For subcontractors, compliance with this section may take place before their work on the public improvement is begun.
A drug-free workplace policy shall include the following:
(1) Establish drug testing and alcohol testing protocols that at a minimum require a contractor to:
(A) Conduct preemployment drug tests of all employees;
(B) Conduct random drug testing that annually tests at least ten percent of the contractor's employees who perform safety-sensitive duties;
(C) Conduct a drug test or alcohol test of any employee who may have caused or contributed to an accident while conducting job duties where reasonable cause exists to suspect that the employee may be intoxicated or under the influence of a controlled substance not prescribed by the employee's physician when, but not limited to, the employer has evidence that an employee is or was using alcohol or a controlled substance drawn from specific documented, objective facts and reasonable inferences drawn from these facts in light of experience and training.
The drug or alcohol test shall be conducted as soon as possible after the accident occurred and after any necessary medical attention has been administered to the employee.
(D) Conduct a drug test or alcohol test of any employee when a trained supervisor has reasonable cause to believe that the employee has reported to work or is working under the influence of a drug of abuse or alcohol. Written documentation as to the nature of a supervisor's reasonable cause shall be created.
In order to ascertain and justify implementation of a reasonable cause test, all supervisors will be trained to recognize drug- and alcohol-related signs and symptoms.
(2) Require that all drug tests performed pursuant to this section be conducted by a laboratory certified by the United States Department of Health and Human Services or its successor;
(3) Establish standards governing the performance of drug tests by such a laboratory that include, but are not limited to, the following:
(A) The collection of urine specimens of individuals in a scientifically or medically approved manner and under reasonable and sanitary conditions;
(B) The collection and testing of urine specimens with due regard for the privacy of the individual being tested and in a manner reasonably calculated to prevent substitutions or interference with the collection and testing of specimens;
(C) The documentation of urine specimens through procedures that reasonably preclude the possibility of erroneous identification of test results and that provide the individual being tested a reasonable opportunity to furnish information identifying any prescription or nonprescription drugs used by the individual in connection with a medical condition to the medical review officer;
(D) The collection, maintenance, storage and transportation of urine specimens in a manner that reasonably precludes the possibility of contamination or adulteration of the specimens;
(E) The testing of a urine specimen of an individual to determine if the individual ingested, was injected or otherwise introduced with a drug of abuse in a manner that conforms to scientifically accepted analytical methods and procedures that include verification and confirmation of any positive test result by gas chromatography or mass spectrometry.
(4) Establish standards and procedures governing the performance of alcohol tests;
(5) Require that a medical review officer review all drug tests that yield a positive result;
(6) Establish procedures by which an individual who undergoes a drug test or alcohol test may contest a positive test result;
(7) Require that when an employee of a contractor tests positive for a drug of abuse or alcohol, or if an employee is caught adulterating a drug or alcohol test, as defined in section four hundred twelve, article four, chapter sixty-a of this code, the employee shall be subject to appropriate disciplinary measures up to and including termination from employment, in accordance with the contractor's written drug-free workplace policy. If not terminated, the employee shall be subject to random drug or alcohol tests at any time for one year after the positive test;
(8) Require that when a supervisor has reasonable cause to believe an employee is under the influence of a drug of abuse or alcohol at work and requires the employee to take a drug or alcohol test, the employee shall immediately be suspended from performing safety-sensitive tasks by the contractor until such time as a drug or alcohol test is performed and results of that test are available;
(9) Require a contractor to provide to any employee testing positive for a drug of abuse or alcohol the list of community resources where employees may seek assistance for themselves or their families as identified in paragraph (D), subdivision (12) of this section;
(10) Require that a contractor assist an employee who voluntarily acknowledges that the employee may have a substance abuse problem by providing the list of community resources where employees may seek assistance for themselves or their families as identified in paragraph (D), subdivision (12) of this section;
(11) Require that a contractor establish a written drug-free workplace policy regarding substance abuse and provide a copy of the written policy to each of its employees and to each applicant for employment. The written policy shall contain, at a minimum, all of the following:
(A) A summary of all the elements of the drug-free workplace policy established in accordance with this article;
(B) A statement that it is the contractor's intention to create a drug-free workplace environment;
(C) Identification of an employee who has been designated the contractor's drug-free workplace representative;
(D) Shall list the types of tests an employee may be subject to, which may include, but are not limited to, the following:
(iii) Random; and
(iv) Reasonable cause.
(12) Require that a contractor provide within six weeks of new employment at least two hours of drug-free workplace employee education for all employees unless that employee has already received such training anytime within a prior two-year period. The employee shall participate in drug-free workplace employee education at least biannually thereafter. The employee education shall include all of the following:
(A) Detailed information about the content of the contractor's specific drug-free workplace policy and an opportunity for employees to ask questions regarding the policy;
(B) The distribution of a hard copy of the written drug-free workplace policy, including collecting an employee-signed acknowledgment receipt from each employee;
(C) Specific explanation of the basics of drugs and alcohol abuse, including, but not limited to, the disease model, signs and symptoms associated with substance abuse, and the effects and dangers of drugs or alcohol in the workplace; and
(D) A list of community resources where employees may seek assistance for themselves or their families.
(13) Require that a contractor provide at least two hours of drug-free workplace supervisor training for all supervisory employees and annually thereafter. The supervisor training shall include all of the following:
(A) How to recognize a possible drug or alcohol problem;
(B) How to document behaviors that demonstrate a drug or alcohol problem;
(C) How to confront employees with the problem from observed behaviors;
(D) How to initiate reasonable suspicion and post-accident testing;
(E) How to handle the procedures associated with random testing;
(F) How to make an appropriate referral for assessment and assistance;
(G) How to follow up with employees returning to work after a positive test; and
(H) How to handle drug-free workplace responsibilities in a manner that is consistent with the applicable sections of any pertinent collective bargaining agreements.
Note: WV Code updated with legislation passed through the 2016 Regular Session
The West Virginia Code Online is an unofficial copy of the annotated WV Code, provided as a convenience. It has NOT been edited for publication, and is not in any way official or authoritative.