ARTICLE IX. AUTHENTICATION AND IDENTIFICATION
RULE 902. SELF-AUTHENTICATION
Extrinsic evidence of authenticity as a condition precedent to
admissibility is not required with respect to the following:
(1) Domestic Public Documents Under Seal. A document bearing
a seal purporting to be that of the United States, or of any state,
district, commonwealth, territory, or insular possession thereof,
or the Panama Canal Zone, or the Trust Territory of the Pacific
Islands, or of a political subdivision, department, officer, or
agency thereof, and a signature purporting to be an attestation or
(2) Domestic Public Documents Not Under Seal. A document
purporting to bear the signature in the official capacity of an
officer or employee of any entity included in paragraph (1) hereof,
having no seal, if a public officer having a seal and having
official duties in the district or political subdivision of the
officer or employee certifies under seal that the signer has the
official capacity and that the signature is genuine.
(3) Foreign Public Documents. A document purporting to be
executed or attested in an official capacity by a person authorized
by the laws of a foreign country to make the execution or
attestation, and accompanied by a final certification as to the
genuineness of the signature and official position (A) of the
executing or attesting person, or (B) of any foreign official whose
certificate of genuineness of signature and official position relates to the execution or attestation or is in a chain of
certificates of genuineness of signature and official position
relating to the execution or attestation. A final certification
may be made by a secretary of embassy or legation, consul general,
consul, vice consul, or consular agent of the United States, or a
diplomatic or consular official of the foreign country assigned or
accredited to the United States. If reasonable opportunity has
been given to all parties to investigate the authenticity and
accuracy of official documents, the court may, for good cause
shown, order that they be treated as presumptively authentic
without final certification or permit them to be evidenced by an
attested summary with or without final certification.
(4) Certified Copies of Public Records. A copy of an official
record or report or entry therein, or of a document authorized by
law to be recorded or filed and actually recorded or filed in a
public office, including data compilations in any form, certified
as correct by the custodian or other person authorized to make the
certification, by certificate complying with paragraph (1), (2), or
(3) of this rule or complying with any law of the United States or
of this state.
(5) Official Publications. Books, pamphlets, or other
publications purporting to be issued by public authority.
(6) Newspapers and Periodicals. Printed materials purporting
to be newspapers or periodicals.
(7) Trade Inscriptions and the Like. Inscriptions, signs, tags, or labels purporting to have been affixed in the course of
business and indicating ownership, control, or origin.
(8) Acknowledged Documents. Documents accompanied by a
certificate of acknowledgment executed in the manner provided by
law by a notary public or other officer authorized by law to take
(9) Commercial Paper and Related Documents. Commercial paper,
signatures thereon, and documents relating thereto to the extent
provided by general commercial law.
(10) Presumptions Created by Law. Any signature, document, or
other matter declared by any law of the United States or of this
state to be presumptively or prima facie genuine or authentic.
[Effective February 1, 1985; amended effective July 1, 1994.]