ARTICLE VI. WITNESSES
RULE 611. MODE AND ORDER OF INTERROGATION AND PRESENTATION
(a) Control by Court. The court shall exercise reasonable
control over the mode and order of interrogating witnesses and
presenting evidence so as to (1) make the interrogation and
presentation effective for the ascertainment of the truth, (2)
avoid needless consumption of time, and (3) protect witnesses from
harassment or undue embarrassment.
(b) Scope of Cross-Examination.
(1) Party Witness. A party may be cross-examined on any
matter relevant to any issue in the case, including credibility.
In the interest of justice, the judge may limit cross-examination
with respect to matters not testified to on direct examination.
(2) Non-Party Witnesses. Cross-examination should be limited
to the subject matter of the direct examination and matters
affecting the credibility of the non-party witness. The court may,
in the exercise of discretion, permit inquiry into additional
matters as if on direct examination.
(c) Leading Questions. Leading questions should not be used
on the direct examination of a witness except as may be necessary
to develop the witness' testimony. Ordinarily, leading questions
should be permitted on cross- examination. When a party calls a
hostile witness, an adverse party, a witness identified with an
adverse party, or an expert witness, interrogation may be by
[Effective February 1, 1985; amended effective July 1, 1994.]