereto necessary or suitable to assure the fair, reasonable, and equitable administration of the association. The plan of operation and any amendments thereto shall become effective upon approval in writing by the commissioner.
(b) If the association fails to submit a suitable plan of operation within ninety days following the effective date of this article or if at any time thereafter the association fails to submit suitable amendments to the plan, the commissioner shall, after notice and hearing, adopt and promulgate such reasonable rules as are necessary or advisable to effectuate the provisions of this article. Such rules shall continue in force until modified by the commissioner or superseded by a plan submitted by the association and approved by the commissioner. All such rules shall be promulgated in accordance with the provisions of chapter twenty-nine-a of this code.
(2) All member insurers shall comply with the plan of operation.
(3) The plan of operation shall:
(a) Establish the procedures whereby all the powers and duties of the association under section eight of this article will be performed.
(b) Establish procedures for handling assets of the association.
(c) Establish the amount and method of reimbursing members of the board of directors under section seven of this article.
(d) Establish procedures by which claims may be filed with the association and establish acceptable forms of proof of covered claims. Notice of claims to the receiver of the insolvent insurer shall be deemed notice to the association or its agent and a list of such claims shall be periodically submitted to the association or similar organization in another state by the receiver.
(e) Establish regular places and times for meetings of the board of directors.
(f) Establish procedures for records to be kept of all financial transactions of the association, its agents, and the board of directors.
(g) Provide that any member insurer aggrieved by a final action or decision of the association may appeal to the commissioner within thirty days after the action or decision.
(h) Establish the procedures whereby selections for the board of directors will be submitted to the commissioner.
(i) Contain additional provisions necessary or proper for the execution of the powers and duties of the association.
(4) The plan of operation may provide that any or all powers and duties of the association, except those under subdivision (c), subsection (1), and subdivision (b), subsection (2), section eight of this article are delegated to a corporation, association or other organization which performs or will perform functions similar to those of this association, or its equivalent, in two or more states. Such a corporation, association or organization shall be reimbursed as a servicing facility would be reimbursed and shall be paid for its performance of any other functions of the association. A delegation under this subsection shall take effect only with the approval of both the board of directors and the commissioner, and may be made only to a corporation, association, or organization which extends protection not substantially less favorable and effective than that provided by this article.
(a) Notify the association of the existence of an insolvent insurer not later than three days after he receives notice of the determination of the insolvency.
(b) Upon request of the board of directors, provide the association a statement of the net direct written premiums of each member insurer.
(2) The commissioner may:
(a) Require that the association notify the insureds of the insolvent insurer and any other interested parties of the determination of insolvency and of their rights under this article. Such notification shall be by mail at their last known address, where available, but if sufficient information for notification by mail is not available, notice by publication in a newspaper of general circulation shall be sufficient.
(b) Suspend or revoke, after notice and hearing, the certificate of authority to transact insurance in this state of any member insurer which fails to pay an assessment when due or fails to comply with the plan of operation. As an alternative, the commissioner may levy a fine on any member insurer which fails to pay an assessment when due. Such fine shall not exceed five percent of the unpaid assessment per month, except that no fine shall be less than one hundred dollars per month.
(c) Revoke the designation of any servicing facility if he finds claims are being handled unsatisfactorily.
(3) Any final order of the commissioner under this article shall be subject to judicial review as provided by section fourteen, article two of this chapter.
(2) The receiver of an insolvent insurer shall be bound by settlements of covered claims by the association or a similar organization in another state, subject to the approval of the court having jurisdiction of the receivership. The court having jurisdiction shall grant such claims priority equal to that to which the claimant would have been entitled, in the absence of this article, against the assets of the insolvent insurer. The expenses of the association or similar organization in handling claims shall be accorded the same priority as the receiver's expenses.
(3) The association shall periodically file with the receiver of the insolvent insurer statements of the covered claims paid by the association and estimates of anticipated claims against the association which shall preserve the rights of the association against the assets of the insolvent insurer.
(2) Any person having a claim which may be recovered under more than one Insurance Guaranty Association or its equivalent shall seek recovery first from the association of the place of residence of the insured except that if it is a first party claim for damage to property with a permanent location, he or she shall seek recovery first from the association of the location of the property, and if it is a workers' compensation claim, the person shall seek recovery first from the association of the residence of the claimant. Any recovery under this article shall be reduced by the amount of the recovery from any other insurance guaranty association or its equivalent.
(1) It shall be the duty of the board of directors, upon majority vote, to notify the commissioner of any information indicating that any member insurer may be insolvent or in a financial condition hazardous to the policyholders or the public.
(2) The board of directors may, upon majority vote, request that the commissioner order an examination of any member insurer which the board in good faith believes may be in a financial condition hazardous to the policyholders or the public. Within thirty days of the receipt of such request, the commissioner shall begin such examination. The examination may be conducted as a national association of insurance commissioners' examination or may be conducted by such persons as the commissioner designates. The cost of such examination shall be paid by the association and the examination report shall be treated as are other examination reports. In no event shall such examination report be released to the board of directors prior to its release to the public, but this shall not preclude the commissioner from complying with subdivision (3) of this section. The commissioner shall notify the board of directors when the examination is completed. The request for an examination shall be kept on file by the commissioner but it shall not be open to public inspection prior to the release of the examination report to the public.
(3) It shall be the duty of the commissioner to report to the board of directors when he has reasonable cause to believe that any member insurer examined or being examined at the request of the board of directors may be insolvent or in a financial condition hazardous to the policyholders or the public.
(4) The board of directors may, upon majority vote, make reports and recommendations to the commissioner upon any matter germane to the solvency, liquidation, rehabilitation or conservation of any member insurer. Such reports and recommendations shall not be considered public documents.
(5) The board of directors may, upon majority vote, make recommendations to the commissioner for the detection and prevention of insurer insolvencies.
(6) The board of directors shall, at the conclusion of any insurer insolvency in which the association was obligated to pay covered claims, prepare a report on the history and causes of such insolvency, based on the information available to the association, and submit such report to the commissioner.