(a) "Commissioner" means the auditor of the state of West Virginia.
(b) "Agent" means any individual other than a broker-dealer who represents a broker-dealer or issuer in effecting or attempting to effect purchases or sales of securities. "Agent" does not include an individual who represents an issuer in: (1) Effecting transactions in a security exempted by subdivision (1), (2), (3), (10) or (11), subsection (a), section four hundred two of this article; (2) effecting transactions exempted by subsection (b), section four hundred two of this article; (3) effecting transactions in a covered security as described in section 18(b)(3) and section 18(b)(4)(d) of the Securities Act of 1933; (4) effecting transactions with existing employees, partners or directors of the issuer if no commission or other remuneration is paid or given, directly or indirectly, for soliciting any person in this state; or (5) effecting transactions in this state limited to those transactions described in section 15(h)(2) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. A partner, officer or director of a broker-dealer or issuer, or a person occupying a similar status or performing similar functions, is an agent only if he or she otherwise comes within this definition.
(c) "Broker-dealer" means any person engaged in the business of effecting transactions in securities for the account of others or for his or her own account. "Broker-dealer" does not include: (1) An agent; (2) an issuer; (3) a bank, savings institution or trust company; or (4) a person who has no place of business in this state if: (A) He or she effects transactions in this state exclusively with or through: (i) The issuers of the securities involved in the transactions; (ii) other broker-dealers; or (iii) banks, savings institutions, trust companies, insurance companies, investment companies as defined in the Investment Company Act of 1940, pension or profit-sharing trusts or other financial institutions or institutional buyers, whether acting for themselves or as trustees; or (B) during any period of twelve consecutive months he or she does not direct more than fifteen offers to sell or buy into this state in any manner to persons other than those specified in subparagraph (A), paragraph (4) of this subdivision, whether or not the offeror or any of the offerees is then present in this state.
(d) "Fraud", "deceit" and "defraud" are not limited to common-law deceit.
(e) "Guaranteed" means guaranteed as to payment of principal, interest or dividends.
(f) "Federal-covered adviser" means a person who is: (1) Registered under section 203 of the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 or (2) is excluded from the definition of "investment advisor" under section two hundred two-a (11) of the Investment Advisers Act of 1940.
(g) "Investment adviser" means any person who, for compensation, engages in the business of advising others, either directly or through publications or writings, as to the value of securities or as to the advisability of investing in, purchasing or selling securities or who, for compensation and as a part of a regular business, issues or promulgates analyses or reports concerning securities. "Investment adviser" also includes financial planners and other persons who, as an integral component of other financially related services, provide the foregoing investment advisory services to others for compensation and as part of a business or who hold themselves out as providing the foregoing investment advisory services to others for compensation. "Investment adviser" does not include: (1) A bank, savings institution or trust company; (2) a lawyer, accountant, engineer or teacher whose performance of those services is solely incidental to the practice of his or her profession; (3) a broker-dealer whose performance of these services is solely incidental to the conduct of his or her business as a broker-dealer and who receives no special compensation for them; (4) a publisher, employee or columnist of a newspaper, news magazine or business or financial publication or an owner, operator, producer or employee of a cable, radio or television network, station or production facility if, in either case, the financial or business news published or disseminated is made available to the general public and the content does not consist of rendering advice on the basis of the specific investment situation of each client; (5) a person whose advice, analyses or reports relate only to securities exempted by subdivision (1), subsection (a), section four hundred two of this article; (6) a person who has no place of business in this state if: (A) His or her only clients in this state are other investment advisers, broker-dealers, banks, savings institutions, trust companies, insurance companies, investment companies as defined in the Investment Company Act of 1940, pension or profit-sharing trusts or other financial institutions or institutional buyers, whether acting for themselves or as trustees; or (B) during any period of twelve consecutive months he or she does not have more than five clients who are residents of this state other than those specified in subparagraph (A), paragraph (6), of this subdivision, whether or not he or she or any of the persons to whom the communications are directed is then present in this state; (7) an investment adviser representative; (8) a "federal-covered adviser"; or (9) such other persons not within the intent of this paragraph as the commissioner may by rule or order designate.
(h) "Investment adviser representative" means any partner, officer, director of or a person occupying a similar status or performing similar functions or other individual, except clerical or ministerial personnel, who is employed by or associated with an investment adviser that is registered or required to be registered under this chapter or who has a place of business located in this state and is employed by or associated with a federal-covered adviser; and including clerical or ministerial personnel, who does any of the following: (1) Makes any recommendations or otherwise renders advice regarding securities; (2) manages accounts or portfolios of clients; (3) determines which recommendation or advice regarding securities should be given; (4) solicits, offers or negotiates for the sale of or sells investment advisory services unless the person is registered as an agent pursuant to this article; or (5) supervises employees who perform any of the foregoing unless the person is registered as an agent pursuant to this article.
(i) "Issuer" means any person who issues or proposes to issue any security, except that: (1) With respect to certificates of deposit, voting-trust certificates or collateral-trust certificates or with respect to certificates of interest or shares in an unincorporated investment trust not having a board of directors or persons performing similar functions or of the fixed, restricted management or unit type, the term "issuer" means the person or persons performing the acts and assuming the duties of depositor or manager pursuant to the provisions of the trust or other agreement or instrument under which the security is issued; and (2) with respect to certificates of interest or participation in oil, gas or mining titles or leases or in payments out of production under such titles or leases, there is not considered to be any "issuer".
(j) "Nonissuer" means not, directly or indirectly, for the benefit of the issuer.
(k) "Person" means an individual, a corporation, a partnership, an association, a joint-stock company, a trust where the interests of the beneficiaries are evidenced by a security, an unincorporated organization, a government or a political subdivision of a government.
(l) (1) "Sale" or "sell" includes every contract of sale of, contract to sell, or disposition of a security or interest in a security for value;
(2) "Offer" or "offer to sell" includes every attempt or offer to dispose of, or solicitation of an offer to buy, a security or interest in a security for value;
(3) Any security given or delivered with, or as a bonus on account of, any purchase of securities or any other thing is considered to constitute part of the subject of the purchase and to have been offered and sold for value;
(4) A purported gift of assessable stock is considered to involve an offer and sale;
(5) Every sale or offer of a warrant or right to purchase or subscribe to another security of the same or another issuer, as well as every sale or offer of a security which gives the holder a present or future right or privilege to convert into another security of the same or another issuer, is considered to include an offer of the other security;
(6) The terms defined in this subdivision do not include: (A) Any bona fide pledge or loan; (B) any stock dividend, whether the corporation distributing the dividend is the issuer of the stock or not, if nothing of value is given by stockholders for the dividend other than the surrender of a right to a cash or property dividend when each stockholder may elect to take the dividend in cash or property or in stock; (C) any act incident to a class vote by stockholders, pursuant to the certificate of incorporation or the applicable corporation statute, on a merger, consolidation, reclassification of securities or sale of corporate assets in consideration of the issuance of securities of another corporation; or (D) any act incident to a judicially approved reorganization in which a security is issued in exchange for one or more outstanding securities, claims or property interests, or partly in such exchange and partly for cash.
(m) "Securities Act of 1933", "Securities Exchange Act of 1934", "Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935" and "Investment Company Act of 1940" mean the federal statutes of those names as amended before the effective date of this chapter. The National Securities Markets Improvement Act of 1996 ("NSMIA") means the federal statute which makes certain amendments to the Securities Act of 1933, the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the Investment Company Act of 1940 and the Investment Advisers Act of 1940.
(n) "Security" means any note; stock; treasury stock; bond; debenture; evidence of indebtedness; certificate of interest or participation in any profit-sharing agreement; collateral-trust certificate; preorganization certificate or subscription; transferable share; investment contract; voting-trust certificate; certificate of deposit for a security; viatical settlement contract; certificate of interest or participation in an oil, gas or mining title or lease or in payments out of production under such a title or lease; or, in general, any interest or instrument commonly known as a "security" or any certificate of interest or participation in, temporary or interim certificate for, receipt for, guarantee of or warrant or right to subscribe to or purchase any of the foregoing. "Security" does not include any insurance or endowment policy or annuity contract under which an insurance company promises to pay money either in a lump sum or periodically for life or some other specified period: Provided, That "security" does include insurance or endowment policies or annuity contracts that are viatical settlement contracts or agreements for the purchase, sale, assignment, transfer, devise or bequest of any portion of a death benefit or ownership of a life insurance policy or certificate that is less than the expected death benefit of the life insurance policy or certificate.
(o) "Federal-covered security" means any security that is a covered security under section 18(b) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended by the National Securities Markets Improvement Act of 1996, or rules promulgated thereunder.
(p) "State" means any state, territory or possession of the United States, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico.
(q) "Branch office" means any location other than the main office, identified to the public, customers or clients as a location where a broker-dealer or investment adviser or federal-covered adviser conducts a securities or investment adviser business. Branch office does not include:
(1) A location identified solely in a telephone directory line listing or on a business card or letterhead if: (A) The listing, card or letterhead also includes the address and telephone number of the broker-dealer or investment adviser or federal covered adviser where the individuals conducting business from the location are directly supervised; and (B) no more than one agent or investment adviser representative transacts business on behalf of the broker-dealer or investment adviser or federal-covered adviser from an identified location; or
(2) Any other location as the commissioner may determine.
(1) Any security (including a revenue obligation) issued or guaranteed by the United States, any state, any political subdivision of a state, or any agency or corporate or other instrumentality of one or more of the foregoing; or any certificate of deposit for any of the foregoing;
(2) Any security issued or guaranteed by Canada, any Canadian province, any political subdivision of any such province, any agency or corporate or other instrumentality of one or more of the foregoing, or any other foreign government with which the United States currently maintains diplomatic relations, if the security is recognized as a valid obligation by the issuer or guarantor;
(3) Any security issued by and representing an interest in or a debt of, or guaranteed by, any bank organized under the laws of the United States, or any bank, savings institution or trust company organized and supervised under the laws of any state;
(4) Any security issued by and representing an interest in or a debt of, or guaranteed by, any federal savings and loan association, or any building and loan or similar association organized under the laws of any state and authorized to do business in this state;
(5) Any security issued by and representing an interest in ora debt of, or guaranteed by, any insurance company organized under the laws of any state and authorized to do business in this state;
(6) Any security issued or guaranteed by any federal credit union or any credit union, industrial loan association or similar association organized and supervised under the laws of this state;
(7) Any security issued or guaranteed by any railroad, other common carrier, public utility or holding company which is: (A) Subject to the jurisdiction of the interstate commerce commission; (B) a registered holding company under the Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935, or a subsidiary of such a company within the meaning of that act; (C) regulated in respect of its rates and charges by a governmental authority of the United States or any state; or (D) regulated in respect of the issuance or guarantee of the security by a governmental authority of the United States, any state, Canada, or any Canadian province;
(8) Any security listed or approved for listing upon notice of issuance on the New York Stock Exchange, the American Stock Exchange, or the Midwest Stock Exchange, any other stock exchange approved by the commissioner, the National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotation/National Market System (NASDAQ/NMS), or any other market system approved by the commissioner, any other security of the same issuer which is of senior or substantially equal rank, any security called for by subscription rights or warrants so listed or approved, or any warrant or right to purchase or subscribe to any of the foregoing,except that the commissioner may adopt and promulgate rules pursuant to chapter twenty-nine-a of this code which, after notice to such exchange or market system and an opportunity to be heard, remove any such exchange or market system from this exemption if the commissioner finds that the listing requirements or market surveillance of such exchange or market system are such that the continued availability of such exemption for such exchange or market system is not in the public interest and that removal is necessary for the protection of investors;
(9) Any security issued by any person organized and operated not for private profit but exclusively for religious, educational, benevolent, charitable, fraternal, social, athletic or reformatory purposes, or as a chamber of commerce or trade or professional association, and no part of the net earnings of which inures to the benefit of any person, private stockholder or individual;
(10) Any commercial paper which arises out of a current transaction or the proceeds of which have been or are to be used for current transactions, and which evidences an obligation to pay cash within twelve months of the date of issuance, exclusive of days of grace, or any renewal of such paper which is likewise limited, or any guarantee of such paper or of any such renewal;
(11) Any investment contract issued in connection with an employees' stock purchase, savings, pension, profit-sharing or similar benefit plan if the commissioner is notified in writing thirty days before the inception of the plan or, with respect toplans which are in effect on the effective date of this chapter, within sixty days thereafter (or within thirty days before they are reopened if they are closed on the effective date of this chapter);
(12) Any security issued by an agricultural cooperative association operating in this state and organized under article four, chapter nineteen of this code, or by a foreign cooperative association organized under the laws of another state and duly qualified to transact business in this state.
(b) The following transactions are exempt from sections 301 and 403:
(1) Any isolated nonissuer transaction, whether effected through a broker-dealer or not;
(2) Any nonissuer distribution of an outstanding security if: (A) A recognized securities manual contains the names of the issuer's officers and directors, a balance sheet of the issuer as of a date within eighteen months, and a profit and loss statement for either the fiscal year preceding that date or the most recent year of operations; or (B) the security has a fixed maturity or a fixed interest or dividend provision and there has been no default during the current fiscal year or within the three preceding fiscal years, or during the existence of the issuer and any predecessors if less than three years, in the payment of principal, interest or dividends on the security;
(3) Any nonissuer transaction effected by or through a registered broker-dealer pursuant to an unsolicited order or offerto buy; but the commissioner may by rule require that the customer acknowledge upon a specified form that the sale was unsolicited, and that a signed copy of each such form be preserved by the broker-dealer for a specified period;
(4) Any transaction between the issuer or other person on whose behalf the offering is made and an underwriter, or among underwriters;
(5) Any transaction in a bond or other evidence of indebtedness secured by a real or chattel mortgage or deed of trust, or by an agreement for the sale of real estate or chattels, if the entire mortgage, deed of trust, or agreement, together with all the bonds or other evidences of indebtedness secured thereby, is offered and sold as a unit;
(6) Any transaction by an executor, administrator, sheriff, marshal, constable, receiver, trustee in bankruptcy, guardian or conservator, and any transaction constituting a judicial sale;
(7) Any transaction executed by a bona fide pledgee without any purpose of evading this chapter;
(8) Any offer or sale to a bank, savings institution, trust company, insurance company, investment company as defined in the Investment Company Act of 1940, pension or profit-sharing trust, or other financial institution or institutional buyer, or to a broker-dealer, whether the purchaser is acting for itself or in some fiduciary capacity;
(9) Any transaction pursuant to an offer directed by theofferor to not more than ten persons (other than those designated in subdivision (8) above) in this state during any period of twelve consecutive months, whether or not the offeror or any of the offerees is then present in this state, if: (A) The seller reasonably believes that all the buyers in this state (other than those designated in subdivision (8) above) are purchasing for investment; and (B) no commission or other remuneration is paid or given, directly or indirectly, for soliciting any prospective buyer in this state (other than those designated in subdivision (8) above), but the commissioner may by rule or order, as to any security or transaction or any type of security or transaction, withdraw or further condition this exemption, or increase or decrease the number of offerees permitted, or waive the conditions in clauses (A) and (B) with or without the substitution of a limitation on remuneration;
(10) Any offer or sale of a preorganization certificate or subscription if: (A) No commission or other remuneration is paid or given, directly or indirectly, for soliciting any prospective subscriber; (B) the number of subscribers does not exceed ten; and (C) no payment is made by any subscriber;
(11) Any transaction pursuant to an offer to existing security holders of the issuer, including persons who at the time of the transaction are holders of convertible securities, nontransferable warrants or transferable warrants exercisable within not more than ninety days of their issuance, if: (A) No commission or otherremuneration (other than a standby commission) is paid or given, directly or indirectly, for soliciting any security holder in this state; or (B) the issuer first files a notice specifying the terms of the offer and the commissioner does not by order disallow the exemption within the next five full business days;
(12) Any offer (but not a sale) of a security for which registration statements have been filed under both this chapter and the Securities Act of 1933 if no stop order or refusal order is in effect and no public proceeding or examination looking toward such an order is pending under either chapter.
(c) The commissioner may by order deny or revoke any exemption specified in subdivision (9) or (11) of subsection (a) or in subsection (b) of this section with respect to a specific security or transaction. No such order may be entered without appropriate prior notice to all interested parties, opportunity for hearing, and written findings of fact and conclusions of law, except that the commissioner may by order summarily deny or revoke any of the specified exemptions pending final determination of any proceeding under this subsection. Upon the entry of a summary order, the commissioner shall promptly notify all interested parties that it has been entered and of the reasons therefor and that within fifteen days of the receipt of a written request the matter will be set down for hearing. If no hearing is requested and none is ordered by the commissioner, the order will remain in effect until it is modified or vacated by the commissioner. If ahearing is requested or ordered, the commissioner, after notice of and opportunity for hearing to all interested persons, may modify or vacate the order or extend it until final determination. No order under this subsection may operate retroactively. No person may be considered to have violated section 301 or 403 by reasons of any offer or sale effected after the entry of an order under this subsection if he or she sustains the burden of proof that he or she did not know, and in the exercise of reasonable care could not have known, of the order.
(d) In any proceeding under this chapter, the burden of proving an exemption or an exception from a definition is upon the person claiming it.
(b) It is unlawful to make, or cause to be made, to any prospective purchaser, customer or client any representation inconsistent with subsection (a).
(a) This chapter shall be administered by the auditor of this state and he or she is hereby designated, and shall be, the commissioner of securities of this state. He or she has the power and authority to appoint or employ such assistants as are necessary for the administration of this chapter.
(b) The auditor shall set up a special operating fund for the securities division in his or her office. The auditor shall pay into the fund twenty percent of all fees collected as provided for in this chapter. If, at the end of any fiscal year, the balance in the operating fund exceeds half of the prior fiscal year's appropriation, the excess shall be transferred to the general revenue fund.
The special operating fund shall be used by the auditor to fund the operation of the securities division and the general operations of the auditor's office. The special operating fund shall be appropriated by line item by the Legislature.
(c) Moneys payable for assessments established by section four hundred seven-a of this article shall be collected by the commissioner and deposited into the general revenue fund.
(d) It is unlawful for the commissioner or any of his or her officers or employees to use for personal benefit any information which is filed with or obtained by the commissioner and which is not made public. No provision of this chapter authorizes the commissioner or any of his or her officers or employees to disclose any information except among themselves or when necessary or appropriate in a proceeding or investigation under this chapter. No provision of the chapter either creates or derogates from any privilege which exists at common law or otherwise when documentary or other evidence is sought under a subpoena directed to the commissioner or any of his or her officers or employees.
(1) The commissioner may appoint special investigators to aid in investigations conducted pursuant to chapter thirty-two, thirty-two-a or thirty-two-b of this code.
(2) The commissioner, deputy commissioners and each investigator, prior to entering upon the discharge of his or her duties, shall take an oath before any justice of the West Virginia supreme court of appeals, circuit judge or magistrate which is to be in the following form:
State of West Virginia
County of ..........................., to wit: I, ..............., do solemnly swear that I will support the constitution of the United States, the constitution of the state of West Virginia, and I will honestly and faithfully perform the duties imposed upon me under the provisions of law as a member of the securities commission of West Virginia to the best of my skill and judgment.
Taken, subscribed and sworn to before me, this ....... day of ........................ 2 ........
(3) The oaths of the commissioner, deputy commissioner or commissioners and investigators of the West Virginia securities commission are to be filed and preserved in the office of the state auditor.
(b) Investigations and subpoenas. --
(1) The commissioner in his or her discretion: (A) May make such public or private investigations within or outside of this state as he or she considers necessary to determine whether any person has violated or is about to violate any provision of this chapter or any rule or order hereunder, or to aid in the enforcement of this chapter or in the prescribing of rules and forms hereunder; (B) may require or permit any person to file a statement in writing, under oath or otherwise as the commissioner determines, as to all the facts and circumstances concerning the matter to be investigated; and (C) may publish information concerning any violation of this chapter or any rule or order hereunder.
(2) For the purpose of any investigation or proceeding under this chapter, the commissioner, deputy commissioner or commissioners, if any, and special investigators appointed pursuant to this section may administer oaths and affirmations, subpoena witnesses, compel attendance of witnesses, take and store evidence in compliance with the policies and procedures of the West Virginia state police and require the production of any books, papers, correspondence, memoranda, agreements or other documents or records which the commissioner finds relevant or material to the inquiry.
(3) In case of contumacy by, or refusal to obey a subpoena issued to, any person, the circuit court of Kanawha County, upon application by the commissioner, may issue to the person an order requiring him or her to appear before the commissioner, or the officer designated by him or her, to produce documentary evidence if so ordered or to give evidence touching the matter under investigation or in question. Failure to obey the order of the court may be punished by the court as a contempt of court.
(4) No person is excused from attending and testifying or from producing any document or record before the commissioner, or in obedience to the subpoena of the commissioner or any officer designated by him or her, or in any proceeding instituted by the commissioner on the ground that the testimony or evidence (documentary or otherwise) required of him or her may tend to incriminate him or her or subject him or her to a penalty or forfeiture; but no individual may be prosecuted or subjected to any penalty or forfeiture for or on account of any transaction, matter or thing concerning which he or she is compelled, after claiming his or her privilege against self-incrimination to testify or produce evidence (documentary or otherwise), except that the individual testifying is not exempt from prosecution and punishment for perjury or contempt committed in testifying.
(5) Civil and criminal investigations undertaken by the West Virginia securities commission are not subject to the requirements of article nine-a, chapter six of this code and chapter twenty-nine-b of this code.
(6) Nothing in this chapter may be construed to authorize the commissioner, a deputy commissioner, a special investigator appointed pursuant to this section or any other employee of the state auditor to carry or use a hand gun or other firearm in the discharge of his or her duties under this article.
(7) Nothing in this chapter limits the power of the state to punish any person for any conduct which constitutes a crime.
(b) After giving notice and opportunity for a hearing, the commissioner may issue an order accompanied by written findings of fact and conclusions of law which imposes an administrative assessment in an amount provided in subdivision (1) against a broker-dealer, agent, investment adviser or investment adviser representative registered under section two hundred one, article two of this chapter, or an affiliate of the broker-dealer or investment adviser where the commissioner finds that the person either willfully has violated this article or a rule or order of the commissioner under this article or has engaged in dishonest or unethical practices in the securities business or has taken unfairadvantage of a customer.
(1) The commissioner, in issuing an order under this subsection may impose an administrative assessment of up to ten thousand dollars for a single violation or of up to fifty thousand dollars for multiple violations in a single proceeding or a series of related proceedings. Each act or omission that provides a basis for issuing an order under this subsection shall constitute a separate violation.
(2) For purposes of determining the amount of administrative assessment to be imposed in an order issued under this subsection, the commissioner shall consider:
(i) The circumstances, nature, frequency, seriousness, magnitude, persistence and willfulness of the conduct constituting the violation;
(ii) The scope of the violation, including the number of persons in and out of this state affected by the conduct constituting the violation;
(iii) The amount of restitution or compensation that the violator has made and the number of persons in this state to whom the restitution or compensation has been made;
(iv) Past and concurrent conduct of the violator that has given rise to any sanctions or judgment imposed by, or plea of guilty or nolo contendere or settlement with, the commissioner or any securities administrator of any other state or other country, any court of competent jurisdiction, the securities and exchangecommissioner, the commodity futures trading commission, any other federal or state agency or any national securities association or national securities exchange as defined in the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (48 Stat. 88a, 15 U.S.C. 78A et seq.);
(v) Any other factor that the commissioner finds appropriate in the public interest or for the protection of investors and consistent with the purposes fairly intended by the policy and provisions of this article.
(3) An administrative assessment imposed by an order issued under this subsection is not mutually exclusive of any other remedy available under this article.
(4) The commissioner shall not impose an administrative assessment with respect to any public proceeding which was instituted prior to the date of enactment of this section.
(b) The commissioner may refer such evidence as is available concerning violations of this chapter or of any rule or order hereunder to the proper prosecuting attorney, who may, with or without such a reference, institute the appropriate criminal proceedings under this chapter.
(c) Nothing in this chapter limits the power of the state to punish any person for any conduct which constitutes a crime by statute or at common law.
(1) Offers or sells a security in violation of section 201(a), 301, 403 or 405(b), or of any condition imposed under section 304(d), 305(g) or 305(h), or
(2) Offers or sells a security by means of any untrue statement of a material fact or any omission to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements made, in the light of the circumstances under which they are made, not misleading (the buyer not knowing of the untruth or omission), and who does not sustain the burden of proof that he did not know, and in the exercise of reasonable care could not have known, of the untruth or omission, is liable to the person buying the security from him, who may assert a claim in a civil action to recover the consideration paid for the security, together with interest at nine percent per year from the date of payment, costs and reasonable attorneys' fees, less the amount of any income received on the security, upon the tender of the security, or for damages if he no longer owns the security. Damages are the amount that would be recoverable upon a tender less the value of the security when the buyer disposed of it and interest at nine percent per year from the date of disposition.
(b) Every person who directly or indirectly controls a seller liable under subsection (a), every partner, officer or director of such a seller, every person occupying a similar status or performing similar functions, every employee of such a seller who materially aids in the sale, and every broker-dealer or agent who materially aids in the sale are also liable jointly and severally with and to the same extent as the seller, unless the nonseller who is so liable sustains the burden of proof that he did not know, and in exercise of reasonable care could not have known, of the existence of the facts by reason of which the liability is alleged to exist. There is contribution as in cases of contract among the several persons so liable.
(c) Any tender specified in this section may be made at any time before entry of judgment.
(d) Every cause of action under this statute survives the death of any person who might have been a plaintiff or defendant.
(e) No person may sue under this section more than three years after the sale.
(f) No person who has made or engaged in the performance of any contract in violation of any provision of this chapter or any rule or order hereunder, or who has acquired any purported right under any such contract with knowledge of the facts by reason of which its making or performance was in violation, may base any suit on the contract.
(g) Any condition, stipulation or provision binding any person acquiring any security to waive compliance with any provision of this chapter or any rule or order hereunder is void.
(h) The rights and remedies provided by this chapter are in addition to any other rights or remedies that may exist at law or in equity, but this chapter does not create any cause of action not specified in this section or section 202(e).
(b) The commencement of proceedings under subsection (a) does not, unless specifically ordered by the court, operate as a stay of the commissioner's order.
(b) No rule, form, or order may be made, amended or rescinded unless the commissioner finds that the action is necessary or appropriate in the public interest or for the protection of investors and consistent with the purposes fairly intended by the policy and provisions of this chapter. In prescribing rules and forms the commissioner may cooperate with the securities administrators of the other states and the securities and exchange commission with a view to effectuating the policy of this statute to achieve maximum uniformity in the form and content of registration statements, applications and reports wherever practicable.
(c) The commissioner may by rule or order prescribe (1) the form and content of financial statements required under this chapter, (2) the circumstances under which consolidated financial statements shall be filed, and (3) whether any required financial statements shall be certified by independent or certified public accountants. All financial statements shall be prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting practices.
(d) All rules and forms of the commissioner shall be published.
(e) No provision of this chapter imposing any liability applies to any act done or omitted in good faith in conformity with any rule, form or order of the commissioner, notwithstanding that the rule, form or order may later be amended or rescinded or be determined by judicial or other authority to be invalid for any reason.
(f) Every hearing in an administrative proceeding shall be public.
(b) The commissioner shall keep a register of all notice filings and all applications for registration and registration statements which are or have ever been effective under this chapter and all denial, suspension or revocation orders which have been entered under this chapter. The register shall be open for public inspection.
(c) The information contained in or filed with any registration statement, application or report may be made available to the public under rules prescribed by the commissioner.
(d) Upon request and at such reasonable charges as he or she prescribes, the commissioner shall furnish to any person photostatic or other copies (certified under his or her seal of office if requested) of any entry in the register or any document which is a matter of public record. In any proceeding or prosecution under this chapter, any copy so certified is prima facie evidence of the contents of the entry or document certified.
(e) The commissioner in his or her discretion may honor requests from interested persons for interpretative opinions. Copies of the opinions shall be filed in a special file maintained for that purpose and shall be public records available for public inspection. The commissioner shall charge a one hundred-dollar fee for each interpretative opinion.
(b) Sections 101, 201(a) and 405 apply to persons who buy or offer to buy when (1) an offer to buy is made in this state, or (2) an offer to sell is made and accepted in this state.
(c) For the purpose of this section, an offer to sell or to buy is made in this state, whether or not either party is then present in this state, when the offer: (1) Originates from this state; or (2) is directed by the offeror to this state and received at the place to which it is directed (or at any post office in this state in the case of a mailed offer).
(d) For the purpose of this section, an offer to buy or to sell is accepted in this state when acceptance: (1) Is communicated to the offeror in this state; and (2) has not previously been communicated to the offeror, orally or in writing, outside this state; and acceptance is communicated to the offeror in this state, whether or not either party is then present in this state, when the offeree directs it to the offeror in this state reasonably believing the offeror to be in this state and it is received at the place to which it is directed (or at any post office in this state in the case of a mailed acceptance).
(e) An offer to sell or to buy is not made in this state when (1) the publisher circulates or there is circulated on his or herbehalf in this state any bona fide newspaper or other publication of general, regular and paid circulation which is not published in this state, or which is published in this state but has had more than two thirds of its circulation outside this state during the past twelve months, or (2) a radio or television program originating outside this state is received in this state.
(f) Sections 102 and 201(c), as well as section 405 so far as investment advisers are concerned, apply when any act instrumental in effecting prohibited conduct is done in this state, whether or not either party is then present in this state.
(g) Every person making a notice filing and every applicant for registration under this chapter and every issuer which proposes to offer a security in this state through any person acting on an agency basis in the common-law sense shall file with the commissioner, in such form as he or she by rule prescribes, an irrevocable consent appointing the commissioner or his or her successor in office to be his or her attorney to receive service of any lawful process in any noncriminal suit, action or proceeding against him or her or his or her successor, executor or administrator which arises under this chapter or any rule or order hereunder after the consent has been filed, with the same force and validity as if served personally on the person filing the consent. A person who has filed such a consent in connection with a previous registration need not file another. Service may be made by leaving a copy of the process in the office of the commissioner, but it isnot effective unless: (1) The plaintiff, who may be the commissioner in a suit, action or proceeding instituted by him, forthwith sends notice of the service and a copy of the process by registered or certified mail to the defendant or respondent at his or her last address on file with the commissioner; and (2) the plaintiff's affidavit of compliance with this subsection is filed in the case on or before the return day of the process, if any, or within such further time as the court allows.
(h) When any person, including any nonresident of this state, engages in conduct prohibited or made actionable by this chapter or any rule or order hereunder, and he or she has not filed a consent to service of process under subsection (g) of this section and personal jurisdiction over him or her cannot otherwise be obtained in this state, that conduct shall be considered equivalent to his or her appointment of the commissioner or his or her successor in office to be his or her attorney to receive service of any lawful process in any noncriminal suit, action or proceeding against him or her or his or her successor, executor or administrator which grows out of that conduct and which is brought under this chapter or any rule or order hereunder, with the same force and validity as if served on him or her personally. Service may be made by leaving a copy of the process in the office of the commissioner, and it is not effective unless (1) the plaintiff, who may be the commissioner in a suit, action or proceeding instituted by him, forthwith sends notice of the service and a copy of the process by registered orcertified mail to the defendant or respondent at his or her last-known address or takes other steps which are reasonably calculated to give actual notice, and (2) the plaintiff's affidavit of compliance with this subsection is filed in the case on or before the return day of the process, if any, or within such further time as the court allows.
(i) When process is served under this section, the court, or the commissioner in a proceeding before him, shall order such continuance as may be necessary to afford the defendant or respondent reasonable opportunity to defend.
(b) All effective registrations under prior law, all administrative orders relating to such registrations, and all conditions imposed upon such registrations remain in effect so long as they would have remained in effect if this chapter had not been enacted. They are considered to have been filed, entered or imposed under this chapter, but are governed by prior law.
(c) Prior law applies in respect of any offer or sale made within one year after the effective date of this chapter pursuant to an offering begun in good faith before its effective date on the basis of an exemption available under prior law.
(d) Judicial review of all administrative orders as to which review proceedings have not been instituted by the effective date of this chapter are governed by section 411, except that no review proceeding may be instituted unless the petition is filed within any period of limitation which applied to a review proceeding when the order was entered and in any event within sixty days after the effective date of this chapter.
Note: WV Code updated with legislation passed through the 2016 Regular Session
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